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The^ook of History 

H Ibistor^ of all IRations 




VISCOUNT BRYCE, p.c. d.c.l., ll.d., f.r.s. 


W. M. Flinders Petrie, LL.D., F.R.S. 


Hans F. Helmolt, Ph.D. 


Stanley Lane-Poole, M.A., Litt.D. 


Robert Nisbet Bain 


Hugo Winckler, Ph.D. 


Archibald H. Sayce, D.Litt., LL.D. 


Alfred Russel Wallace, LL.D., F.R.S. 


Holland Thompson, Ph.D. 


W. Stewart Wallace, M.A. 


Maurice Maeterlinck 


Dr. Emile J. Dillon 


Arthur Mee 


Sir Harry H. Johnston, K.C.B., D.Sc. 


Johannes Ranke 


Sir William Lee- Warner, K.C.S.I. K. G. Brandis, Ph.D. 


And many other Specialists 

Volume I 


The World before History 

The Great Steps in Man's Development 

Birth of Civilisation and the Grow^th of Races 

Making of Nations and the Influence of Nature 


The Country and the People 





Bt. Hon. Viscount Bryce, F.B.S. 

Formerly British Ambassador to the United 
States, Author of " The American Com- 
monwealth " 

Professor i:. Bay Iiankester, F.B.S. 

President British Association, 1906-7; I'ast Di- 
rector of South Kensington Museum of 
Natural History 

Dr. Alfred Bussel Wallace, F.B.S. 

Co-discoverer with Darwin of the Theory of Nat- 
ural Selection; Author of "Man's Place 
in the Universe " 

Dr. William Johnson SoUas, F.B.S. 

Professor of Geology at Oxford University 
Dr. W. M. Flinders Petrie, F.B.S. 

Professor of Egyptology, University College, 

London; Founder of British School of 

Archaeology in Egypt 

Professor Wm. Boyd Dawkins, F.B.S. 

Professor of Geology at Victoria University, 
Manchester; Author of " Early Man in Britain 

Frederic Harrison, U.A. 

Hon. Fellow and formerly Tutor of Wadham 

College, Oxford; Vice-President of the 

Royal Historical Society 

Dr. Archibald H. Sayce 

Professor of Assyriology at Oxford University 
Sir Harry H. Johnston, X.C.B. 

Doctor of Science of Cambridge University; late 
Commissioner and Consul-Gencral for Uganda 

Dr. J. Holland Bose 

Cambridge University Lecturer on Modern His- 
tory ; Author of " Development of the 

European Nations " 

Dr. Stanley Iiane-Foole 

Professor of Arabic at Trinity College, Dublin 
Sir John Knox Iiangrhton 

Professor of Modern History at King's College, 

London University; Editor of Lord 

Nelson's Despatches 

Oscar BrowningTi M.A. 

Fellow of King's College, Cambridge; University 
Lecturer in History 

Professor Bonald M. Burrows 

Professor of Greek at University College of South 
Wales ; Author of " Discoveries in Crete 

David Qeorg-e Hogfarth, M.A. 

Director of Cretan Exploration Fund and Past 
Director of the British School at Athens 

Herbert Paul, M.P. 

Author of "A History of Modern England" 
Sir Bobert K. Douglas 

Professor of Chinese at King's College, University 

of London ; late Keeper of Oriental 

Books, British Museum 

Dr. Hugro Winckler 

Professor of History and Oriental Languages at 
the University of Berlin 

Sir William lee-Warner, K.C.S.I. 

Member of the Council of India; Formerly 
Scholar of St. John's College, Cambridge 

Dr. B. J. Dillon 

Author and Journalist; Master of Oriental Lan- 
guages at "the University of St. Petersburg 

William Bomaine Paterson, M.A. 

Author of " The Nemesis of Nations " 

W. Warde Fowler, M.A. 

Scholar and Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford; 

Author of " The City- State of the Greeks 

and Romans " 

Dr. H. F. Helmolt 

Author of " German History " and Editor of 
the German " History of the World " 

Professor Xonrad Haebler 

Of the Imperial Library of Berlin 

Professor Bichard Mayr 

Of the Vienna Academy of Commerce 

Arthur Mee 

Editor of The Book of Knowledge. 

Professor Budolf Scala 

Of the Imperial University of Vienna 

Professor Karl Weule 

Director of the Leipzig Museum of Anthropology 

Professor Wilhelm Walther 

Of the University of Rostock 
Arthur Christopher Benson, M.A. 

Fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge ; Editor 
of The Correspondence of Oueen \ ictoria 

Major Martin Hume 

Lecturer in Spanish History and Literature at 
Pembroke College, Cambridge 

Bobert Nisbet Bain 

Traveller and Historian; Assistant Librarian at 
the British Museum 

Bichard Whiteingf 

Author of " The Life of Paris " 
His Excellency Max von Brandt 

Ex-German Ambassador to China and Minister in 

Francis H. Skrine 

Traveller and Explorer; late of the Indian Civil 


Holland Thompson, Ph. D. 

The College of the City of New York. 
Dr. Archdall Beid, F.B.S.B. 

Author of " The Principles of Heredity " 

Arthur Di6sy 

Founder of the Japan Society ; Author of "The 

New Far East 

Dr. X. G. Brandls 

Director of the University Libraries at Jena 
Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.Ii. 

Author of " A I'olitical History of England " 

Professor Joseph Xohler 

Professor of Jurisprudence at Berlin University 

Angus Hamilton 

Traveller and Correspondent in the Far East; 

Author of " Afghanistan " 

J. G. D. Campbell, M.A. 

Late Educational Adviser to the Government of 

W. B. Carles, C.M.G. 

Geographer; late British Consul at Tientsin, 

Professor Johannes Banke 

Professor of Anthropology, Physiology, and Nat- 
ural History at Munich 

W. S. Wallace, M. A. 

University of Toronto. 

Hon. Bernhard B. Wise 

Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford: Ex-Attor- 
ney-General of New South Wales 

H. W. C. Davis, M.A. 

Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford 






Editorial Introduction 

Plan of the History 

Plan of First Grand Division 

A View across the Ages 

Summary of World History 

Chronology of 10,000 Years 

Time-table of the Nations . 

Contemporary Figures in History 

The Beginning of the Earth 

Four Periods of the Earth's Development 

Geological Clock of the World's Life 

Hov/ Life became possible on Earth 

Scene from the Prehistoric World 

Beginning of Life on the Earth 

How Man obtained Mastery of the Earth 


Prehistoric Man attacking Cave Bears 
The Wonderful Story of Drift Man 
The Appearance of Man on the Earth 
Life of Man in the Stone Age 
Primitive Man in the Past and Present 
The Home Life of Primitive Folk . 
When History was dawning 


The Material Progress of Mankind 

Beginnings of Commerce . • • • • 

The Higher Progress of Mankind , . . • 


Seven Wonders of Ancient Civilisation 

Rise of Civihsation in Egypt . . . • 

Rise of Civihsation in Mesopotamia 






■ 78 
Plate facing 96 

. 108 

Plate facing 114 




Plate facing 192 
. 203 




Rise of Civilisation in Europe ......... 281 

The Triumph of Race 299 

Alphabet of the World's Races 311 

Little Gallery of Races 2^3 

Types of the Chief Races of Mankind ........ 349 

Ethnological Chart of the Human Race ....... 352 


Birth and Growth of Nations 

Land and Water and Greatness of Peoples 

Environment and the Life of Nations 

The Size and Power of Nations 

The Future History of Man 




Map of the Far East . . . . 

Plan of the Second Grand Division 
Interest and Importance of the Far East 




Great Dates in Japan 

The Empire of the Eastern Seas 

Map of Japan 

Qualities of the Japanese People 





The Saurian Age ....... 

Scene from the Prehistoric World: Early Ice Age 

Prehistoric Men Attacking the Great Cave Bears 

The Beginnings of Commerce 

Carrying Off an Emperor 

Buddha, " The Light of Asia " 

Four Famous Figures in Chinese History 

The Colour of India .... 

Gems of Indian Architecture . 

Indian Temples ..... 

Nineveh in the Days of Assyria's Ascendan 
Two Indian Scenes .... 

Spring Carnival at a Tibetan Monastery 

The Pyramids of Abusir 

Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans 

Palace of an Assyrian King . 

The Sphinx ..•••. 

Alexander, the World Conqueror . 

The Acropolis of Athens 

An Arab Storyteller .... 

Theodora, the Byzantine Empress 
Glimpse of the Life in a Turkish Harem 
Primitive Justice ..... 

Thaddeus Reyten at the Diet of Warsaw 
Roland ....... 

Prince Arthur and Hubert 

Venerable Bede Dictating His Translation of 

"The Vigil": A Knight of the Middle Ages 

Alfred, the Hero King of England . 

King John Granting Magna Charta 

Crusaders Sighting Jerusalem 

Wolsey's Last Interview with Henry VIII 

Charles I on His Way to Execution 

Charles II Visiting Wren 

Napoleon the Great .... 

" Peace with Honour " . 

The French Soldiers' Unrealised Dream of V 

Recessional ...... 

The Conqueror's Gift to London 

King Edward VII 

Clio, " The Muse of History "... 
Flags that Fly in the Four Winds of Heaven 
Statue of Liberty ...... 

Hope ........ 

the Gospel of St 



Frontispiece, Vol. i 

Facing 96 



Frontispiece, Vol. 2 

Facing 562 


Frontispiece, Vol. 3 

. Facing 1154 

" 1 196 

Frontispiece, Vol. 4 

. Facing 1364 


Frontispiece, Vol. 5 

. Facing i860 


. " 1996 

Frontispiece, Vol. 6 

Facing 2504 

Frontispiece, Vol. 7 

Facing 2906 


Frontispiece, Vol. 8 

Facing 3282 

. " 3484 

Frontispiece, Vol. 9 

John . Facing 3716 



. " 3865 

Frontispiece, Vol. 10 

Facing 4168 


Frontispiece, Vol. ir 

Facing 4636 

Frontispiece, Vol. 12 

Facing 5104 

Frontispiece, Vol. 13 

. Facing 5464 

Facing 5614 

Frontispiece, Vol. 14 

. Facing 5874 

Frontispiece, Vol. 15 

Facing Index 



The World as Known to its First 

Historian ..... 8 

Shifting of the Centre of the World'.s 

Commerce ..... 28 

How the Mediterranean has Given 

Place to the Atlantic ... 29 

The First Maps ..... 51 

Modern Representation of the World 52 

The Europeanisation of the World . 55 

The Shaping of the Face of the Earth 85 

How Mountain Ranges were formed 87 
Europe Before the British Isles were 

Formed . . . . .118 

The Submerged Lands of Europe . 119 

Europe in the Ice Age . . . 155 

Egypt in Three Periods . . . 243 

Fiabylonia ...... 260 

Sea Routes of Ancient Civilisation . 283 

Land Routes of Ancient Civilisation 284 
How Civilisation Spread through 

Europe ..... 359 

The Expansion of White Races . . 361 

The Island that Rules the Sea . . 378 

Oceans of the World . . . 383 
Effect of Climate on the Course of 

History ..... 391 

Political Expansion .... 396 

Relation of Rivers and Sea to the 

Civilisation of Countries . . 397 
South America 
Africa . 
The Far East, and Australia, Oceania 

and Malaysia .... 406 

The Island Empire of Japan . . 432 

Japan in the Fifth Century . . 457 

Siberia ...... 634 

.Movement of the Peoples of Siberia . 656 

Russia's Advance in Western Asia . 676 

Growth of Russia in the Far East . 677 

The Trans-Siberian Line . . . 692 

The Chinese Empire . . . 708 

Korea and its Surroundings . . 858 

The Malay Archipelago . . 886 

Islands of Oceania .... 947 

New Zealand ..... 986 

.•Kustralia and Tasmania . . loio 
Britain Contrasted with Australia . 1012 
South-east Australia, Indicating Prod- 
ucts ...... 1013 

Bed of the Pacific Ocean . . 1102 

The Middle East .... 1120 

Modern India . . . . .1161 

India in 1801 

Bed of the Indian Ocean and China 
Sea .... 

Suez Canal ... 

Mountain Systems In and Around 
Tibet .... 

The Approach of Lhasa 

Early Empires of the Ancient Near 
East ...... 

Later Empires of the Ancient Near 
East ...... 

Ancient Empires of Western Asia 

Modern Africa .... 

Races and Religions of Africa 

Natural Products of Africa 

Basin of the River Nile 

Delta of the River Nile 

Utica as it Was .... 

The Remains of Utica 

Ancient States of Mediterranean North 
Africa .... 

Niger River and Guinea Coast . 

Great Britain in South Africa 

Basin of the Zambesi 

Basin of the Congo 

General Map of Europe 

Geographical Connection of the Medi 
terranean Coasts . 

Ancient Greece .... 

World Empire of .Alexander the Great 

Italy in the First Century B.C. 

The Roman Empire 

Origin of the Barbaric Nations . 

Principal Countries of Eastern Europe 

World's Great Empires Between T/J 
and 814 A.D. . . . . 

Turkey and Surrounding Countries in 
the 14th and 17th Centuries . 

Historical Maps of Poland and West- 
ern Russia . . . . . 

Western Europe in the Middle Ages 

Europe During the Revolutionary Era 

Modern Europe . 

Britain's Maritime Enterprise 

The British Empire in 1702 

The British Empire in 1909 

The Atlantic Ocean 

South America in the Sixteenth Cen- 
tury .... 

South America as it is To-day 

North Pole, with routes of Explorers 

South Pole ... 

North America . 













This is the story of the earth from the first thing we know of it to the 
time in which wc live. It is the story of man from the first thing we know 
of him to the last thought that the vision of modern science can suggest 

HTHERE is no need here to discuss the 
question how far it is possible to write a 
universal histor}', or on what lines such a 
history should proceed. These points may 
well be left where Lord Bryce leaves them 
in his introduction to this book. Nor need 
we consider what history is ; the plain man 
may be left to make up his own mind as to 
that while the philosophers are making up 
theirs. A word may be said, however, of 
the plan and purpose of this work, especially 
of that distinction of it which is at once the 
ground of its appeal and its justification. 


It is a commonplace to say of a great 
work that it is unique, and there would at 
first sight seem to be peculiar presumption 
in making such a claim for a History of 
the World. It may be claimed, however, 
without any fear of contradiction, that this 
work has no rival in the English language. 

There have been histories of the world 
before ; there are available in large numbers 
histories of all countries well worthy of 
attention ; but there is not, and it may be 
doubted if there has ever been attempted 
before, a scientific World-History. This 
work is, as far as it can possibly be in 
the present state of knowledge, a universal 
history of the universe. 


That is a far reaching claim to make, but 
a mere glance through the names of those 
whose services have been enlisted for the 
work will make its basis clear. The con- 
tributors include some of the foremost 

students of science. Many men of eminence 
whose names do not usually come into 
historical works will be found here. Their 
function may be described as holding the 
Lamp of Science up to History. It is for 
these authorities to read the story of the earth 
and to tell the plain man what they read 
there, as Turner read the sunset and painted 
what he saw. The simile is not so unfortunate 
as it may appear, because, although our can- 
vas has not the same room for the artist's 
imagination as Turner's had, it will probably 
be admitted that the imagination of the 
scientist is often nearer to the truth of things 
than the conventional belief. 


And the scientist will come into our 
History whenever and wherever science has 
any light to throw upon its problems. 
To the creators of this work the world is not 
merely an aggregation of countries under 
more or less settled governments, nor is 
a country merely the seat of a political 
system. They conceive the earth as a part 
of the universe, as one world among many ; 
and this is the story of a huge ball flying 
in space, on which men and women live and 
move, on which mighty nations rise and rule 
and pass away, on which great empires 
crumble into dust. It is the entrancing 
book of man and the universe, the life- 
story of all nations. It begins with the 
beginning ; it regards the universe, as 
modern science has taught us to regard 
it, as a vast unit, in which the life of man 
is the ultimate consummation. 


A history of the world cannot be written 
in a day. It is Uke an institution — it must 
be allowed to grow. It would be a purposeless 
sacrifice in an undertaking of such magni- 
tude to reject any work of building-up that 
is available, and this History has a rare 
privilege in being able to utilise the result 
of the matchless research, the tireless indus- 
try, the unequalled knowledge of Dr. Hans 
Helmolt and the distinguished staff of 
scholars and investigators who have been 
engaged with him for many years in prepar- 
ing a history of the world on precisely the 
lines laid down in this work. 


It would be impossible to exaggerate the 
value of the elaborate research made for 
Dr. Helmolt by such of his eminent 
collaborators as Professor Johannes Ranke, 
Professor Ratzel, Professor Joseph Kohler, 
and others whose names stand for foremost 
authority wherever the value of learning 
is understood, and it is one of the chief 
claims of this work to recognition that it 
has behind it all the material collected by 
Dr. Helmolt's staff, with all the judgment 
and skill of Dr. Helmolt himself in co- 
ordinating the labour of his assistants. 

A work so universal in time and place 
must engage many minds. Behind it there 
must be the labour and thought of many 
lives. The materials for a world-history 
cannot be amassed by one man, cannot be 
gathered together in the time that it is 
possible for one man to devote to them. 
A moment's reflection reveals the vastness 
and complexity of the arrangements for 
such a work, the reaching-out into far 
corners of the earth, the ransacking of his- 
torical libraries and official archives ; the 
placing of the result of all this research into 
the hands of a hundred trained historians, 
the analysing, sifting, and editing of each 
part as if it were in itself a perfect whole. 


All this labour can hardly be measured. 
And if we add to our reckoning the work of 
illustrating the world's history in pictures, the 
task of finding illustrations where they are 
rare as precious stones, or of choosing them 
where their number is bewildering, the labour 
that a world-history involves is, indeed, 
incalculable. It can only be accomplished 
by the co-operation of many minds, working 
over a long period, drawing upon actual 
experience in every part of the world. 

Especially is this so in the present work. 
There are histories that can be made up 
from books, but this is not one of them. 
The Book of History is not only a great 
book of human experience, as every history 
is ; it is the product of experience. It could 
never have been written if the men who 
write it had not helped to make the history 
that they write. 


It is a book of history by writers and makers 
of history ; it is a book of action by men of 
action ; it is a book, that is, by men who 
know intimately the real life of the world. 
When Professor Ratzel writes of the making 
of nations, he writes with perhaps an 
unequalled knowledge of the conditions that 
have made for human progress ; when Dr. 
Flinders Petrie writes of Egypt, when Dr. 
Sayce writes of Assyria, they write with the 
same authority that Sir Harry Johnston has 
in writing of those parts of the British 
Empire that he has helped to govern. 

The real rulers of the world are not the 
princes, and among the makers of this book 
are men who, though the fierce light that 
beats upon a throne has not beat upon them, 
have borne the burden of empire and of ruling 
men. It is the ideal collaboration, that of 
the brilliant investigator, the scientific inter- 
preter, and the man of affairs, and it makes 
possible the achievement of a History 
which we have claimed to be unique. 


We have the facts from the pens of the 
men who have dug them up fresh from the 
earth itself or who know them from experi- 
ence ; we have them treated by the men 
who can turn upon them the full light of 
modern science ; we have the world as it 
moves in our own time described by the men 
who know it from the centre, and know it 
therefore best. 

This is the story of the world, then, 
yesterday and to-ds,y. And, as history goes 
on, as to-day becomes yesterday and to- 
morrow becomes to-day, we shall find in 
this book a vision of the things that lie 
before. Out of the deeps of Time came man. 
Through the mists of Time he grew. Down 
the ages of Time he goes. Whence he came 
we guess ; how he lives we know ; where 
he goes the wisdom of History does not 
tell. But the historj' of the world is young, 
and young men shall see visions. 

The Editors 


The Life-Story of the Earth and of All Nations 


This plan provides a general scheme for the Histokv, but is not intended for 
reference. It does not follow that the exact order of countries here given is 
maintained throughout the volumes. A full index appears at the end of the work 


A View Across the Ages : Introduction 
Summary of the History of the World 
Chronology of 10,000 Years and Chart of Nations 
The Beginning of the Earth 
How Life is Possible on the Earth 
The Beginning of Life on the Earth 
How Man Obtained the Mastery of the Earth 

T^e World Before History 
The Great Steps In Man's Development 
The Beginnings of Civilisation 
Hour Civilisation Came to Europe 
The Triumph of Race 
An Alphabet of the World's Races 
The Birth and Growth of Nations 
Influence of Land and Water on National History 
How Nations are Affected by Their Environment 
The Size and Powrer of Nations 
The Future History of Han 

The Interest and Importance of the Far East 
Japan. Siberia. China. Korea 

Philippines. Malay States. Straits Settlements. Borneo. Sarawak. 
Sumatra. Java. New Guinea, and other Islands of Malay Archipelago 

New South Wales. Victoria. Queensland. South Australia. West 
Australia. Tasmania 

NewZe.iland. Fiji. Pitcairn. Hawaii. Samoa. Tonya and other Islands 
The Influence of the Paciflc Ocean In History 


The Importance of the Middle East 

India. Including Ceylon and the Native States 

Further India 

Slam. Aiinam. Burma. Tonking. Cochin China. Cambodi,a. Champa 

The Influence of the Indian Ocean in History 

Central Asia. Afghanistan. Baluchistan. Turkestan. Thibet 


The Ancient Empires of Western Asia 

Bjljylonia. Assyria, hiam 

Early Nations of Western Asia 

Scythia. Sarmatia. Armenia. Syria. Phoenicia. Israel 
IWestern Asia from the Rise of Persia to Mohammed 
Persia. Asia Minor. Syria. Pakstiiie. Arabia. Islands 
Western Asia from the Time of Mohammed 
The Saracen Dominion. The Turkish limpire in Asia. Persia. Arabia 


Legacy of Ancient Empires to the Modern World 
Egypt and the Egyptian Sudan 
North Africa 

Triijoli. Tunis. Morocco. Algeria and the French Territories. 
Sierra l.eone. Liberia. Gold Coast. Nigeria. German West Africa. 
Abyssinia. Somaliland. Erythrea. British East Africa. Zanzibar 
South Africa 

Native Races. The Portuguese and Dutch in South Africa. British 
South Africa : Cape Colony. Natal. Transvaal, Orange KWer Colony, 
Rhodesia. Congo Free State. Portuguese East Africa. Angola. 
German East Africa. German South-West Africa. Madagascar 


Mediterranean Influence in the Malting of Europe 
The Ancient Spirit of Greece and Rome 
Early Peoplas of Europe. Ascendancy of the Greeks 
The Rise of Rome and the World Empire 
Social Fabric of the Ancient World: Slave States 

The Byzantine Empire and the Turic in Europe 
The Middle Peoples 

Russia, Poland, and the Baltic Provinces 
The Social Fabric of the Hedisevai World: 
The Twilight of Nations 

A Survey of Western Mediaeval Europe 
The Peoples of Western Europe 
The Importance of the Baltic Sea 

The Emerging of the Nations 

Fr.iiikish Dominion ami the Empire of Charlemagrne. England. 
Spanish Peiiinsul.i. Italy. The I'apacy, Scandinavia 

The Development of the Nations 

The (ierman or Holy Roman Empire. Fr.ance. England. Spain 

and Portugal. Italy. The Pap.icy. Scandinavia 

The Crusades. Industry and Commerce 

A Survey of Western Europe 
The Reformation and Wars of Religion 

The Age of Louis XIY. 

From the Peace of Westphalia to the Treaty of Utrecht 

The Ending of the Old Order 

From the Treaty of Utrecht to the Revolution 

The Importance of the Atlantic to the DSTorld Powers 
Religion After the Reformation. Industry and 


The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era 

The Revolution. The Republic at War and the Rise of Napoleon. 

Tlie Zeiiiili of .N,i],oleoii and his Fall 

Great Britain in the Napoleonic Era 


Revolt Against Despotism 

Europe After Waterloo 

The Iriuiupli of Despotism. 

Europe in Revolution 

The Second French Republic and the Coup d'Etat. The Up- 
rising of tne Little .Nations. National Movements in Gennany 
The Consolidation of the Po'wers 

Europe and the Second Empire. 1 he Unification of Italy. The 
Unification of Germany. The l*ranco-Gernian War 

Great Britain to 1871. Russia and Turkey to 1871. 
Europe since 1871 Britain. Germany. France. Austria-Hungary. Spain and 
Portugal. Italy. Russia. Turkey. Switzerland. Greece. 
Belgium. Holland. Denmark. Norway. Sweden. Bulgaria. Servia. 
Rouniania. Montenegro. Luxemburg. Monaco. San Marino 

Europe in Our 0«rn Time 

Great Britain. Germany. Austria-Hungary. France. 
Italy. Russia. Turkey. Spain and Portugal 

Minor States of Europe: 

Switzt-rland. Cireece. Belgium. Holland. Denmark. Norway. 
Sweden. Bulgaria. Servia. Kouinania. Montenegro. Luxemburg. 
Monaco. San Marino 


America Before Columbus 

The Primitive Races of America. 
Central .\merica. The Ancient Ci 

The Ancient Civilisation of 
ilisation of South America 

The European Colonisation 

The Discovery. The Spanish Conquest. The Spanish and 
Portuguese Flmpire in America. The Independence of South and America. The Pilgrim Fathers and the Enghsh Settle- 
ment. The Development and Expansion of the British Colonies 

The American Nation 

The Revolt of the Thirteen Colonies. The Struggle for Indepen- 
dence and the War. The Creation of the United States. The 
D.-vclopment of the American Nation. The United States in 
Our Own Time 

British America 

Canada. Newfoundland. British Westlndies. British Honduras. 

Central America In the 10th and 30th Centuries 

Culii. Haiti. Dominica. Porto Rico. Mexico. Guatemala. 
Honduras. San Salvador. Nicaragu.i. Cost.i Rica. I'anama 

South America in the 19th and 20th Centuries 

Colombia, \eiieiuel.i. I rilish. 1- rem li .iiid Dutch Guiana. Bra/il. idor. Peru. Chili, liulnia. Argentina. Uruguay 
The World Around the Poles 
Greenland. Iceland. Arctic and Antarctic Oceans 








There can, of course, be neither absolute finality nor entire unanimity 
in the subjects of these chapters, which are designed to enable the 
reader to follow the course of history with greater interest and under- 
standing than would be possible without some scientific knowledge of 
life. They are presented as a symposium of modern thought on the 
problems concerning the origin and development of the earth and mankind 




Rt. Hon. James Bryce 

Arthur D. Innes, M.A. 




Dr. Wm. Johnson Sollas, F.R.S. 

Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace, F.R.S. 

Dr. Archdall Reid, F.R.S.E. 



Professor Johannes Ranke 

Professor Joseph Kohler 



Dr. Flinders Petrie, F.R.S. 

David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Dr. Archdall Reid, F.R.S.E. 

VV. E. Garrett Fisher, Al.A. 


Professor Friedrich Rat/el 






For full contents and page numbers see Index 

Mr. Kiplin^j's " Roccssioii.-il " is quoted in a Frontispiece from " The Five Nations," 
by permission of the Author and the Publishers. Messrs. Mi'thut-n 


P^/N&^m(^^^^^ G R ^ 



"\Y7HEN History, properly so called, has 
^ emerged from those tales of the feats 
of kings and heroes and those brief entries 
in the roll of a temple or a monastery m 
which we find the earliest records of the 
past, the idea of composing a narrative 
which shall not be confined to the for- 
tunes of one nation soon presents itself. 

Herodotus — the first true historian, and 
a historian in his own line never yet sur- 
passed — took for his subject the strife be- 

tween Greeks and Barbarians 
_ ^ "^ which culminated in the Great 
„. . Persian War of B.C. 480, and 

worked into his book all he 
could ascertain regarding most of the great 
peoples of the world — Babylonians and 
Egyptians, Persians and Scythians, as well 
as Greeks. Since his time many have 
essayed to write a Universal History ; and 
as knowledge grew, so the compass of these 
treatises increased, till the outlying nations 
of the East were added to those of the 
Mediterranean and West European world 
which had formerly filled the whole canvas. 
None of these books, however, covered 
the field or presented an adequate view 
of the annals of mankind as a whole. It 
was indeed impossible to do this, because 
the data were insufficient. Till some time 
way down in the nineteenth century that 
part of ancient history which was pre- 
served in written documents could be 
based upon the literature of Israel, ujwn 
such notices regarding Egypt, Assyria, 
Babylon, and Iran as had been preserved 
by Greek or Roman writers, and upon 

those writers themselves. It was only 

for some of the Greek cities, for the 

kingdoms of Alexander and his successors, 

and for the city and Emjnre of Rome 

that fairly abundant materials were then 

available. Of the world outside Europe 

and Western Asia, whether ancient or 

modern, scarcely anything was known, 

scarcely anything even of the earlier annals 

of comparatively civilised peoples, such as 

those of India, China, and Japan, and still 

less of the rudimentary civilisations of 

Mexico and Peru. Nor, indeed, had most 

of the students who occupied themselves 

with the subject perceived how important 

a part in the general j^rogress of mankind 

the more backward races have played, 

or how essential to a true History of the 

World is an account of the semi-civilised 

and even of the barbarous peoples. Thus it 

was not possible, until quite recent times, 

that the great enterprise of preparing such 

c . ^.,. a history should be attempted 
Scientific •{ • ., . * . , 

„. on a plan or with materials 

IS oryon y ^^jjj^^|-,jg ^^ j^^ magnitude. 
now Possible i-i 1 , r 1 ■ 

1 he last seventy or eighty 

years have seen a vast increase in our 

materials, with a corresponding widening 

of the conception of what a History of the 

World should be. Accordingly, the time 

for trying to produce one upon a new plan 

and enlarged scale seems to have arrived ; 

not, indeed, that the years to come will 

not continue to add to the historian's 

resources, but that those resources have 

recently become so much amj:)ler than 

they have ever been before that the 


New Material 


New Methods 

moment may be deemed auspicious for 
a new departure. 

The nineteenth century was marked by 
three changes of the utmost consequence 
for the writing of history. 

That century, in the first place, has 
enormously widened our knowledge of 
the times hitherto called prehistoric. 
The discovery of methods for deciphering 
the inscriptions found in Egypt and 
Western Asia, the excavations m Assyria 
and Egypt, in Continental 
Greece and in Crete, and 
to a lesser extent in North 
Africa also, in the course 
of which many inscriptions have been 
collected and fragments of ancient art 
examined, have given us a mass of 
knowledge regarding the nations who 
dwelt in these countries larger and 
more exact than was possessed by the 
writers of classical antiquity who lived 
comparatively near to those remote times. 
We possess materials for the study not 
only of the political history but of the 
ethnology, the languages, and the culture 
of the nations which were first civilised 
incomparably better than were those at 
the disposal of the contemporaries of Vico 
or Gibbon or Herder. Similar results 
have followed as regards the Far East, 
from the opening up of Sanskrit literature 
and of the records of China and Japan. To 
a lesser degree, 
the same thing 

another. As history proper has been 
carried back many centuries beyond its 
former limit, so has our knowledge of 
prehistoric times been extended centuries 
above the furthest point to which history 
can now reach back. And this applies 
not only to the countries previously 
little explored, but to such well-known 
districts as Western Europe and the 
Atlantic coast of America. 

Secondly, there has been during the 
nineteenth century a notable improvement 
in the critical method of handling historical 
materials. Much more pains have been 
taken to examine all available documents 
and records, to obtain a perfect text of 
each by a comparison of manuscripts or 
of early printed copies, and to study each 
by the aid of other contemporary matter. 
It is true that, with the exception of 
Egyptian papyri and some manuscripts 
unearthed in Oriental monasteries (besides 
those Indian, Chinese, and other 
early Eastern sacred books to which 
I have already referred), not very much 
that is absolutely new has been brought to 
light. It is also true that a few of the 
most capable students in earlier days, in 
the ancient world as well as since the 
Renaissance, have fully seen the value of 
original authorities and have applied to 
them thoroughly critical methods. This 
is not a discovery of our own times. . Still, 
it may be 
claimed that 
there was never 
before so great a 
zeal for collecting 
and investigating 
all possible kinds 
of original texts, 
nor so widely 
diffused a know- 
ledge of the 
methods to be 
applied in turn- 

has happened as 
regards the semi- 
civilised peoples 
of tropical 
America both 
north and south 
of the Isthmus 
of Panama. And 
while long periods 
of time have 

thus been brought 

within the range the world as known to its first historian ing them to ac 

r\( Viicf/->rir \trn The world as known to Herodotus is shown by the white part of this rniint for +Vif» 
Ol History, WL map. indicating the limited range of ancient geographical knowledge. '-^""'- i'-'i ^ ^"-UC 

have also learnt 

much more about the times that 
may still be called prehistoric. The 
investigations carried on in mounds and 
caves and tombs and lake-dwellings, 
the collection of early stone and bronze 
implements, and of human skulls and 
bones found along with those of other 
animals, have thrown a great deal of new 
light upon primitive man, his way of 
hfe, and his migrations from one region to 


purposes of his- 
tory. Both in Europe and in America 
an unprecedentedly large number of 
competent men have been employed 
upon researches of this kind, and the 
result of their labours on special topics 
has been to provide the writer who seeks 
to present a general view of history with 
materials not only larger but far fitter 
for his use than his predecessors ever 
enjoyed. Then with the improvement 


in critical apparatus, there has come a 
more cautious and exact habit of mind 
m the interpretation of facts. 

Thirdly, the progress of the sciences 
of Nature has powerfully influenced his- 
tory, both by providing new da<a and 
by affecting the mental attitude of all 
reflective men. This has happened in 
several ways. Geographical exploration 
has made known 
nearly every part 
of the surface 
of the habitable 
globe. The great 
natural features of 
every country, its 
mountain ranges and 
rivers, its forest or 
deserts, have been 
ascertained. Its 
flora and fauna have 
been described, and 
thereby its capacity 
lor supporting 
human life approxi- 
mately calculated. 
The other physical 
conditions which 
govern the develop- 
ment of man, such 
as temperature, rain- 
fall, and the direc- 
tion of prevalent 
winds have been 
examined. Thus we 
have acquired a 
treasury of facts re- 


latins to the causes Herodotus, the first historian, was born between B. 
, ^ 1 • , • 470-480 at Halicarnassus, a Greek colony in Asia Min 

«,nd conditions 

■ which help the growth of civilisation and 
mould it into diverse forms, conditions 
whose importance I shall presently discuss 
in considering the relation of man to his 
natural environment. Although a few 
penetrating minds had long ago seen how 
much the career of each nation must 
have been affected by physical pheno- 
mena, it is only in the last two genera- 
tions that men have begun to study these 
phenomena in their relation to history, 
and to appreciate their influence in the 
formation of national types and in deter- 
mining the movement of races over the 
earth's surface. 

Not less remarkable has been the in- 
crease in our knowledge of the more 
remote and backward peoples. Nearly 
every one of these has now been visited 
by scientific travellers or missionaries, its 

language written down, its customs and 
religious rites, sometimes its folk lore also, 
recorded. Thus materials of the highest 
value have been secured, not only for 
completing our knowledge of mankind as 
a whole, but for comprehending in the 
early history of the now highly civilised 
peoples various facts which had previously 
remained obscure, but which became 
intelligible when 
compared with simi- 
lar facts that can 
be studied in their 
actuality among 
tribes whom we find 
in the same stage 
to-day as were the 
ancestors of the 
civilised nations 
many centuries ago. 
The progress thus 
achieved in the 
science of man re- 
garded as a part of 
Nature has power- 
fully contributed to 
influence the study 
of human com- 
munities as they 
appear in history. 
The comparative 
method has become 
the basis for a truly 
scientific inquiry 
into the develop- 
ment of institutions, 
and the connection 
of religious beliefs 
and ceremonies with 
the first beginnings of institutions both 
social and political has been made clear 
by an accumulation of instances. Whether 
or no there be such a thing as a Science 
of History — a question which, since it is 
mainly verbal, one need not stop to discuss 
— there is such a thing as a scientific 
method applied to history ; and the more 
familiar men have become 
with the methods of inquiry 
and canons of evidence used 
in physical investigations, 
so much the more have they tended to 
become exact and critical in historical 
investigations, and to examine the causes 
and the stages by and through which 
historical development is effected. 

In noting this I do not suggest that 
what is popularly called the " Doctrine 
of Evolution " should be deemed a thing 



of the 


borrowed by history from the sciences of 
nature. Most of what is true or helpful 
in that doctrine was known long ago, and 
applied long ago by historical and political 
. thinkers. You can find it in 

Historical ^ristotle, perhaps before Aris- 
Knowledge ^^^^^ Even as regards the bio- 

in Uur lime , • » ■ ,i i- x 

logical sciences, the notion oi 
what we call evolution is ancient ; and the 
merit of Darwin and other great modern 
naturalists has lain, not in enouncing 
the idea as a general theory, but in 
elucidating, illustrating, and demonstrat- 
ing the processes by which evolution takes 
place. The influence of the natural sciences 
on history is rather to be traced in the 
efforts we now see to accumulate a vast 
mass of facts relating to the social, eco- 
nomic, and pohtical hfe of man, for the 
sake of discovering general laws run- 
ning through them, and imparting to them 
order and unity. 

Although the most philosophic and 
diligent historians have always aimed 
at and striven for this, still the general 
diffusion of the method in our own 
time, and the greatly increased scale 
on which it is applied, together with the 
higher standard of accuracy which is 
exacted by the opinion of competent 
judges, may be, in some measure, 
ascribed to the examples which those 
who work in the spheres of physics and 
biology and natural history have so 
effectively set. 

Finally, the progress of natural science 
has in our time, by stimulating the 
production and exchange of commodities, 
drawn the different parts of the earth 
much nearer to one another, and 
thus brought nearly all its tribes and 
nations into relations with one another 
far closer and far more frequent than 
existed before. 

This has been done by the inventions 
that have given us steam and electricity 
as motive forces, making transport quicker 
and cheaper, and by the ajiplication of elec- 
tricity to the transmission of words. No 
changes that have occurred in the past 
(except perhaps changes in the s])here of 
religion) are comjiarable in 

"*"*'*' their importance as factors in 

?. ^ „ history to those which have 

Human Race 1^1,1 / 

shortened the voyage from 
Western ICurope to America to five and a 
half days, and made communication with 
Australia instantaneous. For the first 
time the human race, always essentially 


one, has begun to feel itself one, and 
civilised man has in every part of it 
become a contemporaneous observer of 
what passes in every other part. 

The general result of these various 
changes has been that while the materials 
for writing a history of the world have 
been increased, the conception of what such 
a history should be has been at the same 
time both enlarged and defined. Its 
scope is wider ; its lines are more clearly 
drawn. But what do we mean by a 
Universal History ? Briefly, a History 
which shall, first, include all the races 
and tribes of man within its scope ; and, 
secondly, shall bring all these races and 
tribes into a connection with one another 
such as to display their annals as an 
organic whole. 

Universal history has to deal not only 
with the great nations, but also with the 
small nations ; not only with the civilised, 
but also with the barbarous or savage 
peoples ; not only with the times of move- 
ment and progress, but also with the times 
of silence and apparent stagnation. 
Every fraction of humanity has contributed 

something to the common 
Importance ^^^^j^^ ^^^ ^^^ y^^,^^ ^^^ 

° * ^. _ laboured not for itself only, 
ma aces ^^^ ^^^ others also, through the 
influence which it has perforce exercised 
on its neighbours. The only exceptions 
we can imagine are the inhabitants of some 
remote isle, " far placed amid the melan- 
choly main." Yet they, too, must hav^e 
once formed part of a race dwelling in the 
region whence they came, even if that race 
had died out in its old home before 
civilised man set foot on such an oceanic 
isle in a later age. The world would have 
been different, in however small a measure, 
had they never existed. As in the realm 
of physical science, so in that of history 
no fact is devoid of significance, though 
the true significance may remain long 
unnoticed. The history of the backward 
races presents exceptional difficulties, 
because they have no written records, and 
often scarcely any oral traditions. Some- 
times it reduces itself to a description of 
their usages and state of life, their arts and 
their superstitions, at the time when civil- 
ised observers first visited them. Yet that 
history is instructive, not only because 
the phenomena observable among such 
races enlarge our knowledge, but also 
because through the study of those which 
survive we are able to interpret the scanty 

T "r:yi:o l-^W 


Papyrus, a tall, graceful, sedgy plant, supplied the favourite writing material of the ancient world, and many price- 
less records of antiquity are preserved to us in papyri. The pith of the plant was pressed flat and thin and joined 
with others to form strips, on which records were written or painted The above is a photograph of a piece of Egyptian 
papyrus, showing both hieroglyphics and picture-writing. Th,- oldest piece of papyrus dates back to B.C. 3500. 

records we possess of the early condition 
of peoples now civilised, and to go some 
way towards writing the history of 
what we have hitherto called pre- 
historic man. 

Thus such tribes as the aborigines of 
Australia, the Fuegians of jVIagellan's 
Straits, the Bushmen of South Africa, the 
Sakalavas of Madagascar, the Lapps of 
Northern Europe, the Ainos of Japan, the 
numerous " hill-tribes " of India, will all 
come within the historian's ken. From 
each of them something may be learnt ; 
and each of them has through contact 
with its more advanced neighbours affected 
those neighbours themselves, sometimes 
in blood, sometimes through superstitious 
beliefs or rites, frequently borrowed by the 
higher races from the lower (as the 
Norsemen learnt magic from the Lapps, 
and the Semites of Assyria from the 
Accadians), sometimes through the strife 
which has arisen between the savage 
and the more civilised man, whereby 
the institutions of the latter have been 

Obviously the historian cannot record 
everything. These lower races are com- 
paratively unimportant. Their contribu- 
tions to progress, their effect on the 
general march of events, have been but 
small. But they must not be wholly 
omitted from the picture, for without them 
it would have been different. One must 
never forget, in following the history of 
the great nations of antiquity, that they 
fought and thought and built up the fabric 
of their industry and art in the midst 
of a barbarous or savage population 
surrounding them on all sides, whence 
they drew the bulk of their slaves 
and some of their mercenary soldiers, 
and which .sometimes avenged itself by 
sudden inroads, the fear of which kept 
the Greek cities, and at certain epochs 
even the power of Rome, watchful 
and anxious. So in modern times 
the savages among whom European 
colonies have been planted, or who 
have been transported as slaves to other 
colonies — sometimes, as in the case of 
Portugal in the fifteenth century, to 



Europe itself — or those with whom Euro- 
peans have carried on trade, must not be 
omitted from a view of the causes which 
have determined the course of events in 
the civihsed peoples. 

To dwell on the part played by the small 

nations is less necessary here, for even a 

superficial student must be 

p ! * of them have counted for more 
eop es \^\^^ii the larger nations to 

whose annals a larger space is commonly 
allotted. The instance of Israel is enough, 
so far as the ancient world is concerned, 
to show how little the numbers of a people 
have to do with the influence it may 
exert. For the modern world, I will take 
the case of Iceland. 

The Icelanders are a people much smaller 
than even was Israel. They have never 
numbered more than about sev^enty 
thousand. They live in an isle so far remote, 
and so sundered from the rest of the world 
by an inhospitable ocean, that their re- 
lations both with Europe, to which ethnolo- 
gically they belong, and with America, to 
which geographically they belong, have 
been comparatively scanty. But their his- 
tory, from the first settlement of the island 
by Norwegian exiles in a.d. 874 to the 
extinction of the National Republic in 
A.D. 1264, is full of interest and instruc- 
tion, in some respects a perfectly unique 
history. And the literature which this 
Iiandful of people produced is certainly 
the most striking primitive literature 
which any modern people has produced, 
superior in literary quality to that of the 
Continental Teutons, or to that of the 
Romance nations, or to that of the Finns 
or Slavs, or even to that of the Celts. Yet 
most histories of Europe pass by Iceland 
altogether, and few persons in Continental 
Europe (outside Scandinavia) know any- 
thing about the inhabitants of this isle, 
who, amid glaciers and volcanoes, have 
maintained themselves at a 
high level of intelligence and 
culture for more than a 
tliousand years. 
The small peoples have no doubt been 
more potent in the spheres of intellect 
and emotion than in those of war, politics, 
or commerce. But the influences which 
belong to the sphere of creative in- 
telligence — that is to say, of literature, 
philosophy, religion and art — are just those 
which it is peculiarly the function of a 
History of the World to disengage and 


The Culture 
of the 

follow out in their far-reaching con- 
sequence. They pass beyond the limits of 
the country where they arose. They sur- 
vive, it may be, the race that gave birth 
to them. They pass into new forms, and 
through these they work in new ways 
upon subsequent ages. 

It is also the task of universal history 
so to trace the march of humanity as 
to display the relation which each part 
of it bears to the others ; to fit each 
race and tribe and nation into the main 
narrative. To do this, three things are 
needed — a comprehensive knowledge, a 
power of selecting the salient and signifi- 
cant points, and a talent for arrangement. 
Of these three qualifications, the first is 
the least rare. Ours is an age of 
specialists ; but the more a man buries 
himself in special studies, the more risk 
does he incur of losing his sense of the 
place which the object of his own study 
fills in the general scheme of things. 
The highly trained historian is generally 
able to draw from those who have 

worked in particular depart- 

_ ^ * ^ ments the data he needs ; 

cope o ^]-,iig the master of one single 

department may be unable to 
carry his vision over the whole horizon, 
and see each part of the landscape in its 
relations to the rest. 

In other words, a History of the World 
ought to be an account of the human 
family as an organic whole, showing how 
each race and state has affected other 
races or states, what each has brought 
into the common stock, and how the 
interaction among them has stimulated 
some, depressed or extinguished others, 
turned the main current this way or that. 
Even when the annals of one particular 
country are concerned, it needs no small 
measure of skill in expression as well as 
of constructive art to trace their connec- 
tion with those of other countries. To 
take a familiar example, he who writes 
the history of England must have his 
eye always alive to what is passing in 
France on one side, and in Scotland on 
the other, not to speak of countries less 
closely connected with England, such as 
Germany and Spain. He must let the 
reader feel in what way the events that 
were happening in France and Scotland 
affected men's minds, and through men's 
minds affected the progress of events in 
England. Yet he cannot allow himself 
constantly to interrupt his Enghsh narra- 

The walls of the tombs in Egypt form a great picture gallery of the vanished life of that country and are invaluable 
to the historian. This fragment from the British Museum shows how vividly the domestic figures were realised. 

tive in order to tell what was passing 
beyond the Channel or across the Tweed. 
Obviously, this difficulty is much in- 
creased when the canvas is widened to 
include all Europe, and when the aim 
is to give the reader a just impression of 
the general tendencies of a whole age, 
such an age as, for instance, the six- 
teenth century, over that vast area. If 
for a History of the World the old plan 
be adopted — that of telhng the story of 
each nation separately, yet on lines 
generally similar, cross references and a 
copious use of chronological tables be- 
come helpful, for they enable the 
contemporaneity of events to be seen 
at a glance, and as the history of 
each nation is being written with a 
view to that of other nations, the 
tendencies at work in each can be ex- 
plained and illustrated in a way which 
shows their parallelism, and gives 
to the whole that unity of meaning 
and tendency which a universal history 
must constantly endeavour to display. 
The connection between the progress or 
. . decline of different peoj^les is 

,.'*! ^ ° , best understood by setting 
„. forth the various forms which 

'^^ similar tendencies take in each. 
To do this is a hard task when the his- 
torian is dealing with the ancient world, 
or with the world outside Europe even in 
mediaeval and post-mediaeval times. For 
the modern European nations it is easier, 
because, ever since the spread of Christi- 

anity made these nations parts of one great 

ecclesiastical community, similar forces 

have been at work upon each of them, 

and every intellectual movement which 

has told upon one has more or less told 

upon the others also. 

Such a History of the World may be 

written on more than one plan, and in the 

light of more than one general theory of 

human progress. It might find the central 

line of human development in the increase 

of man's knowledge, and in particular of 

his knowledge of Nature and his power 

of dealing with her. Or that which we 

call culture, the comprehensive unfolding 

and polishing of human faculty and of the 

power of intellectual creation and appreci- 

_ , , , . ation, might be taken as mark- 
Central Line - ^-u J. 1 J ij 
, „ mg the most real and solid 
of Human i • j j ^i, j. m 
_ , . kind of progress, so that its 
Development xl i j i_ \l 

growth would best represent 

the advance of man from a savage to a 

highly civilised condition. Or if the moral 

and political sphere were selected as that in 

which the onward march of man as a social 

being, made to live in a community, 

could best be studied, the idea of liberty 

might be made a pivot of the scheme ; 

for in showing how the individual emerges 

from the family or the tribe, how first 

domestic and then also praedial slavery 

slowly disappears, how institutions are 

framed under which the will of one ruler 

or of a small group begins to be controlled, 

or replaced as a governing force, by the 

collective will of the members of the 



of Human 

community, how the primordial rights of 
each human creature win their way to 
recognition — in tracing out all these things 
the history of human society 
If H. i.7 is practically written, and the 
significance of all political 
changes is made clear. Another 
way, again, would be to take some 
concrete department of human activity, 
follow it down from its earliest to its 
latest stages, and group other depart- 
ments round it. Thus one author might 
take religion, and in making the his- 
tory of religion the main thread of his 
narrative might deal incidentally with 
the other phenomena which have in- 
fluenced it or which it has influenced. 
Or, similarly, another author might take 
political institutions, or perhaps economic 
conditions — i.e., wealth, labour, capital, 

Each Race 
a Distinct 


The i.iscribed stone found at Rosetta, in the Nile delta, in 1799, now preserved 
in the British Museum. It gave the key to the hieroglyphic writings of Egypt. 
It is a decree of Ptolemy Epiphanes, promulgated at Memphis in B.C. 196, and 
as it is inscribed in hieroglyphic ancf in the script of the country as well as 
in Greek, it thus solved the long standing mystery of the hieroglyphics 
of the monuments, which before its discovery had been quite unintelligible. 


commerce, or, again, the fundamental 
social institutions, such as the family, 
and the relations of the ranks and classes 
in a community, and build up round one 
or other of these manifestations and 
embodiments of the creative energy of 
mankind the general story of man's move- 
ment from barbarism to civilisation. Even 
art, even mechanical inventions, might be 
similarly handled, for both of these stand 
in a significant relation to all the rest of the 
life of each nation and of the world at large. 
Nevertheless, no one of these 
suggested lines on which a 
universal history might be con- 
structed would quite meet the 
expectations which the name Universal 
History raises, because we have become 
accustomed to think of history as being 
primarily and pre-eminently a narrative of 
the growth and develop- 
ment of communities, 
nations, and states as or- 
ganised political bodies, 
seeing that it is in their 
character as bodies so 
organised that they come 
into relation with other 
nations and states. It is 
therefore better to follow 
tlie familiar plan of deal- 
ing with the annals of 
each race and nation as 
a distinct entity, while 
endeavouring to show 
throughout the whole 
narrative the part which 
each fills in the general 
drama of human effort, 
conflict, and progress. 

A universal history 
may, however, while 
conforming to this estab- 
lished method, follow it 
out along a special line, 
which shall give promi- 
nence to some one lead- 
ing idea or principle. 
Such a line or point of 
view has been found 
for the present work 
in the relation of man 
to his physical environ- 
ment — that is to say, 
to the geographical con- 
ditions which have 
always surrounded him, 
and always must sur- 
round him, conditions 

This photograph illustrates how present-day exploration brings the remains of the ancient wonder cities of Babylonia 
to light after the sleep of ages. Much valuable knowledge of Babylon has been acquired quite recently as a result 
of excavations now being carried on under the supervision of English, American, French, and German explorers. 

whose power and influence he has felt 
ever since he appeared upon the globe. 
This point of view is more comprehen- 
sive than any one of those above enu- 
merated. Physical environment has told 
upon each and every one of the lines 
of human activity already enumerated 
that could be taken to form a central 
line for the writing of a history of man- 
kind. It has influenced not only political 
institutions and economic phenomena, but 
also religion, and social institutions, and 
art, and inventions. No department of 
man's life has been independent of it, for 

it works upon man not only materially 
but also intellectually and morally. 

As this is the idea which has governed 
the preparation of the present book, as it 
is constructed upon a geographical rather 
than a purely chronological plan (though, 
of course, each particular country and 
nation needs to be treated chronologi- 
cally), some few pages may properly 
be devoted here to a consideration of the 
way in which geography determines 
history, or, in other words, to an 
examination of the relations of Nature, 
inorganic and organic, to the life of man. 


TTHOUGH we are accustomed to contrast 
^ man with Nature, and to look upon the 
world outside ourselves as an object to 
be studied by man, the conscious and 
intelligent subject, it is evident, and has 
been always recognised even by those 
thinkers who have most exalted the place 
man holds in the Cosmos, that man is also 
to be studied as a part of the physical uni- 
verse. He belongs to the realm of Nature 
in respect of his bodily constitution, which 
links him with other animals, and in certain 

respects with all the phenomena that lie 
within the sphere of biology. 

All creatures on our earth, since they 
have bodies formed from material con- 
stituents, are subject to the physical laws 
which govern matter ; and the life of all 
is determined, so far as their bodies are 
concerned, by the physical conditions 
which foster, or depress, or destroy life. 
Plants need soil, moisture, sunshine, and 
certain constituents of the atmosphere. 
Their distribution over the earth's surface 



depends not only upon the greater or less 
extent to which these things, essential to 
their existence, are present, but also upon 
the configuration of the earth's surface 
(continents and oceans), upon the greater 
or less elevation above sea level of parts of 
it, upon such forces as winds and ocean 
currents (occasionally also upon volcanoes), 
upon the interposition of arid deserts be- 
tween moister regions, or upon the flow of 
great rivers. The flora of each country 
is the resultant (until man appears upon 
the scene) of these na-tural conditions. 

We know that some plants are 
also affected by the presence of certain 
animals, particularly insects and birds. 
Similarly, animals depend upon these 
same conditions which regulate their 
distribution, partly directly, partly in- 
directly, or mediately through the depend- 
ence of the animal for food upon the 
plants whose presence or absence these 
conditions have determined. It would 
seem that animals, being capable of 
moving from place to place, and thus of 
finding conditions suitable for their life, 
and to some extent of modifying their life 
to suit the nature around them, are some- 
what more independent than plants are, 
though plants, too, possess powers of adapt- 
-, , . ing themselves to climatic sur- 

„ .... roundmgs ; and there are some 
Conditions i ? ■ 

, w ., — such, lor mstance, as our com- 

mon brake-fern and the grass of 
Parnassus — which seem able to thrive un- 
modified in very different parts of the globe. 
The primary needs of man which he 
shares with the other animals are an 
atmosphere which he can breathe, a tem- 
perature which he can support, water 
which he can drink, and food. In respect 
of these he is as much the product of geo- 
graphical conditions as are the other 
living creatures. Presently he superadds 
another need, that of clothing. It is a 
sign that he is becoming less dependent 
on external conditions, for by means of 
clothing he can make his own temperature 
and suocccd in enduring a degree of cold, 
or changes from heat to cold, which might 
otherwise shorten his life. The discovery 
of fire carries him a long step further, for 
it not only puts him less at the mercy of 
low temperatures, but extends the range 
of his food supplies, and enables him, by 
procuring better tools and weapons, to 
obtain his food more easily. We need not 
pursue his upward course, at every stage 
of which he finds himself better and still 


better able to escape from the thraldom 
of Nature, and to turn to account the 
forces which she puts at his disposal. But 
although he becomes more and more inde- 
pendent, more and more master not only 
of himself, but of her, he is none the less 
always for many purposes the creature of 
the conditions with which she surrounds 
him. He always needs what she gives him. 
He must always have regard to the laws 
which he finds operating through her 
realm. He always finds it 
_ *" ^ the easiest course to obey, and 
of Natur ^° ^^^ rather than to attempt 
to resist her. 
Here let me pause to notice a remark- 
able contrast between the earlier and the 
later stages of man's relations to Nature. 
In the earlier stages he lies helpless before 
her, and must take what she chooses 
to bestow — food, shelter, materials for 
clothing, means of defence against the 
wild beasts, who are in streng'th far more 
than a match for him. He depends upon 
her from necessity, and is better or 
worse off according as she is more or less 

But in the later stages of his progress 
he has, by accumulating a store of know- 
ledge, and by the development of his intel- 
ligence, energy, and self-confidence, raised 
himself out of his old difficulties. He 
no longer dreads the wild beasts. They, 
or such of them as remain, begin to 
dread him, for he is crafty, and can kill 
them at a distance. He erects dwellings 
which can withstand rain and tempest. 
He irrigates hitherto barren lands and 
raises abundant crops from them. When 
he has invented machinery, he produces 
in an hour clothing better than his hands 
could formerly have produced in a week. 
If at any given time he has not plenty 
of food, this happens only because he has 
allowed his sf)ecies to multiply too fast. 
He is able to cross the sea against 
adverse winds and place himself in a more 
fertile soil or under more genial 
skies than those of his former 
home. As respects all the 
primary needs of his life, he 
has so subjected Nature to himself, that 
he can make his life what he will. 

All this renders him independent. But 
he now also finds himself drawn into a new 
kind of dependence, for he has now 
come to take a new view of Nature. He 
perceives in her an enormous storehouse 
of wealth, by using which he can multiply 

Advance in 


Man the 
of Nature 

his resources and gratify his always 
increasing desires to an extent practically 
unlimited. She provides forces, such as 
steam and electricity, which his knowledge 
enables him to employ for production and 
transj:)ort, so as to spare his own physical 
strength, needed now not so much for 
effort as for the direction of the efforts of 
Nature. She has in the forest, 
and still more beneath her own 
surface in the form of minerals, 
the materials by which these 
forces can be set in motion ; and by using 
these forces man can, with comparatively 
little trouble, procure abundance of those 

Thus his relation to Nature is changed. 
It was that of a servant, or, indeed, rather 
of a beggar, needing the bounty of a 
sovereign. It is now that of a master 
needing the labour of a servant, a servant 
infinitely stronger than the master, but 
absolutely obedient to the master so long 
as the master uses the proper spell. Thus 
the connection of man with Nature, 
changed though his attitude be, is really 
as close as ever, and far more complex. 
If his needs had remained what they were 
in his primitive days — let us say, in those 
palc'eolithic days which we can faintly 
adumbrate to ourselves by an observation 
of the Australian or Fuegian aborigines 
now — he would have sat comparatively 
lightly to Nature, getting easily what he 
wanted, and not caring to trouble her for 
n;ore. But his needs — that is to say, his 
desires, both his physical appetites and 
his intellectual tastes, his ambitions and 
his fondness for comfort, things that were 
once luxuries having become necessaries — 
have so immeasurably expanded that, since 
he asks much more from Nature, he is 
obliged to study her more closely than ever. 
Thus he enters into a new sort of 
dependence upon her, because it is only 
by understanding her capacities and 
llic nuans of using them that he can get 
^M . .., from her what he wants. 

Man s New rt ■ •^- j.- n j 

„ , ,. Frunitive man was satisfied 

j^ it he could nnd spots where 

the trees gave edible fruit, 

where the sun was not too hot, nor 

the winds too cold, where the beasts easy 

of capture were abundant, and no tigers 

or pythons made the forest terrible. 

Civilised man has more complex problems 

to deal with, and wider fields to search. 

The study of Nature is not only still 

essential to him, but really more essential 


than ever. His hfe and action are con- 
ditioned by her. His industry and his 
commerce are directed by her to certain 
spots. That which she has to give is 
still, directly or indirectly, the source of 
strife, and a frequent cause of war. As 
men fought long ago with flint-headed 
arrows for a spring of water or a coconut 
grove, so they fight to-day for mineral 
treasures imbedded in the soil. It is 
mainly by Nature that the movements of 
emigration and the rise of populous centres 
of industry are determined. 

Though Nature still rules for many 
purposes and in many ways the course 
of human affairs, the respective value of 
her various gifts changes from age to age, 
as man's knowledge and power of turning 
them to account have changed. The 
things most prized by primitive man are' 
not those which semi-civilised man chiefly 
prized, still less are they those most sought 
for now. 

In primitive times the spots most 
attractive, because most favourable to 
human life, were those in which food 
could be most easily and safely obtained 
from fruit-bearing trees or by the chase, 
and where the climate was 
N^T^ genial enough to make clothing 

yr ... and shelter needless, at least 

during the greater part of the 
year. Later, when the keeping of cattle 
and tillage had come into use, good pastures 
and a fertile soil in the valley of a river 
were the chief sources of material well- 
being. Wild beasts were less terrible, 
because man was better armed ; but as 
human enemies were formidable, regions 
where hills and rocks facilitated defence by 
furnishing natural strongholds had their 

Still later, forests came to be recognised 
as useful for fuel, and for carpentry and 
shipbuilding. Mineral deposits, usually 
found in hilly or mountainous districts, 
became pre-eminently important sources 
of wealth ; and rivers were valued as 
highways of commerce and as sources of 
motive power by the force of their currents. 
To the Red Indians of the Ohio valley 
the places which were the most attractive 
camping-grounds were those whither the 
buffaloes came in vast herds to lick the 
rock salt exposed in the sides of the hills. 
It is now not the salt-licks, but the existence 
of immense deposits of coal and iron, that 
have determined the growth of huge com- 
munities in those regions whence the red 


man and the buffalo have both vanished. 
England was once, as New Zealand is now, 
a great wool-growing and wool-exporting 
country, whereas she is to-day a country 
which spins and weaves far more wool 
than she produces. 

So, too, the influence of the sea on man 
has changed. There was a time when 
towns were built upon heights some way 
off from the coast, because the sea was 
the broad high road of pirates who swooped 
down upon and pillaged the dwellings of 
those who lived near it. Now that the 
sea is safe, trading cities spring up upon 
its margin, and sandy tracts worthless for 
agriculture have gained an unexpected 
value as health resorts, or as places for 
playing games, places to which the in- 
habitants of inland districts flock in 
summer, as they do in England and 
Germany, or in winter, as they do on the 
Mediterranean coasts of France. The 
Greeks, when they began to compete with 
the Phoenicians in maritime commerce, 
sought for small and sheltered inlets in 
which their tiny vessels could lie safely — 
such inlets as Homer describes in the 
Odyssey, or as the Old Port of Marseilles, 
. a city originally a colony from 

Harbours *^^ Ionian Phocaea. Nowadays 
Y»#"j^ these pretty little rock har- 
and Modern , ^ -^ , r ji i 

bours are useless tor the large 

ships which carry our trade. The Old 
Port of Marseilles is abandoned to small 
coasters and fishing-boats, and the ocean 
steamers lie in a new harbour which is 
protected, partly by outlying islands, 
partly by artificial works. 

So, too, river valleys, though still 
important as highways of traffic, are 
important not so much in respect of water 
carriage as because they furnish the 
easiest hues along which railways can be 
constructed. The two banks of the Rhine, 
each traversed by a railroad, carry far 
more traffic than the great stream itself 
carried a century ago ; and the same 
remark applies to the Hudson. All these 
changes are due to the progress of inven- 
tion, which may give us fresh changes in 
the future not less far-reaching than 
those the past has seen. Mountainous 
regions with a heavy rainfall, such as 
Western Norway or the coast of the 
Pacific in Washington and British Colum- 
bia, may, by the abundance of water 
power which they supply, which can 
be transmuted into electrical energy, 
become sources of previously unlooked- 

for wealth, especially if some cheap means 
can be devised of conveying electricity 
with less wastage in transmission than is 
at present incurred. Within the last few 
years considerable progress in this direc- 
tion has been made. Should effective 
and easily applicable preventives against 
malarial fever be discovered, many dis- 
TK w \A *^^^^s "ow shunned, because 

- ^ ^ ' dangerous to the life of white 

Importance ° , ,\. ■> i 

txM i- • men, mav become the homes of 

of Medicine „ ■ ^ ■' -i- t-l 

fiounshmg communities. Ihe 

discovery of cinchona bark in the seven- 
teenth century affected the course of 
events, because it provided a remedy 
against a disease that had previously 
baffled medical skill. If quinine had been 
at the disposal of the men of the Middle 
Ages, not only might the lives of many 
great men, as for instance of Dante, have 
been prolonged, but the Teutonic emperors 
would have been partially relieved of one 
of the chief obstacles which prevented 
them from establishing permanent control 
over their Italian dominions. Rome and 
the Papal power defended themselves 
against the hosts of the Franconian and 
Hohenstaufen sovereigns by the fevers of 
the Campagna more effectively than did 
the Roman people by their arms, and 
almost as effectively as did the Popes by 
their spiritual thunders. 

Bearing in mind this principle, that the 
gifts of Nature to man not only increase, 
but also vary in their form, in proportion 
and correspondence to man's caj^acity to 
use them, and remembering also that man- 
is almost as much influenced by Nature 
when he has become her adroit master 
as when she was his stern mistress, we 
may now go on to examine more in detail 
the modes in which her influence has told 
and still tells upon him. 

It has long been recognised that Nature 
must have been the principal factor in 
producing, that is to say, in differentiating, 
the various races of mankind as we find 
them differentiated when our 
records begin. How this hap- 
pened is one of the darkest 
problems that history presents. 
By what steps and through what causes 
did the races of man acquire these 
diversities of physical and intellectual 
character which are now so marked 
and seem so persistent ? It has been 
suggested that some of these diversities 
may date back to a time when man, as 
what is called a distinct species, had 

The Problem 
of Racial 


scarcely begun to exist. Assuming the 
Darwinian hypothesis of the development 
of man out of some pithecoid form to be 
correct — and those who are not them- 
selves scientific naturalists can of course 
do no more than provisionally accept the 
conclusions at which the vast majority of 
scientific naturalists have arrived — it is 
conceivable that 
there may have 
been unconnected 
developments of 
creatures from 
i n t ermediate 
forms into de- 
finitely human 
forms in differ- 
ent regions, and 
that some of 
the most marked 
types of humanity 
may therefore 
have had their 
first rudimentary 
and germinal be- 
ginning before 
any specifically 
human type had 
made its appear- 
a n c e . This, 
however, is not 
the view of the 
great majority of 
naturalists. They 
appear to hold 
that the j^assage 
either from some 
anthropoid apes, 
or from some 
long since extinct 
common ancestor 
of man and the 
existing anthro- 
poid apes — this 
latter alternative 
representing whai 
IS now the domi- 
nant view — did 
not take j)lace 
through several 
channels (so to 
speak), but 
through one only, and that there was 
a single specifically human type which 
subsequently diverged into the varieties 
we now see. 

If this be so, it is plain that climate, and 
the conditions of life which depend upon 
climate, soil, and the presence of vegetables 



We must remember that such terms as "The Stone Age," "The 
Bronze Age," and so forth, are only loosely applied. The ages so 
called did not close at certain periods. There are races now 
living in all the conditions of these past ages. This photograph, 
for example, shows the actual tree dwellings of the Papuans in New 
Guinea to-day -one of the most primitive forms of human habitation. 

and of other animals besides man, must 
have been the forces which moulded and 
developed those varieties. From a remote 
antiquity, everybody has connected the 
dark colour of all, or nearly all, the races 
inhabiting the torrid zone with the power 
of the sun ; and the fairer skin of the 
races of the temperate and arctic zones 

with the com- 
parative feeble- 
ness of his rays 
in regions. 
This may be ex- 
j)lained on Dar- 
winian principles 
by supposing 
that the darker 
varieties were 
found more 
capable of sup- 
porting the fierce 
heat of the 
tropics. What 
explanation is to 
be given of the 
other character- 
istics of the negro 
and negroid 
races, of the 
usually frizzled 
hair, of the pecu- 
liar nose and jaw, 
and so forth, is 
a question foi 
the naturalist 
rather than for 
the historian. Al- 
though climate 
and food may be 
the chief factors 
in differentiation, 
the nature of the 
process is, as in- 
deed is the case 
with the species 
of animals gene- 
rally, sometimes 
very obscure. 
Take an in- 
stance from three 
African races 
which, so far as 
we can tell, were formed under similar 
climatic conditions — the Bushmen, the 
Hottentots, and the Bantu, the race 
including those whom we call Kafhrs. 
Their physical aspect and colour are 
different. Their size and the structure 
of their bodies are different. Their mental 

At first man built twig huts in trees, but becoming better matched with his animal foes he took to caves and under- 
ground habitations. Our illustration of the latter shows a section through the soil. Lake dwellings marked a 
distinct advance. Other varieties of primitive habitations are the leaf hut, the tents of skin, the mud hut, and the 
beehive hut of stone. Roman villas are still models of beauty. American " skyscrapers " are pecuUar to our time ; 
but all early forms of dwellings, while marking progress, have existed contemporaneously throughout history. 



aptitudes are different ; and one of the 
oddest points of difference is this, that 
whereas the Bushmen are the least 
advanced, intellectually, morally, and 
politically, of the three races, as well 
as the physically weakest, they show 
a talent for drawing which is not 
possessed by the other two. 

In this case there is, of 
Is the Race ^Q^j-gg^ ^ vast unknown fore- 
. ^^\^V, o time during which we may 

Insoluble? ■ .1 T, ^ 

nnagme the Bantu race, pro- 
bably originally formed in a region 
other than that which it now occupies 
(and under more favourable conditions 
for progress), to have become widely 
differentiated from those which are 
now the lower African races. We still 
know comparatively little about African 
ethnography. Let us, therefore, take 
another instance in which affinities of 
language give ground for believing 
that three races, whose differences 
are now marked, haVe diverged from a 
common stock. So far as language goes, 
the Celts, the Teutons, and the Slavs, 
all speaking Indo-European tongues, may 
be deemed to be all nearly connected in 
origin. They are marked by certain 
slight physical dissimilarities, and by per- 
haps rather more palpable dissimilarities in 
their respective intellectual and emotional 
characters. But so far as our knowledge 
goes, all three have lived for an immensely 
long period in the colder parts of the 
temperate zone, under similar external 
conditions, and following very much the 
same kind of pastoral and agricultural hfe. 
There is nothing in their environment 
which explains the divergences we perceive; 
so the origin of these divergences must 
aj^parently be sought either in admixture 
with other races or in some other historical 
causes which are, and will for ever re- 
main, in the darkness of a recordless past. 

How race admixture works, and how 

it forms a new definite character out of 

. diverse elements, is a subject 

ixing o which anyone may find abund- 

the World s , i. ■ y ( . ^ ■ 

ant materials for studymg m 
eop es ^j^^ history of the last two thou- 

sand years. Nearly every modern Eurojwan 
people has been .so formed. The French, 
the Spaniards, and the English are all the 
products of a mixture, in different pro- 
portions, of at least three elements — 
Iberian (to use a current name), Celts, 
and Teutons, though the Celtic element 
is probably comparatively small in Spain, 


and the Teutonic comparatively small 
both in Spain and in Central and Southern 
France. No small part of those who to- 
day speak German and deem themselves 
Germans must be of Slavonic stock. Those 
who to-day speak Russian are very largely 
of Finnish, to some small extent of Tartar, 
blood. The Itahans probably spring from 
an even larger number of race-sources, 
without mentioning the vast number of 
slaves brought from the East and the North 
into Italy between B.C. loo and a.d. 300. 
In the cases of Switzerland and Scotland 
the process of fusion is not yet complete. 
The Celto-Burgundian Swiss of Neuchatel 
is still different from the Allemanian 
Swiss of Appenzcll ; as the Anglo-Celt 
of Fife is different from the Ibero-Celt of 
the Outer Hebrides. But in both these 
cases there is already a strong sense of 
national unity, and in another three 
hundred years there may have arisen a 
single type of character. 

An interesting and almost unique case 
is furnished by Iceland, where isolation 
under peculiar conditions of climate, food, 
and social life has created a somewhat 
different type both of body and of mental 
. character from that of the 
The Unique J^;oI.wegians, although so far as 
f*i^ . blood goes the two peoples are 
identical, Iceland having been 
colonised from Western Norway a thousand 
years ago, and both Icelanders and Nor- 
wegians having remained practically un- 
mixed with any other race — save that some 
slight Celtic infusion came to Iceland 
with those who migrated thither from the 
Norse settlements in Ireland, Northern 
Scotland, and the Hebrides — since the 
separation took place. But by far the 
most remarkable instance of race admixture 
is that furnished in our own time by the 
United States of North America, where 
a people of predominantly English stock 
(although there were in the end of the 
eighteenth century a few descendants of 
Dutchmen, with Germans, Swedes, and 
Ulster Irishmen, in the country) has 
within the last sixty years received 
additions of many millions of Celts, of 
Germans and Scandinavians, and of 
various Slavonic races. At least a 
century must elapse before it can be 
seen how far this infusion of new blood 
will change the type of American 
character as it stood in 1840. 

There are, however, two noteworthy 
differences between modern race fusions 


and those which belong to primitive times. 
One is that under modern conditions 
the influence of what may be called the 
social and political environment is probably 
very much greater than it was in early 
times. The American-born son of Irish 
parents is at forty years of age a very 
different creature from his cousin on the 
coast of Mayo. The other is that in modern 
times differences of colour retard or forbid 
the fusion of two races. So far as the Teu- 
tonic peoples are concerned, no one will 
intermarry with a 
negro ; a very few 
with a Hindu, a 
Chinese, or a Malay. 
In the ancient world 
there was but little 
contact between white 
men and black or 
yellow ones, but the 
feeling of race aver- 
sion was ap- 
parently less 
strong than it 

of their movements from one part of the 
earth to another, these movements having 
been in their turn a potent influence in 
the admixture of the races. Some geo- 
graphers have alleged climate — that is to 
say, the desire of those who inhabit an 
inclement region to enjoy a softer and 
warmer air — as a principal motive which 
has induced tribes of nations to transfer 
themselves from one region to another. 

It is no doubt true that the direction of 
migrations has almost always been either 
from the north towards 
the south, or else along 
parallels of latitude, 
men rarely seeking for 
themselves conditions 
more severe than those 
under which they were 
born. But it is usually 
not so much the wish 
to escape cold that has 
been an effective 
motive as the 
wish to find 

Mr. Bryce points out that the physical features of a people are determined chiefly by their environment. These 
illustrations show (at top) a typical English settler in the old Colonial days of America, a native Red Indian (left) and a 
typical American of to-day (right). Without any intermingling of red men and white, the modern American, thanks to 
climatic conditions, resembles the Red Indian far more closely than he does his own ancestors of the Colonial days. 

is now, just as it was much less strong 
among the Spaniards and Portuguese 
in the sixteenth and .seventeenth centuries 
than it is among Americans or English- 
men to-day. It is less strong even now 
among the so-called " Latin races ; " and 
as regards the Anglo-Americans, it is 
much less strong towards the Red Indians 
than towards negroes. 

As Nature must have been the main 
agent in the formation of the various 
races of mankind from a common stock, 
so also Nature has been the chief cause 

more and better food, since this means an 
altogether easier life. Scarcity of the means 
of subsistence, which is, of course, most 
felt when population is increasing, has 
operated more frequently and ]')owerfully 
than any other cause in bringing on dis- 
placements of the races of man over the 
globe. The movement of the primitive 
Aryans into India from the plateaux of 
West Central Asia, probably also the 
movement of the races which speak 
Dravidian languages from South Central 
Asia into Southern India, and probably 



also the mighty descent, in the tourth and 
fifth centuries A.D., of the Teutonic races 
from the lands between the Baltic and 
the Alps into the Roman Empire, had 
this origin. 

In more advanced states of society a 
like cause leads the surplus population of 
a civilised state to overflow into new 
lands, where there is more 
_ ^ . . space, or the soil is more fertile. 
o onising -pj^yg ^YiQ inhabitants of South- 
western Scotland, partly, no 
doubt, at the suggestion of their rulers, 
crossed over into Ulster, where they occu- 
pied the best lands, driving the aboriginal 
Celts into the rougher and higher districts, 
where their descendants remain in the 
glens of Antrim, and in the hilly parts of 
Down, Derry, and Tyrone. Thus the men 
of New England moved out to the West 
and settled in the Mississippi Valley, while 
the men of Virginia crossed the AUeghanies 
into Kentucky. Thus the English have 
colonised Canada and Australia and New 
Zealand and Natal. Thus the Russians 
have spread out from their ancient homes 
on the upper courses of the Dnieper and 
the Volga all over the vast steppes that 
stretch to the Black Sea and the Caucasus, 
as well as into the rich lands of South- 
western Siberia. Thus the surplus peasantry 
of Germany has gone not only to North 
America, but also to Southern Brazil and 
the shores of the Rio de la Plata. 

In another form it is the excess of popu- 
lation over means of subsistence at home 
that has produced the remarkable outflow 
of the Chinese through the Eastern 
Archipelago and across the Pacific into 
North America, and that has carried the 
Ja{)ancse to the Hawaiian Islands. And 
here we touch another cause of migration 
which is indirectly traceable to Nature — 
namely, the demand in some countries 
for more labour or cheaper labour than the 
inhabitants of the country -are able or 
willing to supply. Sometimes this demand 

^, -, , is attributable to climatic 

I he Need tu o ■ j j 

j^ . causes. I he Spaniards and 

, . Portuguese and English in the 

New World were unfitted by 

their physical constitutions for out-of-door 

labour under a tropical sun. Hence they 

im]>ortcd negroes during the sixteenth and 

two following centuries in such numbers 

that there are now about eight millions 

of coloured people in the United States 

alone, and possibly (though no accurate 

figures exist) as many more in the West 


Indies and South America. To a much 
smaUer extent the same need for foreign 
labour has recently brought Indian coolies 
to the shores of the Caribbean Sea, and to 
the hottest parts of Natal, as it brings 
Polynesians to the sugar plantations 
of Northern Queensland. 

Two other causes which have been 
potent in bringing about displacements 
and mixtures of population are the desire 
for conquest and plunder and the senti- 
ment of religion. But these belong less 
to the sphere of Nature than to that of 
human passion and emotion, so that they 
' scarcely fall within this part of our 
inquiry, the aim of which has been to 
show how Nature has determined history 
by inducing a shifting of races from 
place to place. From this shifting there 
has come the contact of diverse elements, 
with changes in each race due to the 
influence of the other, or perhaps the ab- 
sorption of one in the other, or the develop- 
ment of something new out of both. In 
considering these race movements we 
have been led from the remote periods in 
which they began, and of which we know 
scarcely anything except from archaeologi- 
cal and linguistic data, to 

• * T^ ^^ periods within the range of 
mines Race ,i .■ 1 • . o 

„ ^ authentic history. So we 

Movements , ■', xt ^ 

may go on to see how Nature 

has determined the spots in which the 
industry of the more advanced races 
should build up the earliest civilisations, 
and the lines along which commerce, a 
principal agent in the extension of 
civilisation, should proceed to link one 
race with another. 

It was long since observed that the 
first homes of a dense population and a 
highly developed civilisation lay in fertile 
river valleys, such as those of the Lower 
Nile, the Euphrates, the Tigris, the 
Ganges, the Yang-tse-kiang. All these 
are situate in the hotter parts of the 
temperate zone ; all are regions of ex- 
ceptional fertility. The soil, especially 
when tillage has become general, is the 
first source of wealth ; and it is in the 
midst of a prosperous agricultural jwpula- 
tion that cities spring up where handi- 
crafts and the arts arise and flourish. 
The basins of the Lower Nile and of the 
Lower luii:)hrates and Tigris are (as 
respects the West Asiatic and Mediter- 
ranean world) the fountain-heads of 
material, military, and artistic civihsa- 
tion. From them it spreads over the 

The earliest agents in the diffusion of trades and the arts were the Phoenicians, who from their great cities/ 

Sidon, and Carthage conducted a sea-borne traffic with lands as remote as England, and whose ad^ 

sailors, despite the smallness of their vessels, are believed even to have succeeded in rounding the Cape of y 



adjacent countries and along the coasts 
of Europe and Africa. On the east, 
Egypt and Mesopotamia are cut off by 
the deserts of Arabia and Eastern Persia 
from the perhaps equally ancient civilisa- 
tion of India, which again is cut off by 
lofty and savage mountains from the very 
ancient civilisation of China. Nature 
forbade intercourse between these far 
eastern regions and the West Asian 
peoples, while on the other hand Nature 
permitted Egypt, Phoenicia, and Babylon 
to influence and become teachers of the 
peoples of Asia Minor and of the Greeks 
on both sides of the i^gean Sea. The 
isolation and consequent independent 
development of India and of China is one 
of the most salient and significant facts 
of history. It was not till the end of the 
fifteenth century, when the Portuguese 
reached the Malabar coast, that the 
Indian peoples began to come into the 
general movement of the world ; for the 
expedition of Alexander the Great left 
hardly any permanent result, except upon 
Buddhist art, and the conquests of 
Mahmud of Ghazni opened no road to 
the East from the Mediter- 
ranean West. Nor did China, 

of Eastern 

though visited by Italian 
travellers in the thirteenth 
century, by Portuguese traders and Jesuit 
missionaries in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth, come into effective contact with 
Europe till near our own time. 

As the wastes of barren land formed an 
almost impassable eastern boundary to 
the West Asian civihsations, so on the 
west the expanse of sea brought Egypt 
and to a less extent Assyria (through 
Phoenicia) into touch with all the peoples 
who dwelt on the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean. The first agents in the diffusion 
of trade and the arts were the Phoenicians, 
established at Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage. 
The next were the Greeks. For more 
than two thousand years, from B.C. 700 
onwards, the Mediterranean is practically 
the centre of the history of the world, 
because it is the highway both of com- 
merce and of war. For seven hundred years 
after the end of the second century B.C., 
that is to say, while the Roman Empire 
remained strong, it was also the highway 
of civil administration. The Saracen con- 
quests of the seventh century cut off 
North Africa and Syria from Europe, 
a. checked transmarine commerce, and 
figrreated afresh the old opjwsition of East 


and West in which a thousand years 
earlier Herodotus had found the main 
thread of world history. But it was 
not till after the discovery of America 
that the Mediterranean began to yield 
to the Atlantic its primacy as the area of 
sea power and sea-borne trade. 

Bordered by far less fertile and climate- 

- „ favoured countries, and closed 

Influence , • .• , - 

of the Seas *° navigation during some 
. „. months of winter, the Baltic 

has always held a place in his- 
tory far below that of the Mediterranean. 
Yet it has determined the relations of the 
North European states and peoples. So, 
too, the North Sea has at one time exposed 
Britain to attack from the Danish and 
Norwegian lords of the sea, and at other 
times protected her from powerful con- 
tinental enemies. It may indeed be said 
that in surrounding Europe by the sea 
on three sides. Nature has drawn the 
main lines which the course of events on 
this smallest but most important of the 
continents has had to follow. 

Of the part which the great bodies of 
water have played, of the significance in 
the oceans of mighty currents like the 
Gulf Stream, the Polar Current, the Japan 
Current, the Mozambique Current, it 
would be impossible to speak within 
reasonable compass. But two remarks 
may be made before leaving this part of 
the subject. One is that man's action 
in cutting through an isthmus may 
completely alter the conditions as given 
by Nature. The Suez Canal has of late 
years immensely enhanced the importance 
of the Mediterranean, already in some 
degree restored by the decay of Turkish 
power, by the industrial revival of Italy, 
and by the French conquests in North 
Africa. The cutting of a canal at Panama 
will change the relations of the seafaring 
and fleet-owning nations that are interested 
in the Atlantic and the Pacific. And the 
other remark is that the significance of a 
maritime discovery, however 

Magellan ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^y bg^ome still 

PoHti« """ greater with the lapse of time. 
Magellan, in his ever memo- 
rable voyage, not only penetrated to and 
crossed the Pacific, but discovered the 
Philij^pine Islands, and claimed them for 
the monarch who had sent him forth. 
His apjiropriation of them for the Crown 
of Spain, to which during these three 
centuries and a half they have brought 
no benefit, has been the cause which has 


Most towns and communities founded more than 300 years ago were on easily defensible hUls 

Port Id^hnf «^f' m"^^",'. °' ''K% °^ *'^^ ^^^- O"-- iUustrations show (r) Naples zrBonsuna, 
Port and hill of Marseilles, (4) Monaco, (5) St. Ct^zaire, and (6) the Greek Monastery of St. 

Photos, by Frith and Underwood & Underwood 

by the 

(3} Old 





'' ' ii V" 5o6ntA«» ; • .. 

■.«A..;--...l->fTa ■ ■" '■"'* ' *" 


Ar t Phili 

These two maps, which have been very carefully prepared from the most reliable authorities, indicate at a glance the rela- 
tive importance of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic as highways of commerce in the time of Julius Caesar, B.C. 102-44. 

led the republic of the United States 
to depart from its traditional policy of 
holding to its own continent by taking 
them a.s a prize — a distant and unex- 
pected prize — of conquest. 

A few words may sufftce as to what 
Nature has done towards the formation of 
nations and States by the configuration of 
the surface of the dry land — that is to say, 


by mountain chains and by river valleys. 
The only natural boundaries, besides 
seas, are mountains and deserts. Rivers, 
though convenient frontier lines for the 
politician or the geographer, are not 
natural boundaries, but rather unite than 
dissever those who dwell on their opposite 
banks. Thus the great natural boundaries 
in Asia have been the deserts of Eastern 


■■V-.aIU, ..-•^^-;'".--.-.. W ^•■,<^ .^^'^■.<- J^.-//-/ r/ *"""";' 

:Mqdet'<i>.W:: / /X _ 



•■^ ^^^//\v,\^ %X /^/ (Ml? l^^iH^i^^'-^ 

R u 

•'*^- 1 


:7 Lr.o./o ^ S-'^SiSL '^'^^*'*SJ!''^!^*'54<: 

^> v?^ 

6.'£ /R C /< 5 if /= 



Here is the contrast to the opposite page. In our time the Atlantic has become the centre of the world's commerce and 
the Mediterranean has sunk in importance. It would be almost deserted but for the routes to India via the Suez Canal. 

Persia, of Turkestan, and of Northern 
Arabia, with the long Himalayan chain 
and the savage ranges apparently parallel 
to the Iravvadi River, which separate the 
easternmast corner of India and Burmah 
from South-Western China. To a less 
extent the Altai and Thian Shan, and, to a 
still smaller extent, the Taurus in Eastern 

Asia Minor, have tended to divide peoples 
and States. The Caucasus, which fills the 
space between two great seas, has been at 
all times an extremely important factor in 
history, severing the nomad races of Scy- 
thia from the more civihsed and settled 
inhabitants of the valleys of the Phasis 
and the Kura. Even to-day, when the 



Tsar holds sway on both sides of this chain, 
it constitutes a weakness in the position of 
Russia, and it helps to keep the Georgian 
races to the south from losing their iden- 
tity in the mass of Russian subjects. 

Without the Alps and the Pyrenees, the 
annals of Europe must have been entirely 
different. The Alps, even more than the 
Italian climate, proved too 
The Place ^^^^j^ ^^^ ^-^^ Romano-Ger- 
of Mountains ^^^^-^ Emperors of the Middle 
in H.Story ^^^^^ ^^j^^ ^^.j^^ ^^ ^.^j^ ^^^^ 

to the north and to the south of this wide 
mountain region. The Pyrenees have not 
only kept in existence the Basque people, 
but have repeatedly frustrated the attempts 
of monarchs to dominate both France and 
Spain. The mass of high moorland country 
which covers most of the space between 
the Solvvay Firth and the lower course of 
the Tweed has had something to do with 
the formation of a Scottish nation out of 
singularly diverse elements. The rugged 
mountains of Northern and Western 
Scotland, and the similar though less 
extensive hill country of Wales, have en- 
abled Celtic races to retain their language 
and character in both these regions. 

On the other hand, the vast open plains 
of Russia have allowed the Slavs of the 
districts which lie round Novgorod, Mos- 
cow, and Kiev to spread out among and 
Russify the Lithuanian and Finnish, to 
some extent also the Tartar, races, who 
originally held by far the larger part of that 
area. So, too, the Ural range, which, 
though long, is neither high nor difficult 
to pass, has opposed no serious obstacle to 
the overflow of population from Russia 
into Siberia. That in North America the 
.Alleghanies have had a comparatively 
slight effect upon })olitical history, although 
they did for a time arrest the march of 
colonisation, is due partly to the fact that 
they are a mass of comi)aratively low 
parallel ranges, with fertile valleys be- 
tween, partly to the already advanced civi- 
lisation of the Anglo-Ameri- 
cans of the Atlantic seaboard, 
who found no great difficulty 
in making their way across, 
against the uncertain resistance of small 
and non-cohesive Indian tribes. A far more 
formidable natural barrier is formed be- 
tween the Mississip])i Valley and the Pacific 
slope by the Rocky Mountains, with the de- 
serts of Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and Idaho. 
But the discovery of steam power has so 
much reduced the importance of this barrier 



has Done 

that it does not seriously threaten the main- 
tenance of a united American republic. 

In one respect the New World presents 
a remarkable contrast to the Old. The 
eirliest civilisations of the latter seem to 
have sprung up in fertile river valleys. 
Those of the former are found not on the 
banks of streams like the Nile or Euphra- 
tes, but on elevated plateaux, where the 
heat of a tropical sun is mitigated by 
height above sea level. It was in the lofty 
lake basin of Tezcuco and Mexico, and on 
the comparatively level ground which lies 
between the parallel ranges of the Peruvian 
and Bolivian Andes, that American races 
had reached their finest intellectual deve- 
lopment, not in the far richer, but also 
hotter and less healthy river valleys of 
Brazil, or (unless we are to except Yucatan) 
on the scorching shores of the Caribbean 
Sea. Nature was in those regions too strong 
for man, and held him down in savagery. 

In determining the courses of great 
rivers, Nature has determined the first 
highways of trade and fixed the sites of 
many cities. Nearly all the considerable 
towns founded more than three centuries 
ago owe their origin either to their pos^ 
„ ^, sessing good havens on the 

How Nature ^^^.^^^^^ ^^ ^o the natural 
fixes oites , iu r ^i • -a- 

J. ^. . strength of their })osition on 

a defensible hill, or to their 
standing close to a navigable river. Mar- 
seilles, Alexandria, New York, Rio de 
Janeiro, are instances of the first ; Athens, 
Edinburgh, Prague, Moscow, of the second ; 
Bordeaux, Cologne, New Orleans, Calcutta, 
of the third. Rome and London, Buda- 
pest, and Lyons combine the advantages 
of the second with those of the third. This 
function of rivers in directing the hnes of 
commerce and the growth of centres of popu- 
lation has become much less important 
since the construction of railroads, yet 
population tends to stay where it has been 
first gathered, so that the fluviatile cities 
are likely to retain their preponderance. 
Thus the river is as important to the his- 
torian as is the mountain range or the sea. 
From the j:)hysical features of a country 
it is an easy transition to the capacities 
of the soil. The character of the products 
of a region determines the numbers of its 
inhabitants and the kind of life they lead. 
A land of forests breeds hunters or lumber- 
men ; a land of pasture, which is too 
rough or too arid or too sterile for tillage, 
supports shepherds or herdsmen probably 
more or less nomadic. Either kind of land 


supports inhabitants few in proportion to 
its area. Fertile and well-watered regions 
rear a denser, a more settled, and presum- 
ably a more civilised population. Norway 
and Tyrol, Tibet and Wyoming, and the 
Orange River Colony, can never become so 
densely peopled as Bengal or Illinois or 
Lombardy, yet the fisheries of its coast and 

the seafaring energy of its people 

have sensibly increased the po- 
J* pulation of Norway. Thus he 

who knows the climate and the 
productive capacity of the soil of any 
given country can calculate its prospects 
of prosperity. Political causes may, of 
course, intervene. Asia Minor and the 
Valley of the Euphrates, regions once 
populous and flourishing, are now thinly 
inhabited and poverty-stricken because 
they are ruled by the Turks. 

But these cases are exceptional. Bengal 
and Lombardy and Egypt have supported 
large populations under all kinds of govern- 
ment. The products of each country tend, 
moreover, to establish definite relations 
between it and other countries, and do this 
all the more as population, commerce, and 
the arts advance. When England was a 
great wool-growing and wool-exporting 
country, her wool export brought her into 
close political connection with the wool- 
manufacturing Flemish towns. She is now 
a cotton-manufacturing country, needing 
cotton which she cannot grow at all, and 
consuming wheat which she does not 
grow in sufficient quantities. Hence she is 
in close commercial relations with the 
United States on one side, which give her 
most of her cotton and much of her wheat, 
and with India, from which she gets both 
these articles, and to which she exports 
a large part of her manufactured cotton 

So Rom.e, because she needed the corn 
of Egypt, kept Egypt under a specially 
careful administration. The rest of her 
corn came from Sicily and North Africa, 

and the Vandal conquest of 
mmon js^orth Africa dealt a frightful 
Needs make 1, , ,, j i- • t- • 
- p blow to the dechnmg Empire. 

In these cases the common 
interest of sellers and buyers makes for 
peace, but in other cases the competition 
of countries desiring to keep commerce to 
themselves occasions war. The Spanish 
and Dutch fought over the trade to India 
in the earlier part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, when the Portuguese Indies belonged 
to Spain, as the EngUsh and French fought 

in the eighteenth. And a nation, especially 
an insular nation, whose arable soil is not 
large enough or fertile enough to provide 
all the food it needs, has a powerful induce- 
ment either to seek peace or else to be 
prepared for maritime war. If such a 
country does not grow enough corn or 
meat at home, she must have a navy 
strong enough to make sure that she will 
always be able to get these necessaries 
from abroad. Attica did not produce all 
the grain seeded to feed the Athenians, 
so they depended on the corn ships which 
came down from the Euxine, and were 
practically at the mercy of an enemy who 
could stop those ships. 

Of another natural source of wealth, the 
fisheries on the coast of a country, no 
more need be said than that they have 
been a frequent source of quarrels and even 
of war. The recognition of the right of each 
state to the exclusive control and enjoy- 
ment of the sea for three miles off its shores 
has reduced, but not entirely removed, the 
causes of friction between the fishermen 
of different countries. 

Until recently, the surface of the soil 
was a far more important 
source of wealth than was that 
which lies beneath the surface. 
There were iron mines among 
the Chalybes on the Asiatic coast of the 
Euxine in ancient times ; there were silver 
mines here and there, the most famous 
being those at Laurium, from which the 
Athenians drew large revenues, gold mines 
in Spain and Dacia, copper mines in Elba, 
tin mines in the south-west corner of 
Britain. But the number of persons 
employed in mining and the industries 
connected therewith was relatively small 
both in the ancient world and, indeed, 
down till the close of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. The immense development of coal- 
mining and of iron-working in connection 
therewith has now doubled, trebled, or 
quadrupled the population of large areas 
in Britain, Germany, France, Belgium, and 
the United States, adding vastly to the 
wealth of these countries and stimulating 
in them the growth of many mechanical 
arts. This new population is quite different 
in character from the agricultural peasan- 
try who in earlier days formed the principal 
substratum of society. Its appearance has 
changed the internal politics of these 
countries, disturbing the old balance of 
forces and accelerating the progress of 
democratic principles. 






Nor have minerals failed to affect the 
international relations of peoples and 
States. It was chiefly for the precious 
metals that the Spaniards explored the 
American Continent and conquered Mexico 
and Peru. It was for the sake of capturing 
the ships bringing those metals back 
to Europe that the English sea-rovers made 
their way to the American coasts and 
involved England in wars with Spain. 
It was the discovery in 1885 of extensive 
auriferous strata unexampled in the cer- 
tainty of their yield that drew a swarm 
of foreign immigrants into the Transvaal, 
whence arose those difficulties between 
them and the Dutch inhabitants pre- 
viously established there which, coupled 
with the action of the wealthy owners of 
the mines, led at last to the war of 1899 
between Britain and the two South African 

The productive capacity of a country is, 
however, in one respect very different from 
those great physical features — such as tem- 
perature, rainfall, coast configuration, 
surface character, geological structure, and 
river system — which have been previously 
noted. Those features are 
***'^'* permanent qualities which man 

Fight with ^^^ ^^^^^ Qj^ly ^Q ^ hmited 

Nature extent, as when he reduces the 
rainfall a little by cutting down forests, or 
increases it by planting them, or as when 
he unites an isle, hke that of Cadiz, to 
the mainland, cuts through an isthmus, 
like that of Corinth, or clears away the 
bar at a river mouth, as that of the 
Mississippi has been cleared. 

But the natural products of a country 
may be exhausted and even the productive 
capacity of its soil diminished. Constant 
tillage, especially if the same crop be 
raised and no manure added, will wear out 
the richest soils. This has already hap- 
pened in parts of Western America. Still 
the earth is there ; and with rest and arti- 
ficial help it will recover its strength. But 
timber destroyed cannot always be induced 
to grow again, or at least not so as to 
equal the vigour of primeval forests. Wild 
animals, once extirpated, are gone for ever. 
The buffalo and beaver of North America, 
the beautiful lynxes of South Africa and 
some of its large ruminants, are irrecover- 
ably lost for the purposes of human use, 
just as much as the dinornis, though a few 
individuals may be kept alive as specimens. 
So, too, the mineral resources of a country 
are not only consumable, but obviously 

irreplaceable. Already some of the smaller 
coalfields of Europe have been worked out, 
while in others it has become necessary to 
sink much deeper shafts, at an increas- 
ing cost. There is not much tin left in 
Cornwall, not much gold in the gravel 
deposits of Northern California. The richest 
known goldfield of the world, that of 
the Transvaal Witwatersrand, 
Exhausting ^^^ hardly last more than 
the Mineral ^j^j^.^^ ^^ ^^^.^y y^^j.^^ j^^^ j^ 
Wealth ^ ^^^ centuries the productive 
capacity of many regions may have be- 
come quite different from what it is now, 
with grave consequences to their inhabi- 

These are some of the ways in which 
Nature affects those economic, social, and 
poHtical conditions of the life of man the 
changes in which make up history. As 
we have seen, that which Nature gives 
to man is always the same, in so far as 
Nature herself is always the same — an 
expression which is more popular than 
accurate, for Nature herself — that is to say, 
not the laws of Nature, but the physical 
environment of man on this planet — is in 
reality always changing. It is true that 
this environment changes so slowly 
that a thousand years may be too 
short a period in which man can note 
and record some forms of change — such, 
for instance, as that by which the tem- 
perature of Europe became colder during 
the approach of the glacial period and 
warmer during its recession — while ten 
thousand years maybe too short to note 
any diminution in the heat which the 
sun pours upon the earth, or in the store 
of oxygen which the earth's atmosphere 

But as we have also seen, the relation to 
man of Nature's gifts differs from age to age 
as man himself becomes different, and as 
his power of using these gifts increases, or 
his need of them becomes either less or 
greater. Every invention alters those rela- 
tions. Water power became less 
Progress relatively valuable when steam. 
of Modern ^^^^ applied to the generation 
Invention ^^ motive force. It has become 
more valuable with the new apphcations of 
electricity. With the discovery of mineral 
dyes, indigo and cochineal are now less 
wanted than they were. With the inven- 
tion of the pneumatic tyre for bicycles 
and carriages, caoutchouc is more wanted. 
Mountains have become, since the mak- 
ing of railways, less of an obstacle to trade 



than they were, and they have also be- 
come more available as health resorts. 
Political circumstances may interfere 
with the ordinary and normal action 
of natural phenomena. A race may be 
attracted to or driven into a region for 
which it is not physically suited, as Euro- 
peans have gone to the West Indies, 
^ - and negroes were once carried 

an anno -^^^ New York and Pennsyl- 

Disregard ~, r i. j 

j^ vania. Ihe course of trade 

which Nature prescribes be- 
tween different countries may be ham- 
pered or stopped by protective tariffs ; 
but in these cases Nature usually takes 
her eventual revenges. They are in- 
stances which show, not that man can 
disregard her, but that when he does so, 
he does so to his own loss. 

It would be easy to add further illustra- 
tions, but those already given are sufficient 
to indicate how multiform and pervading 
is the action upon man of the physical 
environment, or in other words, how in all 
countries, and at all times, geography 
is the necessary foundation of history, so 
that neither the course of a nation's 
growth, nor its relations with other nations, 
can be grasped by one who has not 
come to understand the climate, surface, 
and products of the country wherein 
that nation dwells. 

This conception of the relation of geo- 
graphy to history is, as has been said, 
the leading idea of the present work, and 
has furnished the main lines which it 
follows. It deals with history in the light 
of physical environment. Its ground 
plan, so to speak, is primarily geographi- 
cal, and secondarily chronological. But 
there is one difficulty in the way of such 
a scheme, and of the use of such a ground 
j)lan, which cannot be passed over. That 
difficulty is suggested by the fact already 
noted — that hardly any considerable race, 
and possibly no great nation, now in- 
habits the particular part of the earth's 
surface on which it was dwell- 

There IS 1 v- . 1 • 

,, . . nig when a history begins. 

no Unmixed -'^ - . -? P. 
Race left 

Nearly every peoj)le has either 
migrated bodily from one 
region to another, or has received such 
large infusions of immigrants from other 
regions as to have become practically a 
new people. Hence it is rare to find any 
nation now living under the physical con- 
ditions which originally moulded its char- 
acter, or the character of some at least 
of its component elements. And hence it 


follows that when we study the qualities, 
aptitudes, and institutions of a nation in 
connection with the land it inhabits, we 
must always have regard not merely to 
the features of that land, but also to 
those of the land which was its earlier 
dwelling-place. Obviously, this brings 
a disturbing element into the study of 
the relations between land and people, 
and makes the whole problem a far more 
compHcated one than it appeared at first 

Where a people has migrated from a 
country whose physical conditions were 
similar to those under which its later life 
is spent, or where it had reached only a 
comparatively low stage of economic and 
political development before the migra- 
tion, the difficulties arising from this 
source are not serious. The fact that the 
English came into Britain from the lands 
round the mouth of the Elbe is not 
very material to an inquiry into their re- 
lations to their new home, because climate 
and soil were similar, and the emigrants 
were a rude, warlike race. But when we 
come to the second migration of the English, 
, from Britain to North America, 

a ure s ^j^^ ^^^ ^^ altogether dif- 

P terent. Groups ot men from 

a people which had already 
become highly civilised, had formed a 
well-marked national character, and had 
created a body of peculiar institutions, 
planted themselves in a country whose 
climate and physical features are widely 
diverse from those of Britain. 

If, for the sake of argument, we assume 
the Algonquin aborigines of Atlantic North 
America as they were in a.d. iOoo to have 
been the legitimate product of their 
physical environment — I say " for the 
sake of argument," because it may be 
alleged that other forces than those of 
physical environment contributed to form 
them — what greater contrast can be 
imagined than the contrast between the 
inhabitants of New England in this present 
year and the inhabitants of the same 
district three centuries earlier, as Nature, 
and Nature alone, had turned them out of 
her factory ? Plainly, therefore, the history 
of the United States cannot, so far as 
Nature and geography are concerned, be 
written with regard solely, or even chiefly, 
to the conditions of North American na- 
ture. The physical environment in which 
the English immigrants found themselves 
on that continent has no doubt affected 


their material progress and the course of 
their politics during the three centuries 
that have elapsed since settlements were 
founded in Virginia and on Massachusetts 

But it is not to that environment, but 
to earlier days, and especially to the twelve 
centuries during which their ancestors 
lived in England, that their character and 
institutions are to be traced. Thus the 
history of the American people begins in 
the forests of Germany, where the foun- 
dations of their polity were laid, and is 
continued in England, where they set up 
kingdoms, embraced Christianity, became 
one nation, received an influx of Celtic, 
Danish, and Norman-French blood, for- 
med for themselves that body of customs, 
laws, and institutions which they trans- 
planted to the new soil of America, and 
most of which, though changed and always 
changing, they still retain. The same 
thing is true of the Spaniards (as also of 
the Portuguese) in Central and South 
America. The difference be- 
Bcginnmgs ^^^^^^^ ^-^^ development of the 
of Race Hispano-Americans and that of 
History ^^^-^ Enghsh neighbours to the 
north is not wholly, or even mainly, due to 
the different physical conditions under 
which the two sets of colonistK have lived. 
It is due to the different antecedent 
history of the two races. So a history of 
America must be a history not only of 
America, but of the Spaniards, Portuguese, 
French, and Enghsh — one ought in strict- 

ness to add of the negroes also — before 
they crossed the Atlantic. The only 
true Americans, the only Americans for 
whom American nature can be deemed 
answerable, are the aboriginal red men 
whom we, perpetuating the mistake of 
Columbus, still call Indians. 
This objection to the geographical scheme 
of history wTiting is no doubt 
Geography ggj-ious when a historical 

as a Basis 
of History 

treatise is confined to one par- 
ticular country or continent, 
as in the instance I have taken of the 
Continent of North America. It is, how- 
ever, less formidable in a universal his- 
tory, such as the present work, because, 
by referring to another volume of the 
series, the reader will find what he needs 
to know regarding the history of the 
Spaniards, English, and French in those 
respective European homes where they 
have grown to be that which they were 
when, with religion, slaughter, and slavery 
in their train, they descended upon the 
shores of America. 

Accordingly the difficulty I have pointed 
out does not disparage the idea and plan 
of writing universal history on a geogra- 
phical basis. It merely indicates a caution 
needed in applying that plan, and a con- 
dition indispensable to its utility— viz., 
the regard that must be had to the stage 
of progress at which a people has arrived 
when it is subjected to an environment 
different from that which had in the first 
instance helped to form its type. 


WE have now considered some of the 
ways in which a universal history, 
written with special reference to the 
physical phenomena of the earth as geo- 
graphical science presents them, may bring 
into strong relief one large and perma- 
nent set of influences which determine 
the progress or retrogression of each 
several branch of mankind. Upon the 
other principles which preside over and 
direct the composition of such a work, 
not much need be said. They are, of 
course, in the main, those which all 
competent historians will follow in 
writing the history of any particular 

But a universal history which endea- 
vours to present in a short compass a 
record of the course of events in all 
regions and among all peoples, since 

none can safely be omitted, is specially 
exposed to two dangers. One is that 
of becoming sketchy and viewy. When 
a large object has to be dealt with on 
a small scale, it is natural to sum up in 
a few broad generalisations masses of 
facts which cannot be described or ex- 
amined in detail. Broad generalisations 
are valuable when they proceed from 
a thoroughly trained mind — valuable, 
even if not completely verifiable, because 
they excite reflection. But it is seldom 
possible to make them exact. They neces- 
sarily omit most of the exceptions, and thus 
suggest a greater uniformity than exists. 

The other danger is that of sacrificing 
brightness and charm of presentation. 
When an effort is made to avoid generah- 
sations, and to squeeze into the narrative 
as many facts as the space will admit, the 



narrative is apt to become dry, because 
compression involves the curtailment of 
the personal and dramatic element. These 
are the rocks between which every his- 
torian has to steer. If he has ample space, 
he does well to prefer the course of giving 
all the salient facts and leaving the reader 
to generalise for himself. If, however, his 
space is limited, as must needs 
^^'^^ . be the lot of those who write 
of Care in ^ universal history, the impossi- 
History ^j^-^^ ^^ ^^j^^g -^^^^ minute 

detail makes generalisations inevitable, 
for it is through them that the result 
and significance of a multitude of minor 
facts must be conveyed in a condensed 

All the greater, therefore, becomes the 
need for care and sobriety in the forming 
and setting forth every summarising 
statement and general conclusion or judg- 
ment. Probably the soundest guiding 
principle and best safeguard against error 
is to be found in shunning all precon- 
ceived hypotheses which seek to explain 
history by one set of causes, or to read it 
in the light of one idea. The habit of 
magnifying a single factor, such as the 
social factor, or the economic, or the 
religious, has been a fertile source of 
weakness in historical writing, because 
it has made the presentation of events 
one-sided, destroying that balance 
and proportion which it is the highest 
merit of any historian to have attained. 
Theory and generalisation are the life- 
blood of history. They make it intelligible. 
They give it unity. They convey to us 
the instruction which it always contains, 
together with so much of practical 
guidance in the management of com- 
munities as history is capable of rendering. 
Hut they need to be applied with reserve, 
and not only with an impartial mind, but 
after a painstaking examination of all 
the facts — whether or no they seem to 
make for the particular theory 
New Minds stated— and of all the theories 
^^^ „ which any competent predc- 

cessor has propounded. 
For the historian, though he must keep 
himself from falling under the dominion 
of any one doctrine by which it is sought 
to connect and explain phenomena, must 
welcome all the light which any such 
doctrine can throw upon facts. Even if 
such a doctrine be imperfect, even if it 
be tainted by error, it may serve to 
indicate relations between facts, or to 

indicate the true importance of facts, 
which previous writers had failed to 
observe, or had passed too lightly over. 
It is thus that history always needs to 
be re-written. History is a progressive 
science, not merely because new facts 
are constantly being discovered, not 
merely because the changes in the world 
give to old facts a new significance, 
but also because every truly penetrating 
and original mind sees in the old facts 
something which had not been seen 

A universal history is fitted to correct 
such defects as may be incident to that 
extreme specialism in historical writing 
which is now in fashion. The broad and 
concise treatment which a history of all 
times and peoples must adopt naturally 
leads to efforts to characterise the dom- 
inant features and tendency of an epoch 
or a movement, whether social, economic, 
or political. 

Yet even here there is a danger to be 
guarded against. No epoch, no move- 
ment, is so simple as it looks at first sight, 
or as one would gather from even the most 
honest contemporary writer. 
The Side jhere is always an eddy at 
Streams the side of the stream ; and the 
of History stream itself is the resultant 
of a number of rivulets with different 
sources, whose waters, if the metaphor 
may be extended, are of different tints. 
Let any man study minutely a given 
epoch, such as that of the Reformation 
in Germany, or that of the Revolutionary 
War in America, and he will be surprised 
to find how much more complex were 
the forces at work than he had at first 
supposed, and on how much smaller a 
number of persons than he had fancied 
the principal forces did in fact directly 
operate. Or let any one — for this is 
perhaps the best, if the most difficult, 
method of getting at the roots of Ihis 
complexity — study thoroughly and dis- 
passionately the phenomena of his own 
time. Let him observe how many move- 
ments go on simultaneously, sometimes 
accelerating, sometimes retarding, one 
another, an 1 mark how, the more fully he 
understands this complex interlacing, so 
much the less confident do his predictions 
of the future become. He will then 
realise .how hard it is to find simple ex- 
planations and to deliver exact state- 
ments regarding critical epochs in the 



From the painting by Ferdinand Cormon 

From the painting by Ferdinand Cormon 



Nevertheless, the task of summarising 
and explaining is one to which the writer 
of a History of the World must address 
himself. If he has the disadvantage of 
limited space, he has the advantage of 
being able to assume the reader's know- 
ledge of what has gone before, and to 
invite the reader's attention to what will 
come after. Thus he stands in a better 
position than does the writer who deals 
with one country or one epoch only for 
making each part of history illustrate 
other parts, for showing how similar social 
tendencies, similar proclivities of human 
nature, work similarly under varying 
conditions and are followed by similar, 
though never identical, results. He is 
able to bring out the essential unity of 
history, expunging from the reader's 
mind the conventional and often mis- 
leading distinctions that are commonly 
drawn between the ancient, the mediccval, 
and the modern time. He can bring the 
contemporaneous course of events in 
different countries into a fruitful relation. 
And in the case of the present work, which 
dwells more especially on the geographical 

r... .. . side of history, he can illustrate 

The Main r u x • 

_, from each country m succes- 

of History 

sion the influence of physical 

environment on the formation 
of races and the progress of nations, the 
principles which determine the action of 
such environment being everywhere simi- 
lar, though the forms which that action 
takes are infinitely various. 

Is there, it may be asked, any central 
thread in following which the unity of 
history most plainly appears ? Is there 
any process in tracing which we can feel 
that we are floating down the main stream 
of the world's onward movement ? If 
there be such a process, its study ought 
to help us to realise the unity of history 
by connecting the development of the 
numerous branches of the human family. 

One such process has already been 
adverted to and illustrated. It is the 
giadual and constant increase in man's 
power over Nature, whereby he is emanci- 
pated more and more from the conditions 
she imposes on his life, yet is brought 
into an always closer touch with her by 
the discovery of new methods of using 
her gifts. Two other such jirocesses may 
be briefly examined. One goes on in the 
sjihere of time, and consists in the accu- 
mulation from age to age of the strength, 
the knowledge, and the culture of man- 


kind as a whole. The other goes on in 

space as well as in time, and may be 

described as the contraction of the 

world, relatively to man. 

The accumulation of physical strength 

is most apparent in the increase of the 

human race. We have no trustworthy 

data for determining the population, even 

_, ♦ °^ ^^y ^^^ civilised country, 

, ^ '^^ more than a century and a half 
Increase of , , -^ 

„ , .. ago : much less can we con- 
Population ° , ' .-u 4. { 4. 

]ecture that of any country m 

primitive or prehistoric times. It is clear, 

however, that in prehistoric times — say, 

six or seven thousand years ago, there 

were very few men on the earth's surface. 

The scarcity of food alone would be 

sufficient to prove that ; and, indeed, all 

our data go to show it. Fifty years ago 

the world's population used to be roughly 

conjectured at from seven to nine hundred 

millions, two-thirds of them in China and 

India. It is now estimated at over 

fifteen hundred millions. That of 

Europe alone must have tripled within a 

century, and can hardly be less than 

four hundred millions. That of North 

America may have scarcely exceeded 

four or five millions in the time 

of Christopher Columbus, or at the date 

of the first English settlements, though 

we have only the scantiest data for a 

guess. It may now be 130,000,000, for 

there are over a hundred millions in the 

United States alone, about fifteen in 

Mexico, and eight in Canada, besides the 

inhabitants of Central America. 

The increase has been most swift in the 
civilised countries, such as Britain, Ger- 
many, Russia, and the United States ; 
but it has gone on in India also since 
India came under British rule (famines 
notwithstanding), and in the regions 
recently colonised by Europeans, such as 
Australia, Siberia, and Argentina, the 
disappearance of aborigines being far 
more than compensated for by the prolific 
p IT l^ower of the white immi- 

c ro I ic prj-j^iitc;. Some regions, such as 

, "^f*^-" , Asia Minor and i)arts of North 

White People .[■ .11 11 

Airica, are more thmly peopled 

now than they were under the Roman 

limpire, and both China and Peru may 

have no larger jiopulalion than they had 

five, or ten. or fifteen centuries ago. But 

taking the world at large, the increase is 

enormous, and will ajiparently continue. 

Even after the vjjcant cultivable spaces 

which remain in the two Americas, 


Physic&l & 

Northern Asia, and Australasia have been 
filled, the discovery of new modes of 
enlarging the annually available stock of 
food may maintain the increase. It is 
most conspicuous among the European 
races, and is, of course, due to the greater 
production in some regions of food, and 
in others of commodities wherewith food 
can be purchased. It means 
an immense addition to the 
physical force of mankind in 
the aggregate, and to the 
possibilities of intellectual force also — a 
point to be considered later. And, of 
course, it also means an immense and 
growing preponderance of the civilised 
white nations, which are now probably 
one half of mankind, and may, in 
another century, when they have risen 
from about five hundred to, possibly, one 
thousand or fifteen hundred millions, be 
nearly two-thirds. 

As respects the strength of the average 
individual man, the inquiry is less simple. 
Palaeolithic man and neolithic man were 
apparently (though here and there may 
have been exceptions) comparatively feeble 
creatures, as are the relics of the most 
backward tribes known to us, such as the 
Veddas of Ceylon, the Bushmen, the 
Fuegians. Some savages, as, for instance, 
the Patagonians, are men of great stature, 
and some of the North American Indians 
possess amazing powers of endurance. 
The Greeks of the fifth century B.C., and 
the Teutons of the time of Julius Caesar, 
had reached a high physical development. 
Pheidippides is said to have traversed one 
hundred and fifty miles on foot in forty- 
eight hours. But if we think of single 
feats of strength, feats have been per- 
formed in our own day — such as Captain 
Webb's swimming across the Straits of 
Dover — equal to anything recorded from 
ancient or mediaeval times. To swim 
across the much narrower Hellespont was 
then deemed a surprising exploit. Nor do 
., , ., we know of any race more to 

Modern Man , j j r t, • i 

_^ ,. be commended lor physical 

Stronger than , r ^^.l 

... ^ power and vigour oi constitu- 
his Ancestors ;. ,, ,i . i i 

tion than the American back- 
woodsmen of Kentucky or Oregon to-day. 
The swords used by the knights of the 
fifteenth century have usually handles 
too small for many a modern English or 
German hand to grasp. 

Isolated feats do not prove very much, 
but there is good reason to believe that 
the average European is as strong as ever 

he was, and probably more healthy, at 
least if longevity is a test of health. 
One may fairly conclude that with better 
and more abundant food, the average of 
stature and strength has improved over 
the world at large, so that in this respect 
also the force of mankind as a whole has 
advanced. Whether this advance will 
continue is more doubtful. In modern 
industrial communities the law of the 
survival of the fittest may turn out to be 
reversed, for it is the poorer and lower 
sections of the population that marry at 
an early age, and have the largest 
families, while prudential considerations 
keep down the birth-rate among the 
upper middle-class. In Transylvania, for 
instance, the Saxons are dying out, 
because very few children are born to each 
pair, while the less educated and cultured 
Rumans increase fast. In North America, 
the Old New England stock of compara- 
tively pure British blood has begun to be 
swamped by the offspring of the recent 
immigrants, mostly Irish or French 
Canadians ; and although the sons of 
New England, who have gone West, 
continue to be prolific, it is 
probable that the phenomena of 
New England will recur in the 
Mississippi Valley, and that 
the newcomers from Europe who form the 
less cultivated strata of the population — 
Irish, Germans, Italians, Czechs, Poles, 
Slovaks, Rumans — will contribute an in- 
creasing proportion of the inhabitants. 
Some of these, and especially the Irish 
and the Germans and the Scandinavians, 
are among the best elements in the 
American population, and have produced 
men of the highest distinction. But the 
average level among them of versatile 
aptitude and of intellectual culture is 
slightly below that of the native Americans. 
Now, the poorer sections are in most 
countries, though of course not always to 
the same extent, somewhat inferior in 
physical as well as in mental quality, 
and more prone to suffer from that 
greatest hindrance to physical improve- 
ment, the abuse of alcoholic drinks. 

We come next to another form of the 
increase of human resources, the accumu- 
lation of knowledge, and of what may be 
called intellectual culture and capacity, 
for it is convenient to distinguish these 
two latter from knowledge. 

In knowledge there has been an 
advance, not merely a tolerably steady 






and constant advciuce, but one which has 
gone on with a sort of geometrical pro- 
gression, moving the faster the nearer 
we come to our own time. Whatever 
may have befallen in the 
prehistoric darkness, history 
knows of only one notable arrest 
or setback in the onward 
march — that which marks the seventh, 
eighth, and ninth centuries of the Christian 
era. Even this set-back was practically 
confined to Southern and Western Europe, 
and affected only certain departments of 




The discovery of precious metals is a great factor in progress. Seekers after 
gold are chief among the pioneers who help to carry civilisation into new lands. 


knowledge. It did not, save, perhaps, as 
regards a few artistic processes, extinguish 
that extremely important part of the 
previously accumulated resources of man- 
kind which consisted in the knowledge 
of inventions. It is in respect of inven- 
tions, especially mechanical and physical 
or chemical inventions, that the accumu- 
lation of knowledge has been most note- 
worthy and most easy to appreciate. 

A history of inventions is a history of 
the progress of mankind, of a progress to 
which every race may have contributed 
in primitive times, 
though all the later 
contributions have 
come from a few of 
the most civilised. 
Every great inven- 
tion marks one on- 
ward step, as one 
may see by enume- 
rating a few, such as 
the use of fire, cook- 
ing, metal working, 
the domestication ot 
wild animals, the 
tillage of the ground, 
the use of plough 
and mattock and 
harrow and fan, the 
discovery of plants 
or trees useful for 
food or for medicine, 
the cart, the wheel, 
the water-mill (over- 
shot, undershot, and 
turbine), the wind- 
mill, the distaff 
(followed long, long 
after by the spin- 
ning - wheel), the 
loom, dyestuffs, the 
needle, the potter's 
wheel, the hydraulic 
press, the a x e - 
handle, the spear, 
the bow, the 
shield, the war- 
chariot, the sling, 
the cross-bow, the 
boat, the paddle, 
the oar, the helm, 
the sail, the 
mariner's com- 
pass, the clock, 
picture - writing, 
the alphabet, parch- 
mcnt, paper. 


printing, photography, the shdmg keel, 
the sounding-lead, the log, the brick, 
mortar, the column, the arch, the donie, 
till we come down to explosives, the 
microscope, the cantilever, and the Ront- 

gen rays. . ,. 

The history of the successive discovery, 
commixture, and applications of the 
metals, from copper and bron/.e down 
to manganese, platinum, and arammium, 
or of the successive discovery and utiU^a- 
tion of sources of power— the natural 
sources, such as water and wind, the 
artificially procured, such as steam, gas, 
and electricity— or of the production and 
manufacture of materials available tor 
clothing, wool, hair, hnen, silk, cotton, 
would show how every step becomes 
the basis for another step, and how 
inventions in one department suggest 
or facihtate inventions m another. 
Recent discoveries in surgery and medi- 
cine, such as the use of antiseptics, 
tend to improve health and to prolong 
life; and in doing so, they increase 
the chances of further discoveries being 

made. , , , 

Who can tell what the world may have 
lost by the early death of many a man 
of genius ? One peculiar line of discovery 


of Life 

none has 

which at first seemed to have nothing to 
do with practice has proved to be of signa 
service ; the working out of mathematical 
methods of calculatio-n by means of which 
the mechanical and physical sciences 
have in recent times made a progress m 
their practical apphcation undreamt ot 
by those who laid the foundations of 
geometry and algebra many 
centuries ago. It may, indeed, 
be said that all the sciences 
need one another, and that 
iiuiie lias been without its utihties for 
practice, since even that which deals with 
the heavenly bodies has been used for the 
computation of time, was used by the 
agriculturist before he had any calendars 
to guide him, and has been of supreme 
value to the navigator. It has also been 
suggested that an observation of sun spots 
may enable the advent of specially hot 
seasons, involving droughts, to be pie- 

dicted. , , , 

Another kind of knowledge also grows 
by the joint efforts of many peoples, 
that which records the condition of men 
in the past and the present, including 
history, economics, statistics, and the 
other so-called social sciences. This kind 
also is useful for practice, and has led to 



improvements by which nearly all nations 
have profited, such as an undebased 
currency, banking and insurance, better 
systems of taxation, corporations, and joint 
stock compmnies. With this we may 
couple the invention of improved political 

The accumulation of knowledge, espe- 
ciaUy of scientific knowledge applied to 
the exploitation of the resources of 
Nature, means the accumulation of wealth 
— that is to say, of all the things which 
men need or use. The total wealth of 
the world must have at least quadrupled 
or quintupled within the last hundred 
years. Nearly all of it is in the hands or 
under the control of the civilised nations 
of European stock, among whom the 
United States stands foremost, both in 
rate of economic growth and in the 
absolute quantity of values possessed. 

Two further observations belong to this 
part of the subject. One is that this 
stock of useful knowledge, the accumula- 
tion of which is the central fact of the 
material progress as well as of the in- 
tellectual history of mankind, now belongs 
to (practically) all races and 
M.^r.^ ^* states alike. Some, as we 
shall note presently, are more 
able to use it than others, but 
all have access to it. This is a new fact. 
It is true that most races have contributed 
something to the common stock ; and 
that even among the civilised peoples, 
no one or two or three (except possibly 
the Greeks as respects ancient times) 
can claim to have contributed much more 
than the others. But in earlier ages 
there were peoples or groups of peoples 
who were for a time the sole possessors 
of inventions which gave them great 
advantages, especially for war. Superior 
weapons as well as superior drill enabled 
Alexander the Great, and afterward the 
Romans, to conquer most of the civilised 
world. Horses and firearms, with courage 
and discipline, enabled two Spanish adven- 
turers to seize two ancient American 
empires with very scanty forces, as they 
enabled a handful of Dutch Boers to over- 
come the hosts of Mosilikat/x- and Dingaan. 
So there were formerly industrial arts 
known to or practised by a few peoples 
only. But now all inventions, even those 
relating to war, are available even to 
the more backward races, if they can 
learn how to use them or can hire white 
men to do so for them. The facilities of 



communication are so great, the mean? 
of publicity so abundant, that every- 
thing becomes speedily known every- 

The other observation is that there is 

now no risk that any valuable piece of 

knowledge will be lost. Every public 

event that happens, as well as every 

fact of scientific consequence, 

is put on record, and that not 

arc now ^ ■ , , j- 

,, . , on a smgle stone or in a few 

Universal 9 . i , • i i r 

manuscripts, but in books, of 

which so many copies exist that even 

the perishable nature of the material 

will not involve the loss of the contents, 

since, if these contents are valuable, 

they will be transferred to and issued 

in other books, and so ad infinitum. 

Thus every process of manufacture is 

known to so many persons that while it 

continues to be serviceable it is sure to be 

familiar and transmitted from generation 

to generation by practice as well as by 

description. We must imagine a world 

totally different from the world we know 

in order to imagine the possibility of any 

diminution, indeed of any discontinuance 

of the increase, of this stock of knowledge 

which the world has been acquiring, and 

which is not only knowledge but potential 


When one passes from knowledge 
considered as a body of facts ascertained 
and available for use to the thing we call 
intellectual aptitude or culture — namely, 
the power of turning knowledge to account 
and of producing results in spheres other 
than material — and when we inquire 
whether mankind has made a parallel 
advance in this direction, it becomes 
necessary to distinguish three different 
kinds of intellectual capacity. 

The first may be called the power of 
using scientific methods for investigating 
phenomena, whether jihysical or social. 

The second is the jiower of speculation, 
applied to matters which have not hitherto 
been found capable of ex- 
No Decrease a^in^^tion by the methods of 

of Knowledge 
is now Likely 

science, whether observa- 
tional, experimental, or mathe- 
matical. The third is the power of 
intellectual creation, whether literary or 

The methods of scientific inquiry may 
almost be classed with the ascertained 
facts of science or with inventions, as 
being parts of the stock of accumulated 
knowledge built up by the labour of 


.many generations. They are known to 
ev^erybody who cares to study them, and 
can be learnt and appHed by everybody 
who will give due diligence. Just as 
every man can be taught to fire a gun, 
or steer a ship, or write a letter, though 
guns, helms, and letters are the result 
of discoveries made by exceptionally 
gifted men, so every graduate in science 
of a university can use the methods of 
induction, can observe and experiment 
with a correctness which a few centuries 
ago even the most vigorous minds could 
scarcely have reached. 

Because the methods have been so fully 
explained and illustrated as to have grown 
familiar, a vast host of investigators, 
very few of whom possess scientific 
genius, are at work to-day extending our 
scientific knowledge. So the methods of 
historical criticism — so the methods of 
using statistics — are to-day profitably 
applied by many men with no such 
original gift as would have made them 
competent critics or statisticians had not 
the paths been cut by a few great men 
and trodden since by hundreds of feet. 
_ . , All that is needed is imita- 

rigina ^-^^ — intelligent and careful 

Thinkers arc ■ •. ,• ^t xi. i ^i 

..„ „ imitation. Nevertheless, there 

still Rare ,i • i . , 

remains this sharp contrast 
between knowledge of the facts of 
applied science and knowledge of the 
methods, that whereas there is no radical 
difference between the ability of one man 
and that of another to use a mechanical 
invention, such as a steam plough or an 
electric motor-car, there is all the difference 
in the world between the power of one 
intellect and another to use a method for 
the purposes of fresh discovery. Know- 
ledge fossilised in a concrete invention 
or even in a mathematical formula is a 
sort of tool ready to every hand. But 
a method, though serviceable to every- 
body, becomes eminently fruitful only 
when wielded by the same kind of original 
genius as that which made discoveries by 
the less perfect methods of older days. 
This is apparent even in inquiries 
which seem to reside chiefly in collection 
and computation. Everybody tries now- 
adays to use statistics. Many people do 
use them profitably. But the people who 
by means of statistics can throw really 
fresh and brilliant light on a problem are 
as few as ever they were. 

When we turn to the exercise of specu- 
lative thought on subjects not amenable to 

strictly scientific — that is to say, to exact — 

methods, the gain which has come to 

mankind by the labour of past ages is of 

a different order. Metaphysics, ethics, 

and theology, to take the most obvious 

examples, are all of them the richer for 

the thoughts of ]:)hilosophers in the past. 

A number of distinctions have been drawn, 

. . , and a number of classifications 

Advantage of j u £ x- ■ 

.. , made, a number of contusions, 

Modern over r^^ i i i i i j 

/M J Tt • 1 often verbal, have been cleared 
Old Thinkers , r c ^^ ■ 

up, a number of fallacies 

detected, a number of technical terms 
invented, whereby the modern speculator 
enjoys a great advantage over his prede- 
cessor. His mind has been clarified, and 
many new aspects of the old problems 
have been presented, so that he is better 
able to see all round the old problems. 

None of the great thinkers, from Pytha- 
goras down to Hegel, has left metaphysics 
where he found it. Yet none can be said 
to have built on the foundations of his 
predecessors in the same way as the 
mathematicians and physicists and chemists 
have added to the edifice they found. 
What the philosophers have done is to 
accumulate materials for the study of 
man's faculties and modes of thinking, and 
of his ideas regarding his relations to 
the universe, while also indicating various 
methods by which the study may be pur- 
sued. Each great product of speculative 
thought is itself a part of these materials, 
and for that reason never becomes obso- 
lete, as the treatises of the old physicists 
and chemists have mostly become. Aris- 
totle, for instance, has left us books on 
natural history, on metaphysics and 
ethics, and on politics. Those on natural 
history are mere curiosities, and no modern 
biologist or zoologist needs them. Those 
on metaphysics and ethics still deserve 
the attention of the student of philosophy, 
though he may in a certain sense be said 
to have got beyond them. The treatise 
on politics still keeps its place beside 
... Montesquieu, Burke, and Toc- 
Th^ ht"^^ queville. Or, to take a thinker 

a Dead Age 

who seems further removed 

from us even than Aristotle, 
though fifteen hundred years later m date, 
St. Thomas of Aquinum discusses ques- 
tions from most of which the modern 
world has moved away, and discusses 
them by methods which few would now 
use, starting from premises which few 
would now accept. But he marks a 
remarkable stage in the history of human 


HIL c 


thought, and as a part of that history, and 
as an example of extraordinary dialectical 
ingenuity and subtlety, he remains an 
object of interest to those least in agree- 
ment with his conclusions. 

Every great thinker affects other 

thinkers, and propagates the impulse he 

has received, though perhaps in a quite 

different direction. The 

Th^T '^^ teaching of Socrates was 

A rr " /'^/N.i. the starting point for nearly 

Affects Others ,, ^, i_ . i i r 

all the subsequent schools of 

Greek philosophy. Hume became the point 

of departure for Kant, who desired to lay a 

deeper foundation for philosophy than that 

which Hume seemed to have overturned. 

All these great ones have not only enriched 

us, but are still capable of stimulating 

us. But they have not improved our 

capacity for original thinking. The 

accumulation of scientific knowledge has, 

as already observed, put all mankind 

in a better position for solving further 

physical problems and establishing a 

more complete dominion over Nature. 

The accumulation of philosophic thought 

has had no similar effect. In the former 

case each man stands, so to speak, on 

the shoulders of his predecessors. In the 

latter he stands on his own feet. The value 

of future contributions to philosophy will 

depend on the original power of the minds 

that make them, and only to a small extent 

(except by way of stimulus) on what such 

minds may have drawn from those into 

whose labours they have entered. 

When we come to the products of 

literary and artistic capacity, we find an 

even vaster accumulation of intellectual 

treasure available for enjoyment, but a 

still more marked absence of connection 

between the amount of treasures possessed 

and the power of adding fresh treasures 

to them. Since writing came into use, and, 

indeed, even in the days when memory 

alone preserved lays and tales, every age 

anfl many races have contributed to the 

_ _,. stock. There have been ebbs 

r I . 'ii^ . 1 ''ind flows both in quantity 

of Intellectual , ,-, i-i ' . ■ 

r- u and quality. Ihc centuries 

Culture 1 "^ /- 1 

between a.d. ooo and a.d. 
iioo have left us very little of high merit 
in literature, though something in archi- 
tecture ; and the l^cst of that little in 
literature did not come from the seats of 
ivoman civilisation in Italy, France, 
Spain, and the East Roman Empire. 

Some periods have seen an eclipse of 
poetry, others an eclipse of art or a 


sterility in music. Literature and the arts 
have not always flourished together, and 
musical genius in particular seems to have 
little to do with the contemporaneous 
development of other forms of intellectual 
power. The quantity of production bears 
no relation to the quality, not even an 
inverse relation ; for the pessimistic 
notion that the larger the output the 
smaller is the part which possesses brilliant 
excellence, has not been proved. Still less 
does the amount of good work produced 
in any given area depend upon the number 
of persons living in that area. Florence, 
between a.d. 1250 and a.d. 1500 gave 
birth to more men of first-rate poetical 
and artistic genius than London has pro- 
duced since 1250 ; yet Florence had in 

Aristotle (B.C. 384-322) whose influence is greater in 
modern thought than that of St. Thomas of Aquinuin^ 
who represents mediaeval thought, 1500 years later. 

those two and a half centuries a population 
of probably only from forty to sixty 
thousand. And Florence her.self has since 
A.D. 1500 given birth to .scarcely any 
distinguished poets or artists, though her 
j:)opulati()n has been larger than it was in 
the fifteenth century. 

The in the world's stock of 
intellectual wealth is one of the most 
remarkable facts in history, for it rej)resents 
a constant in the means of en- 
joyment. Such as there have 
been nearly all occurred during the 
Dark Ages ; l)ut there is now little risk 


that anything of high htcrary or musical 
value will perish, though^ of course, works 
of art, and especially buildings and carv- 
ings, suffer or vanish. 

The increase does not, however, tend 
to any strengthening of the creative 
faculty. There is a greater abundance of 
rtiodels of excellence, models of which form 
the taste, afford a stimulus to sensitive 
minds, and establish a sort of technique 
with well-known rules. The principles of 
criticism are more fully investigated. 
The power of analysis grows, and the 
appreciation both of literature and of art 
is more widely diffused. Their influence 
on the whole community becomes greater, 
but the creative imagination which is 
needed for the production of original work 

St. Thomas of Aquinnm, 1500 years later than Aristotle, 
represents mediaeval thought. But the Mediaeval World 
is more remote than the Classical in thought and science. 

becomes no more abundant and no more 
powerful. It may, indeed, be urged, though 
our data are probably insufficient for a 
final judgment, that the finer qualities of 
poetry and of pictorial and plastic art tend 
rather to decline under the more analytic 
habit of mind which belongs to the modern 
world. Simplicity, freshness, spontaneity 
come less naturally to those who have fallen 
under the pervasive influence of this habit. 
There remains one other way in which 
the incessant play of thought may be 
said to have increased or improved the 
resources of mankind. Certain principles 

or ideas belonging to the moral and social 
sphere — to the moral sphere by their 
origin, to the social sphere by their results 
— make their way to a more or less general 
acceptance, and exert a potent influence 
upon human life and action. They are 
absent in the earliest communities of 
which we know, or are present only in 

Effect of ^^^^' ^^^^ emerge, some- 
^. . , times in the form of customs 
Thought on J 11 1 1. 

w • • J gradually built up m one or 
Mankind ° -^ , ^ .■ - .1 

more peoples, sometimes in the 

utterances of one gifted mind. Sometimes 
they spread impalpably ; sometimes they 
become matter for controversy, and are 
made the battle-cries of parties. Some- 
times they end by being universally re- 
ceived, though not necessarily put into 
practice. Sometimes, on the other hand, 
they continue to be rejected in one country, 
or by one set of persons in a country, as 
vehemently as they are asserted by another. 
As instances of these principles or ideas or 
doctrines, whatever one is to call them, 
the following may be taken : The con- 
demnation of piracy, of slavery, and of 
treaty-breaking, of outrages on the bodies 
of dead enemies, of cruelty to the lower 
animals, of the slaughter of prisoners in 
cold blood, of polygamy, of torture to 
witnesses or criminals ; the recognition 
of the duty of citizens to obey the laws, 
and of the moral responsibility of rulers 
for the exercise of their power, of the right 
of each man to hold his own religious 
opinion and to worship accordingly, of 
the civil (though not necessarily of the 
pohtical) equality of all citizens ; the dis- 
approval of intoxication, the value set 
upon female chastity, the acceptance of 
the social and civil (to which some would 
add the political) equality of women. 

All these dogmas or ideas or opinions — 
some have become dogmas in all civilised 
peoples, others are rather to be described as 
opinions whose truth or worth is denied 
or only partially admitted — are the slow 
product of many generations. Most of 
-. them are due to what we may 

r^^^,^.. ^ . call the intelligence and senti- 
Contnbuted , . 1 ■ j ,1 

p ment of mankind at large, 

rather than to their advocacy 

by any prominent individual thinkers. The 

teachings of such thinkers have, of course, 

done much to advance them. Everybody 

would name Socrates and Confucius as 

among the men who have contributed to 

their progress ; some would add such 

names as those of Mohammed and 



St. Francis of Assisi. Christianity has, of 
course, made the largest contributions. 
How much is due to moral feeling, how 
much to a sense of common utility, cannot 
be exactly estimated. Economic reason- 
ings and practical experience would have 
probably in the long run destroyed 
_ slavery, but it was sentiment 

rx ^ ^^ ^ that did in fact destroy it in 

Destroyed , . .,- j Ci i. u 

by Sentiment 

the civilised States where it 

had longest survived. 

How much these doctrines, even in the 
partial and imperfect application which 
most of them have secured, have done 
for humanity may be perceived by any- 
one who will imagine what the world 
would be if they were unknown. They 
form one of the most substantial additions 
made to what may be called the intel- 
lectual and moral capital with which man 
has to work this planet and improve his 
own life upon it. And the most interesting 
and significant crises in history are those 
which have turned upon the recognition 
or application of principles of this kind. 
The Reformation of the sixteenth century, 
the French Revolution, the War of Seces- 
sion in the United States, are familiar 
modern examples. 

Putting all these forms of human 
achievement together — the extension of 
the scientific knowledge of Nature with 
consequent mastery over her, the scientific 
knowledge of social phenomena in the 
past and the present, the records of philo- 
sophic speculation, the mass of literary 
and artistic products, the establishment, 
however partial and imperfect, of regu- 
lative moral and political principles — 
it will be seen that the accumulation of this 
vast stock of intellectual wealth has been 
an even more imj)ortant factor than the 
increase of population in givmg man 
strength and dignity over against Nature, 
and in opening up to him an endless variety 
of modes of enjoying life — that is to say, of 
making it yield to him the most which its 
shortness and his own jihysical infirmities 
. . jiermit. The process by which 

\j- I..- .1. this accumulation has been 

Mighlierthan • i i • xu ^ ^ 

~ , ,. carried along is the central 

/Population , , f , . «,, 

thread of history. The main 
aim of a history of the world must be 
to show what and how each race or 
people has contributed to the general 
stock. To this aim political history, 
ecclesiastical history, economic history, 
the history of philosophy, and the history 
of science, are each of them subordinate, 


though it is only through them that 
the process can be explained. 

In these last few pages intellectual 
progress has been considered apart from 
the area in which it has gone on, and apart 
from the conditions imposed on it by the 
natural features of that area. A few words 
are, however, needed regarding its relation 
to the surface of the earth. The move- 
ment of civilisation must be considered 
from the side of space as well as from that 
of time. 

Space is a material element in the 
inquiry because it has divided the families 
of mankind from one another. Some fami- 
lies, such as the Chinese and the Peru- 
vians, have developed independently, some, 
such as the South and West European 
peoples, in connection with, or perhaps in 
dependence on, the development of other 
races or peoples. Hence that which each 
achieved was in some cases achieved for 
itself only, in other cases for its neighbours 
as well. The contributions made by dif- 
ferent races have — at any rate during the 
last four thousand years, and probably in 
earlier days also — been very unequal ; yet 
none can have failed to con- 

n rac ion ^j-j|~,y|-g something if only by 

th W Id ^^^y °^ influencing the others. 
Inequality in progress would 
seem to have become more marked in the 
later than in the earlier periods. Indeed, 
some races, such as those of Australia, 
appear during many centuries, possibly 
owing to their isolation, to have made 
no i)rogress at all. They may even have 

When we regard the evolution and 
develo{)ment of man from the side of his 
relations to space, three facts stand out — 
the contraction of the world, the overflow 
of the more advanced races, and the conse- 
quent diffusion all over the world of what 
is called civilisation. 

By the contraction of the world, I mean 
the greater swiftness, ease, and safety with 
which men can pass from one part taf it to 
another, or communicate with one another 
across great intervening spaces. This has 
the effect of making the world smaller for 
most practical purposes, while the absolute 
distance in latitude and longitude remains 
the same. The progress of discovery is 
worth tracing, for it shows how much 
larger the small earth, which was known 
to the early nations, must have seemed to 
them than the whole earth, which we know, 
seems to us. 



"The quantity ol production," says Mr. Bryce, "bears no relation to the quality. 
Still less does the amount ol good work produced in any given area depend 
upon the number of persons living in that area. Florence between A.D. 1230 and 
A.D. 1300 gave birth to more men of first-rate poetical and artistic genius than 
London has produced since 1230; yet Florence had in those two and a half 
centuries a population of probably only from forty to sixty thousand. And Florence 
herself has since A.D. 1500 given birth to scarcely any distinguished poets or 
artists, though her population has been larger than it was in the lifteenth century." 


Poets and Artists Born in 

Alberti, Leon Battista, 1404-1472, architect, painter 

Albertinelli, Mariotto, 1474-1515, painter I 

Andrea del Sarto, 1487-1531, painter 

Angelico da Fiesole, Fra Giovanni, 1387-1455, painter 

Botticelli, Alessandro, 1447-1510, painter 

Cavalcanti, Gnido, 1255-1^00, poet, philosopher j 

Cimabue, Giovanni, 12401302, painter 

Credi, Lorenzo di, 1439-1537, painter 

Dante, Alighieri, 1265 1321, poet 

Jlonatello, 1386-1466, sculptor and painter 

Ghiberti, Lorenzo, 1378-1455, sculptor 

Ghirlandajo, Domenico, 1449-1494, painter 

Gozzoli, Benozzo, 1420-1498, painter 

Leonardo da Vinci, 1452-1519, painter, sculptor 

Lippi, Fra Filippo, 1412-1469, painter 

Lippi, Filippino, 1459-1504, painter 

Lorenzo, Don, 1370-1425, painter 

Florence from 1250-1500 

Medici, Lorenzo de, 1448-1492, poet 

Orcagnia, Andrea di Clone, 1329-1368? sculptor, 

Perugino, Vannucci Pietro, 1446-1524, painter 
Pesellino, Francesco di, 1422-1457, painter 
Pesello, Giuliano, 1367-1446, painter, sculptor 
Pollajuolo, Antonio, 1429-1498, sculptor, painter 
Pollajuolo, Piero, 1443-1496, sculptor, painter 
Robbia, Andrea della, 1437-1528, sculptor 
Robbia, Luca della, 1399-1482, sculptor 
Rossi, Giovanni Battista de, 1494-1541, sculptor, 

Ruccellai, Giovanni, 1475-1525, poet 
Spinello, Aretino, 1334-1410, painter 
Ucello, Paolo, 1397-1475, painter 
Verocchio, Andrea, 1435-1488, sculptor, painter 



Poets and Artists Born in Florence since 1500 

Allori, Christofano, 1577-1621, painter 
Bronzino, Angelo, 1502-1572, painter 
Cellini, Benvenuto, 1500-1571, sculptor 
Cigoli, Luigi Cardi da, 1559-1613, painter 
Cortona, Pietro da, 1596-1669, architect, painter 
Dolci, Carlo, 1616-1686, painter 
Doni, Antonio Francesco, 1513-1574, author 
t'urini, Francesco, 1604-1646, painter 

Ligozzi, Jacobino, 1543-1627, painter 

Poccetti, Bernardino, 1542-1612, painter 

Salviati, Francesco, 1510-1563, painter 

San Giovanni, Giovanni da, 1599-1636, painter 

Santi di Tito, 1538-1603, painter 

Tacco, Pietro, 1580-1640, sculptor 

Venusti, Marcello, 1515-1579, painter 

The Only Great Poet Born in London from 1250-1500 

Chaucer, Geoffrey, 

Poets and Artists Born in 

Blake, William, 1757-1827, poet and painter 

Browning, Robert, 1812-1889, po^t 

Byron, Geo. Gordon Noel, Lord, 1788-1824, poet 

Defoe, Daniel, 1659-1731, author 

Ford, Edward Onslow, 1852-1901, sculptor 

Gilbert, Alfred, R.A., 1854 . sculptor 

Gray, Thomas, 1716-1771, poet 

Hogarth, William, 1697-1764, painter 

Hood, Thomas, 1799-1845, poet 

Hunt, William Holman, 1827-1910, painter 

Jonson, Ben, 1573-1637, poet and dramatist 

Keats, John, 1795-1821, poet 

Lamb, Charles, 1775-1834, essayist 


London since ISOO 

Linnetl, John, 1792-18S2, painter 

Lucas, John Seymour, 1849- • — , painter 

Milton, John, 1608-1674, poet 

Morland, George, 1763-1804, painter 

Pope, Alexander, 168S-1744, poet 

Richmond, Sir William Blake, 1843- — , painter 

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel, 1828-1882, poet, painter 

Ruskin, John, 1819-1900, author and art critic 

Spenser, Edmund, 1552-1599, poet 

Stothard, Thomas, 1755-1834, painter, illustrator 

Swinburne, Algernon, 1837-1909, poet 

Walker, Frederick, 1840-1875, painter 

Watts, George F., 1817-1904, painter, sculptor 





The most ancient recoi ve possess 
from Assyria, Egypt, Palesui. id from 
the Homeric poems, show how . ^y hmited 
was the range of geographical knowledge 
possessed by that small ci . sed world 

T,. c „ from which our o^yn civilisa- 
The Small . i j i i • 

World of "* "^ descende 'eakmg 

the Ancients roughly, that knowledge seems 
m the tenth century B.C. to 
have extended about one thousand miles 
in each direction from the Isthmus of Suez. 
However, the best point of departure 
for the peoples of antiquity is the era 
of Herodotus, who travelled and wrote 
B.C. 460-440. The 
limits of the world 
as he knew it were 
Cadiz and the Straits 
of Gibraltar on the 
west, the Danube and 
the Caspian on the 
north, the deserts of 
Eastern Persia on the 
east, and the Sahara 
on the south, with 
vague tales regarding 
peoples who lived 
beyond, such as In- 
dians far beyond 
Persia, and pygmies 
beyond the Sahara. 
He reports, however, 
not without hesita- 
tion, a circumnavi- 
gation of Africa by 
Phoenicians in the 
service of Pharaoh 

Discovery ad- 
vanced very slowly 
for many centuries, 
though the march 
of Alexander opened "^"^ first known map of the world 

iin nirf r,f iht^ Fact This Babylonian map is probably of the eighth century B.C. 

"I F"l •■ "Jl LUe iZ^abi;, The two circles are supposed to represent the ocean, while 

while the Roman con- *''^ River Euphrates and Babylon are shown inside them. 

, , 1 ^ J 1 The upper part of the tablet is a cuneiform inscription. 

quests brought the ^ 

Far North-West, including Britain, within 

Ihe range of civihsation ; and occasional 

voyages, such as that of Hanno along the 

coast of West Africa, that of Nearchus 

through the Arabian Sea, and that of 

Pythias to the Baltic, added something to 

knowledge. Procopius in a.d. 540 can tell 

us little more regarding the regions beyond 

Roman influence than Strabo does five 

and a half centuries earlier. The journeys 

of Marco Polo and Rubruquis throw only 

a passing light on the Far East. It is with 

the Spanish occupation of the Canary 


Isles, beginning in 1602, and with the 
Portuguese voyages of the fifteenth century, 
that the era of modern discovery opens. 
The re-discovery of America in 1492, for it 
had been already visited by the Northmen 
of Greenland and Iceland in the eleventh 
century, and the opening of the Cape route 
to India in 1497-1498, were hardly equal 
to the exploit of Magellan, whose circum- 
navigation of the globe in 1519-1520 marks 
the close of this striking period. There- 
after discovery proceeds more slowly. 
Some of the i.sles of the central and south- 
ern Pacific were not visited till the middle 
of the eighteenth 
century, and the 
north-west coast of 
America as well as 
the north-east Coast 
of Asia, remained 
little known till an 
even later date. 
Those explorations 
of the interior of 
North America, of 
the interior of Africa, 
of the interior of 
Australia, and of 
East Central Asia, 
which have com- 
pleted our know- 
ledge of the earth, 
belong to the nine- 
teenth century. The 
first crossing of the 
North American Con- 
tinent north of lati- 
tude 40° was not 
effected till a.d. 1806. 
The desire for new 
territory, for the pro- 
pagation of religion, 
and, above all, for 
the precious metals, 
were the chief 
motives which 
prompted the voyages of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. These motives 
have remained operative ; and to them 
has been added in more recent times 
the spirit of pure adventure and the 
interest in science, together 
with, in increasing mesisure, 
the effort to secure trade. But 
the extension of trade followed 
slowly in the wake of discovery. China and 
Japan remained almost closed. The policy 
of Spain sought to restrict her American 
waters to her own ships, and the commerce 

The Thirst 
for New 

The Hereford Map : about 1307 

Note Paradise at tlie top, and Jerusalem in the centre 

The Fra Mauro Map : about 1457 

Babylon is shown in the centre of the map 

The World as Known on the Eve of the Discovery of America (Drawn by Martin Behaim in 1492) 

The World as known in 150 A. D. From a map by Ptolemy, who appears to have had knowledgre o. the sources of the Nile 




they carried was scanty. Communica- 
tion remained slow and dangerous across 
the oceans till the introduction of steam 
vessels (1825-1830). 

Land transport, though it had steadily 
increased in Europe, remained costly as 
well as slow till the era of railway con- 
struction began in 1829. The application 
of steam as a motive power and of elec- 
tricity as a means of communicating 
thought has been by far the greatest factor 
in this long process of reducing the dimen- 
sions of the world, which dates back as far 
as the domestication of beasts of burden, 
and the invention, first of paddles and oars, 
and then of sails. The North American 
Continent can now be crossed in five 
days, the South American (from Valparaiso 
to Buenos Ayres) ii under two, the 
Transandine tunnel having now been 
pierced. The Continent which stretches 
from the Baltic to the North Pacific can 
now be traversed in twelve days. By 
means of the Trans-Siberian line and its 
steamship connection with the ports of 
Japan, it is now possible to go round the 
globe in less than fifty days. Indeed, the 
„ . ^ iourney has recentlv been done 

Round the • r 1 1 Vt • j-i- • 

... , , . ni forty days. Nor is this 

World m .J.J. 

40 Days ! 

acceleration of transit more 

remarkable than its practi- 
cal immunity, as compared with earher 
times, not only from the dangers for which 
Nature is answerable, but from those also 
which man formerly interposed. 

The increase of trade which has followed 
in the track first of discovery and latterly 
(with immensely larger volume) of the 
improvement of means of transport, has 
been accompanied not only by the seizure 
of transoceanic territories by the greater 
civiUsed States, but also by an outflow of 
population from those States into the 
more backward or more thinly-peopled 
parts of the earth. Sometimes, as in the 
case of North America, Siberia, and Aus- 
traUa, the emigrants extinguish or absorb 
the aboriginal population. 

Sometimes, as in the case of India, 
Africa, and some parts of South America, 
they neither extinguish nor blend with the 
previous inhabitants, but rule them and 
spread what is called civilisation among 
them — this civilisation consisting chiefly 
in a knowledge of the mechanical arts 
and of deathful weapons accompanied by 
the destruction, more or less gradual, 
of their pre-existing beliefs and usages. 
Sometimes, again, as in the case of 

China, and to some extent also of the 
Mussulman East, though political dominion 
is not established, the process of sub- 
stituting a new civilisation for the old 
one goes on despite the occasional efforts of 
the backward people to resist the process. 
The broad result is everywhere similar. 
The modern European type of civilisation 

„ is being diffused over the whole 

European- .u i- 

. . - earth, superseding, or essen- 

the World *^^^^y modifying, the older local 
types. Thus, in a still more 
important sense than even that of com- 
munications, the world is contracted and 
becomes far more one than it has ever 
been before. The European who speaks 
three or four languages can travel over 
nearly all of it, and he can find on most of 
its habitable coasts, and in many parts of 
the lately-discovered interior, the appli- 
ances which are to him necessaries of life. 
The world is, in fact, becoming an enlarged 
Europe, so far as the externals of life and 
the material side of civilisation are con- 
cerned. The dissociative forces of Nature 
have been overcome. 

Putting together the two processes, the 
process in time and the process in space, 
which we have been reviewing, it will be 
seen that the main line of the develop- 
ment of mankind may be described as the 
transmission and the expansion of cul- 
ture — that is to say, of knowledge and 
intellectual capacity. The stock of know- 
ledge available for use and enjoyment has 
been steadily increased, and what each 
people accumulated has been made avail- 
able for all. With this there has come 
assimilation, the destruction of weaker 
types of civihsation, the modification by 
constant interaction of the stronger types, 
the creation of a common type tending to 
absorb all the rest. Assimilation has been 
most complete in the sphere ruled by natu- 
ral science — that is to say, in the material 
sphere, less complete in that ruled by the 
human sciences (including the sphere of 
^ . political and social institu- 

/i,™ . tions), still less complete in the 
«i^;»„^» sphere of religious, moral, and 
social ideas, and as respects the 
products of literature and art. Or, in other 
words, where certainty of knowledge is 
attainable and utihty in practice is incon- 
testable, the process of assimilation has 
moved fastest and furthest. 

The process has been a long one, for its 
beginnings reach back beyond our his- 
torical knowledge. So far as it lies within 




her second great 

first was in pro- 

n the most an- 

tu the sixth and 

ristian era. 

"h itself had 

' , :.. well as from 

Ue peoples of 

the range of history, it falls into two periods, 
the earlier of which supplies an instruc- 
tive illustration of the later one which we 
know better. The effort which Nature — 
that is to say, the natural tendencies of 
man as a social be. 'as been making 
towards the unification of 
.1^* ^i*^^-. , mankind d'"-;ng the last few 

the Unity of , ■ 

^ ... centuries, is 

Mankind „ , .L, 

effort. The 
gress from the time v\ 
cient records begin dc 
seventh centuries of tl; 
Greek civilisation, 
drawn much from Eg • 
Assyria, Phoenicia, an 
Asia Minor, per- 
meated the minus 
and institutions (ex- 
cept the legal in- 
stitutions), of the 
Mediterranean and 
West European 
countries, and was 
propagated by the 
governing energy of 
the Romans. In its 
Romanised form it 
transformed or ab- 
sorbed and super- 
seded the less ad- 
vanced civilisations 
of all those countries, 
creating one new 
type for the whole 
Roman world. With 
some local diversities, 
that type prevailed 
from the Northum- 
brian Wall of 
Hadrian to the Cau- 

independent States which were springing 
up. The authority of Papal Rome helped to 
carry this sense of unity among civilised 
men through a period of ignorance, con- 
fusion, and semi-barbarism which might 
otherwise have extinguished it. Neverthe- 
less, we may say, broadly speaking, that 
the first effort towards the establishment 
of a common type of civilisation was, if not 
closed, yet arrested by the dissolution of 
the Roman Empire in the West. Close 
thereupon came the rise of Islam, tearing 
away the Eastern provinces, and creating 
a riv^al type of civilisation — though a type 
largely influenced by the Greco-Roman — 
which held its ground for some centuries, 
and has only recently 
shown that it is 
destined to vanish. 

The beginnings of 
the second effort 
toward the unifica- 
tion of civilised man- 
kind may be observed 
as far back as the 
eleventh and twelfth 
centuries. Its effec- 
tive and decisive 
action may, however, 
be assigned to the 
fifteenth, when the 
spread of literary and 
philosophic culture, 
and the swift exten- 
sion of maritime 
discovery, ushered in 
the modern phase 
wherein we have 
marked its irresistible 
advance. This phase 
differs from the earlier 

casus and the deserts the first traveller round the globe one both in its range 

of Arabia The still ^^^ great exploit of Ferdinand Magellan, who circum- f„_ :^ prnhrarpc tViP 

Ol /\iauicl. iUL SllU navigated the globe m 1519-1520, ranks among the events lOr It CmOraceS ine 

independent races on of world importance, and was the culminating achievement wholc earth and nOt 

the northern frontier °f the greatest period of discovery in the worlds history. ^^^^^^ ^^^ Mcditcr- 

of the Empire received a tincture of it, 
and would doubtless have been more 
deeply imbued had the Roman Empire 
stood longer. 

Christianity, becoming dominant at a 
time when the Empire was already totter- 
ing, gave a new sense of unity to all whom 
the Greco-Roman type had formed, ex- 
tended the influence of that type still 
further, and enabled much that belonged 
to it (especially its religious, its legal, and 
its literary elements) to survive the 
political dominion of the Emperors and 
to perpetuate itself among practically 


ranean lands — and in its basis, for it rests 
not so much upon conquest and religion 
as upon scientific knowledge, formative 
ideas, and commerce. Yet even here a 
parallelism may be noted between the 
ancient and the modern phase. 
Knowledge and ideas had 
brought about a marked 
assimilation of various parts 
of the ancient world to each other be- 
fore Roman conquest completed the 
work, and what conquest did was done 
chiefly among the ruder races. So now, 
while it is knowledge and ideas that have 





worked for the creation of a common type 
among the peoples of European stock, 
conquest has been a potent means of 
spreading this type in the outlying coun- 
tries and among the more backward 
races whose territories the European 
nations have seized. 

The diffusion of a f^w forms of speech 

has played a great part in both 

*ii^"f*^^ phases. Greek was spoken over 

a ni ymg ^j^^ eastern half of the Roman 

Influence u • .i_ j 

world m the second century 
A.D., though not to the extinction of such 
tongues as Syriac and Egyptian. Latin 
was similarly sp~>oken over the western half, 
though not to the extinction of the tongues 
we now call Basque and Breton and Welsh ; 
and Latin continued to be the language of 

European languages which retain a world 
importance. English, German, and Spanish 
are pre-eminently the three leading com- 
mercial languages. They gain ground on 
the rest, and it is EngUsh that gains ground 
most swiftly. The German merchant is no 
doubt even more ubiquitous (if the expres- 
sion be permitted) than is the Enghsh ; 
but the German more frequently speaks 
English than the Englishman or American 
speaks German. 

It has already been observed that 
assimilation has advanced least in the 
sphere of institutions, ideas, and Uterature. 
The question might, indeed, be raised 
whether the types of thought, of national 
character, and of literary activity repre- 
sented by the five or six leading nations are 

European civilisation is being diffused all over the earth, superseding or essentially modifying the older 
local types. The solid black portions of this map represent territory under Anglo-Saxon control ; the 
shaded parts are under other European control, and the dotted parts under Asiatic and African control. 

religion, of law, of philosophy, and of 
serious prose literature in general till the 
sixteenth century. So now, several of the 
leading European tongues are spoken far 
beyond the limits of their birthplace, and 
their wide range has become a powerful 
influence in diffusing European culture. 
German, Enghsh, Russian, Spanish, and 
French are available for the purposes of 
commerce, and for those who read books 
over nineteen-twentieths of the earth's 
surface. The languages of the smaller 
non-European peoples are disappearing in 
those places where they have to compete 
with these greater European tongues, 
except in so far as they are a medium of 
domestic intercourse. Arabic, Chinese, and 
in less degree Persian are the only non- 

not rather tending to become more accen- 
tuated. The self-consciousness of each 
nation, taking the form of pride or vanity, 
leads it to exalt its own type and to dwell 
with satisfaction on whatever differenti- 
ates it from other types. Nevertheless there 
are influences at work in the domain of 
practice as well as of thought, which, in 
, . . . creating a common body of 

4i,"'vw- opinion and a sense of com- 
the Nations ' • ^ , , , 

Toecther ^^^ interest among large classes 
belonging to these leading na- 
tions, tend to link the nations themselves 
together. Religious sympathy, or a com- 
mon attachment to certain doctrines, such 
as, for instance, those of Collectivism, works 
in this direction among the masses, as the 
love of science or of art does among 



sections of the more educated class. As 
regards the peoples not of European 
stock, who are, broadly speaking, the 
more backward, it is not yet possible to 
say what will be the . influence of the 
European type of culture upon their 
intellectual development. 

The material side of their civilisation 
will after a time conform to the 
European type, though, perhaps, to 
forms that are not the most pro- 
gressive ; and even such faiths as 
Buddhism and Islam may lose their hold 
on those who come most into contact 
with Europeans. But whether these 
peoples will produce any new types of 
thought or art under the stimulus of 
Europe, as the Teutons and Slavs did 

after they had been for centuries in con- 
tact with the relics of Greco-Roman 
culture, or whether they will be overborne 
by and merely imitate and reproduce 
what Europeans teach them — this is a 
question for conjecture only, since the 
data for predictions are wanting. 

It is a question of special interest 
as regards the Japanese, the one non- 
European race which, having an Old 
civilisation of its own, highly developed 
on the artistic side, has shown an amazing 
aptitude for appropriating European in- 
stitutions and ideas. Already a Japanese 
physiologist has taken high rank among 
men of science by being one of the 
discoverers of the bacillus of the 
Oriental plague. 


ONE of the questions which both the 
writers and the readers of a History of 
the World must frequently ask themselves 
is whether the course of history establishes 
a general law of progress. Some thinkers 
have gone so far as to say that this must 
be the moral of history regarded as a 
whole, and a few have even suggested 
that without the recognition of such a 
principle and of a sort of general guidance 
of human affairs towards this goal, history 
would be unintelligible, and the doings of 
mankind would seem little better than 
the sport of chance. 

Whatever may be thought of these 
propositions as matters of theory, the 
doctrine of a general and steady law 
of progress is one to which no historian 
ought to commit himself. His business 
is to set forth and explain the facts 
exactly as they are ; and if he writes 
in the light of a theory he is pretty 
certain to be unconsciously seduced into 
giving undue prominence to those facts 
which make for it. Moreover, the question 
is in itself a far more complex one than 
the simple word " progress " at first 
sight conveys. What is the test of 
progress ? In what form of human ad- 
\iru • «k vance is it to be deemed to 
What IS the ^o^j-i^t ? Which of these forms 

Pro*°ess? ^^ "^ ^^^ highest value? 
rogress -p^erc Can be no doubt of the 
advance made by man in certain direc- 
tions. There may be great doubt as to 
his advance in other directions. There 
may possibly be no advance but even 
retrogre^ssion, or at least signs of an 


approaching retrogression, in some few 
directions. The view to be taken of the 
relative importance of these lines of 
movement is a matter not so much for 
the historian as for the philosopher, and 
Wh M ^^^ discussion would carry us 
.... *'^' away into fields of thought not 
Ah" d fitted for a book like the pre- 
sent. Although, therefore, it 
is true that one chief interest of history 
resides in its capacity for throwing light 
on this question, all that need here be 
said may be expressed as follows : 

There has been a marvellous advance in 
man's knowledge of (he laws of Nature and 
of his consequent mastery over Nature. 

There has been therewith a great increase 
in population, and, on the whole, in the physical 
vigour of the average individual man. 

There has been, as a further consequence, 
an immense increase in the material comfort 
and well-being ol the bulk of mankind, so 
that to most men necessaries have become 
easier ol attainment, and many things which 
were once luxuries have become necessaries. 

Against this is to be set the fact that 
some of the natural resources of the 
world arc being rapidly exhausted. This 
would at one time have excited alarm ; 
but scientific discoveries have so greatly 
extended man's capacity to utilise other 
sources of natural energy, that people are 
disposed to assume that the loss of the 
resources aforesaid will be compensated 
by further discoveries. 

As to progress other than material — that 
is to say, progress in intellectual 


capacity, in taste, in the power of 
enjoyment, in virtue, and generally in 
what is called happiness — every man's 
view must depend on the ideal which he 
sets before himself of what constitutes 
hai)piness, and of the relative importance 
to happiness of the ethical and the non- 
ethical elements which enter into the con- 
. ception. Until there is more 
The Gam agreement than now exists or 
*/* J has ever existed on these points, 

t e OSS ti^gj-g is no use in trying to 
form conclusions regarding the progress 
man has made. Moreover, it is admitted 
that nearly every gain man makes is 
accompanied by some corresponding loss 
— perhaps a slight loss, yet a loss. When 
we attempt to estimate the comparative 
importance of these gains and losses, 
questions of great difficulty, both ethical 
and non-ethical, emerge ; and in many 
cases our experience is not yet sufficient 
to determine the quantum of loss. There 
is room both for the optimist and for the 
pessimist, and in arguing such questions 
nearly everybody becomes an optimist or 
a pessimist. The historian has no 
business to be either. 

There is another temptation besides 
that of dehvering his opinion on these 
high matters, of which the historian does 
well to be aware — I mean the temptation 
to prophesy. The study of history as a 
whole, more inevitably than that of the 
history of any particular country or 
people, suggests forecasts of the future, 
because the broader the field which we 
survey the more do we learn to appreciate 
the great and wide-working forces that 
are guiding mankind, and the more 
therefore are we led to speculate on the 
results which these forces, some of them 
likely to be permanent, will tend to bring 

This temptation can seldom have been 

stronger than it is now, when we see all 

mankind brought into closer relations 

than ever before, and more 

° *'"'* obviously dominated by forces 

as cry o ^^.j^j^j^ 3^j-g essentially the same, 
though varying in their form. 
Yet it will appear, when the problem is 
closely examined, that the very novelty 
of the present situation of the world — the 
fact that our mastery of Nature has been 
so rapidly extended within the last century, 
and that the phenomena of the sub- 
jugation of the earth by Europeans and 
of the ubiquitious contact of the advanced 

and the backward races are so unexampled 
in respect of the area they cover — that all 
predictions must be uttered with the 
greatest caution, and due allowance made 
for elements which may disturb even the 
most careful calculations. It may, indeed, 
be doubted whether any predictions of a 
definitely positive kind — predictions that 
such and such things will happen — can 
be safely made, save the obvious ones 
which are based on the assumption that 
existing natural conditions remain for 
some time operative. 

Taking this assumption to be a legiti- 
mate one, it may be predicted that popu- 
lation will continue to increase, at least 
till the now waste but habitable parts of 
the earth have been turned to account ; 
that races, except where there is a marked 
colour hue, will continue to become inter- 
mingled ; that the small and weak races, 
and especially the lower set of savages, 
will be absorbed or die out ; that fewer 
and fewer languages will be spoken ; that 
communications will become even swifter, 

_ easier, and cheaper than they 

A Ghmpsc ^^g ^^ present : and that com- 
!c*°r * merce and wealth will continue 

the Future ^^ ^^^^^^ subject, perhaps, 

to occasional checks from political 

There are also some negative predictions 
on which one may venture, and with a 
little more confidence. No new race can 
appear, except possibly from a fusion of 
two or more existing races, or from the 
differentiation of a branch of an existing 
race under new conditions, as the 
Americans have been to some slight 
extent differentiated from the Enghsh, and 
the Brazilians from the Portuguese (there 
having been in the latter case a certain 
admixture of negro blood), and as the 
Siberians of the future may be a different 
sort of Russians. Neither is any new 
language hkely to appear, except mere 
trade jargons (hke Chinook or pigeon 
English), because the existing languages 
of the great peoples are firmly established, 
and the process of change within each 
of these languages has, owing to the 
abundance of printed matter, become now 
extremely slow. Conditions can hardly be 
imagined under which such a phenomenon 
as the development of the Romance 
languages out of Latin, or of Danish and 
Swedish out of the common Northern 
tongue of the eleventh century, could 



any forecast. Conditions 
might conceivably come 
into action which would 
split up some or most of 
the present great States, 
and bring the world 
back to an age of small 
political communities. 

So, too, though the 
lower forms of paganism 
are fast vanishing, and 
the four or five great 
religions arc extending 

It may seem natural 
to add the further predic- 
tion that the great States 
and the great religions 
will continue to grow 
and to absorb the small 
ones. But wlion we 
touch to])ics into wlii( li 
human opinion or emo- 
tion enters, we touch a 
new kind of matter, 
where the influences now 
at work may be too 
much affected l)y new 
influences to permit of 


From the statuary groups on the Albert Memorial. 


their sway, it is con- 
ceivable that new pro- 
phets may arise, found- 
ing new faiths, or that 
the existing rehgions 
may be spht up into 
new sects widely di- 
verse from one another. 
Even the supremacy 
of the European races, 
well assured as it now 
appears, may be reduced 
by a variety of causes. 

From the statuary groups on the Albert Memorial. 

physiological or moral, 
when some centuries 
have passed. 

Whoever examines the 
predictions made by the 
most observant and 
l)rofound thinkers of the 
past will see reason to 
distrust almost all the 
predictions, especially 
those of a positive order, 
which shape them- 
selves in our minds 

James Bryce 




By Arthur D 



Innes, M.A. 

WITHIN the memory of living men, 
the most advanced ])eoples of the 
world believed that the world itself had 
been created not 6,000 years ago. We 
have all learned now that the globe itself, 
that life — and long later mankind — came 
into being thousands, hundreds of thou- 
sands — it may be millions — of years ago. 

How long precisely, none can tell. 
What we do know with certainty is that 
before the continents finally emerged in 
their present shape there was an Ice Age, 
immediately })receded by what is called 
the Drift Age, and that as early as the 
Drift Age man, the maker of implements, 
lived, and did battle with the cave bear and 
other monsters. Where man first came 
into being, how he spread over the globe, 
how the great races acquired their charac- 
teristics, we can only conjecture. 

Wherever and whenever man appeared, 
the earliest traces show him to have been 
a sociable animal living in communities. 
The earliest unmistakable traces 
of civilisation, order, polity. 

The Birth 
of the 

are found in the basins of the 
Nile and the Euphrates, dating 
probably as far back as ten thousand 
years ago. The people who built the 
Pyramids had already advanced far in the 
knowledge which gives man the mastery 
over Nature ; and the Pyramids were built 
certainly 3,000, and probably nearer 5,000, 
years before the Christian era. And while 
those pristine civilisations rose and fell in 
Egypt, civilisations were rising and pass- 
ing away in Mesopotamia also. 

In the fourth millennium there appears 
first a peoi)le with new characteristics — 
the Semitic race, gradually dominating 
the Mesopotamian civilisation, spreading 
westward in successive waves to the 
Mediterranean, surging into Egypt and 
out again ; creating the Emjiires of 
Babylonia and of Assyria, and the Phoeni- 
cian and Canaanite nations. And while the 
Semite Empires rose and fell, and Egypt 
held upon her ancient way, still mightier 
nations were coming to birth. The great 
Aryan or Indo-Eurojjean migrations began, 


the Celt, the Latin, and the Hellene rolling 
westward by the Euxine and the Northern 
Mediterranean ; while another group passed 
southward, to the East of the Semites, 
spreading the Aryan conquest over the 
greater part of the Indian peninsula. 

Of the doings of the great Semitic Powers 
in the second millcnium B.C. we have some 
knowledge from the Hebrew records ; and 
^ r.- • yt'iii" hy year fresh light is 

Conflicts ii it 1 u 

- . . ^ thrown on those records by 
of Ancient ■ .• 1 ^ 11 . 1 

p mscriptions and tablets newly 

discovered or newly decij)hered, 
Egyptian, Assyrian, or Hittite. Of the 
Hittite or early Syrian dominion we know 
little enough, except that it successfully 
defied the invading armies of Assyrian 
kings and Egyptian Pharaohs. Before 
1500 the Semite conquerors of Egypt, the 
Hyksos, were driven out — an event asso- 
ciated by some authorities with the 
Hebrew Exodus. From this time the ebb 
and flow of Egyptian and Assyrian dynas- 
ties are more definitely recorded. In the 
closing centuries the prosperity of Tyre 
and Sidon reached its height, and the 
theocratic Hebrew nationality formed a 
kingdom. We become aware of Hellenic 
or kindred Powers in Asia Minor, at Troy, 
in Crete, at Mycenae ; of Acha^ans and 
Danaans in Egypt. 

Before another five hundred years had 

passed, throughout the coasts and islands of 

the ^gean Sea, iEolians, lonians, 

The First j^Qj-j^ns established themselves 

' ormation ^^ cities, and every city rapidly 

01 otates • , i • -11 I 

grew mto a highly-organised 

State. Over the Mediterranean, to Southern 
Italy, to Sicily, to Marseilles, the new Greek 
civilisation carried its commerce and its 
culture. In Italy the Latin races were in 
like manner forming themselves into city- 
states, develojiing conceptions of Govern- 
ment undreamed of by Oriental minds. 
Rome was founded, and acquired a leader- 
ship. Throughout the Hellenic and the 
Latin world the idea of civic freedom took 
root ; the primitive monarchical systems 
disappeared, and, through revolutions and 
temporary despotisms, sometimes peaceful 

TIAE-TABLE OF THE WORLD : B.C. 8000 to 500 

This Chronology, prepared as a companion to the Summary of the World's History, sets forth 
in tabular form for ready reference the events dealt with in the narrative on opposite pages 













Early civilisation of the Nile Basin. Egypt before the Pyramids. 

Asiatic invasion of Egypt. 

Pro-Semitic civilisations of the Euphrates Basin. Susa founded. 

Invasion of Es;ypt by dyna,stic race, 5800. Mena rules all Egvpt. First dynasty, 5500. 
Babylonian kingdoms of Sumer and Akkad. Ea founds Eridu and civilises Babylonia 

Ej);ypt : The Pyramid builders. Great Pyramid built by Khufu (Cheops), 4700. 
Earliest monuments to kings in Babylonia, 4700. 

Egypt invaded from the north. First, or Babylonian, Semitic wave in the Euphrates 
Valley. Rise of Babylonian kingdoms. Sargon and Naram-Sin, Semitic rulers of 
Akkad. Midtlle kingdom of Egpyt. Revival of art. Twelfth dynasty (3400). 

Gudea's rule in Babylon. Development of commerce, 3300. 

Egypt invaded by the Hyksos, nomadic Semitic conquerors, the "Shepherd Kings." 

Fifteenth Dynasty (2500). Second Hyksos movement (2250). 
Conquest of Babylon by Elamites. Rule of Hammurabi ( Amraphel of Gen. xiv.), 2129. 
Second, or Canaanite, Semitic wave, extending to the Mediterranean. 
First Aryan migration westward over Europe, and southward ; conquest of Hindostan. 

The Hyksos dominate Egypt. New kingdom. Eighteenth dynasty, 1580. 

Expulsion of the Hyksos, about 1560. 

Rise of Assyria. 

The Kassite dynasty in Babjdon, about 1750-1130. 

Hittite Empire in Syria. 

Latin and Hellenic entry into Europe and Asia Minor. 

Third (Aramaean) Semitic wave, dominating W. Asia, but absorbed in existing states. 

Far East: Beginning of definite Chinese history', with the Chau dynasty. 

E.GYPT : Nineteenth dynasty, Sethos and the Ramesides ; struggle with Hittite Empire. 

Western Asia: Burnaburiash. 1380. Pashe dynasty in Babylon, 1130-1000. 

Period of Phoenician prosperity. 

Rise of the United Kingdom of the Hebrews. 

Crete, Troy, and INIycenae. The Ionic and Doric migrations. 

Western Asia : The Hebrew kingdom divided into Judah and Israel or Samaria. 

Rise of Arama?an kingdom of Syria. Chaldean domination in Babylon. 

Assyrian Middle Empire. 
Egypt: Twenty-second dynasty ("Shishak" king of Egypt). 

Europe : Early monarchical governments replaced usually by aristocracies. 

Probable period of the Homeric poems. 
Western Asia: Successful resistance of S5n'ia to Assyria. 

Appearance of the (Aryan) Medes in the East. 
Africa : Founding of Carthage. 

Egypt : Domination of Ethiopians or Cushites. 

Western Asia : Assyrian New Empire ; conquest of Syria, Samaria, and Babylon. 

Lydian and Phrygian kingdoms in Asia Minor. 
Europe : Development of city states in Greece and Italy. Lycurgan legislation of 

Sparta, about 800. 

Rome founded as a monarchy, 753. 

S]iread of Greek colonies along Mediterranean coasts and islands. 

Western Asia : Extension of Lydian kingdom in Asia Minor. 687-546. 

Irruption of Cimmerians from the North. 

Repulse of Sennacherib before Jerusalem. Decline of Assyria. 
Egypt : Invasion by Esarhaddon. Expulsion of Cushites. The Saitic dynasty. 
Europe : Between 700 and 500, sporadic displacement of aristocracies by " tyrannies," 
followed either by an oligarchical restoration or by democracies. 

Rome becomes head of the League of Latin cities. 
Far East : Japanese history begins. 

western Asia: Narhonaul, Kmg ot Babylon (556-53S). Overthrow of Assyrian 

by New Baby'onian Empire ; the Babylonish captivity. 
Rise of Media, of which Cyrus, the Persian, makes himself master. 
Persian Em])ire: Overthrow of Lydia, New Babylonia, and Egypt. Aahmes 

(.Xniasis), 570-526. 
Far East : Confucius and Lao-Tse in China, and Buddha in India. 
Europe: Greek states consolitlated. Athens: Solon 594. Pisistratidae expelled, 510. 
Rome: Expulsion of the kings, about 510. The Commonwealth. Administration 

aristocratic : Army and legislative assembly on basis of land-ownership. 

Etruscan — pre-Latin — domination in Italy. 



and sometimes violent, the States took on 
for the most part a Repubhcan form. 

In the East an Aryan Power overthrew 
the last of the Assyrian-Babylonian dy- 
nasties ; but these Persian conquerors 
became assimilated to the conquered 
nations. Fundamentally their empire 
was of the same type as its predecessors. 
The Persian sway, however, extended not 
only into Egypt but over the partly 
Hellenised Asia Minor ; and the Ionic 
revolt, in the first year of the fifth century 
B.C. brought the spirit of the East and 
the spirit of the West into fierce collision. 
The great king hurled his hosts against 
defiant Hellas ; at Marathon and at 
Salamis, Athens shattered his army and 
his fleets. Thenceforth, for a thousand 
years, the West was the aggressor. 

But the rolling back of the " barbarian " 

tide was not the only glory that fell to 

Athens ; in that same century the little 

state bore sons whose names 

t?* *k '^t'^"*^ ^^ the front rank of the 
, "^f , immortals for all time : ^Eschy- 

immortals , 11-^11 t->i ■ t 

lus and Sophocles, Phidias, 
Pericles, Socrates, and Plato ; in the next 
half century, Demosthenes ; with others 
almost if not quite, on the same plane. The 
character of Athens, idealised, no doubt, 
is epitomised by Thucydides in the 
speech of Pericles. She was the sum of all 
that was best and nolilcst in Hellenism — 
its love of freedom, of beauty, of energy, 
of harmony, and its public spirit. Politi- 
cally, the story of the period which 
followed Salamis is mainly one of the 
rivalry between Athens and Sparta ; 
until the rise of Macedon, when King 
Philip made himself master of all Hellas. 
Then, with the beginning of the last 
quarter of the fourth century, Alexander 
the Great blazed upon the world, toppled 
_, the emjiires of Western Asia 

^ . Ixfnre him, conquered Egypt, 

^rAi-,,-^—''^"'^' swo])t over the great moun- 

tain-barriers into India, where 
Buddhism had already begun to displace 
the ancient Brahmanism of the first Aryans. 
The Greek influences did not long linger 
in the far East after the great conqueror's 
death. His empire broke up. Asia 
west of the Euj)hrates remained, indeed, 
under the dominion mainly of one Grecian 
dynasty, the Seleucid.-e ; Egypt under that 
of another, the Ptolemies. Yet Alexan- 
der's attempts to blend East and West 
failed. Orientalism aliode, unconquercd, 
ineradicable ; Hellenism prevailed almost 

after the fashion of British domination in. 
India to-day, in the land, but not of it. 

Meanwhile, the struggle between Aryans 
and non-Aryans had been running a 
partly separate course in the West, The 
Phoenicians of Carthage and the pre- 
Aryan Etruscans, the dominant power in 
Italy, made a joint assault on the Greeks 
of Sicily and the Latins of the mainland 
at the beginning of the fifth century. 
They were beaten back, but for a century 
the struggle continued between Rome and 
Veii. The great Celtic incursion of the 
Gauls threatened destruction to Rome, 
but completed the destruction of Etruria. 
In the fourth century and the first half of 
the third century B.C. Rome was chiefly 
engaged in the double task of achieving 
supremac}^ passing into actual dominion 
among the Latin states, and of establishing 
the great Senatorial oligarchy, against 
whose stubborn resolution the Epirote 
Pyrrhus hurled himself in vain. 

Just sixty years after Alexander's 
death began the sixty years' struggle 
between Rome and Carthage, in the latter 
years of which the genius of Hannibal was 
pitted against the grim persistence of the 
Roman oligarchy. Carthage fell ; Rome 
triumphed, and with her triumph entered 
on her career of extended conquest. 

The organisation which had ruled the 
city-state itself not ill, and raised it to an 
immense pre-eminence, sufficed also to 
maintain its powers of conquest, 
but not its political virtue, 
Rome's armies subdued the di- 
vided and disorganised realms 
which more or less recognised the over- 
lordship of Macedon ; they made the 
Ptolemies and the Seleucids acknowledge 
their supremacy ; they shattered the new 
barbarian hordes, which began to pour 
across the Alpine passes, and the African 
tribes of Numidia. But the lofty public 
spirit was gone which had made Rome 
so great when she was battling for life. 
Reformers arose, only to prove that 
there was no power in the constitution 
strong enough to enforce reform. Vic- 
torious generals with their legions behind 
them began to dictate legislation ; Marius 
and Sulla, democrats or reactionaries, 
signalised their political successes by 
slaughtering hecatombs of their opponents. 
At last, statesmanship and generalship 
found their supreme incarnation in one 
person, Julius Ca\sar. For many years 
one of the two foremost men in the 


Triumph of 


Collision of East and West. The Glory of Greece. Alexander and His Conquests. The 
Rise of Rome. Overthrow of Carthage and the Establishment of the Roman Empire 




The East and Africa 

Greece: Revolt of Ionian (iieeks from Persia, 

Liberation from Persia of Greek States in Asia 


Revolt of Egypt from Persia : re-conquest. 

Egypt again independent of Persia. 

Revival of Persian energy under Artaxerxes 


Greece : Repulse of Persia at Marathon (490), 
Salamis (480) and Plataea (479) and of 
Carthage by Syracuse at Himera (4S0). 

Rome: Increase of political power of Plebeians. 
Tribunes. First Roman Legal Code (the XII. 

Greece : Age of Pericles, the great Athenian 
dramatists, and Phidias. 
Struggle for supremacy between Athens and 
Rome : Decadence of Etruscan power. 

Progress of Plebeians in obtaining adminis- 
trative power. 

Greece: Socrates and Plato. 

Spartan and Theban supremacies. 
Rome: Invasion by the (iauls. 

The land question: the Licinian Laws. 

Establishment of new •' Senatorial " oligarchy. 

Extension of Roman military settlements or 

Overthrow of Persia by Alexander ; India 

Partition of Alexander's Empire. The Ptolemies 

in Egypt, and the Seleucidas in Asia. 
Friendly relations between Seleucus and 

Chandragupta of Hindostan. 

Greece: Philip of Macedon. Demosthenes 
at Athens. Aristotle. 
Conquests of Alexander the Great, 334-322. 
Rome : Second Roman treaty with Carthage. 
Dissolution of Latin League. Supremacy of 
Rome in Italy. Samnite wars. 

Contests between Syria (Seleucida;) and Egypt 
(the Ptolemaic dynasty). 

Asoka, kingof Maghada (Hindostan), Kuddhist. 
Extension of the Seleucid dominion under 

Antiochus the Great. 
Rise of the Parthian dominion of the Arsacida;. 
Fall of Carthage, 202. 

Rome : Legislative power of Plebeian Comitia 
Tributa established. 

Pyrrhus in Italy and Sicily. 

Treaty between Rome and Egypt. 

Senatorial supremacy at Rome. 

First Punic War (264-241). 
Greece : Rise of the Achaean League. 

Carthaginian power established in Spain. 
Rome: Second Punic War, 218-201. Hannibal in 

Italy, 21S-203. Scipio in Spain, 2ii-2of). 

Zama, 202. 
Extension of Roman dominion over Spain and 

North Africa. 

Wars between Parthia and the Seleucida-. 

Maccabean revolt of Juda-a. 

Antiochus Ejiiphanes conquers Egyjit, but 

Egypt and Syria become Roman protectorates. 

Organisation of provinces subject to the Imperial 

History of Europe merges in that of Rome. 
Collision of Rome with (i) Macedon; (2) the 

Syrian kingdom of the Seleucida;. 
Macedon becomes a Roman province. 
Rome assumes protectorate of Egypt and Syria. 

Nabatxan .State in Arabia. 

A Tartar kingdom established in east of Parthia. 

Jugurthan War in Africa. 

Third Punic War, and destruction of Carthage, 

Greek States absorbed into province of Mace- 

Development of political power of (i) dema- 
gogues; (2) soldiers. 

The Gracchi, 133-121. 

Conquest of .Soutli Gaul: defeat of Teutones 
and Cimbri by Marius. 

Mithradatic wars, 88-63. 

The East, to the Euphrates, brought under 

Roman dominion. 
Jud;ea: fall of the Maccabees. 

Social war. Marius and Sulla. The Proscriir 
The Sullan Constitution, 81. [tions. 

Pompey. Rise of Julius Ca?sar. 
The East brought under Roman dominion. 
Cassar conquers Gaul ; lands in Britain. 

Scythian or Tartar incursion into India, and 
admixture with Punjab races. 

Egypt becomes a Roman province, 30. 

Overthrow of Pompey : Caesar virtual emperor. 

Murder of Caesar, 44. 

Rivalry of Antony and Octavian, 43-30. 

The Principate, or Empire, established under 
Augustus (Octavian) in virtue of the Ini- 
periuni I^rcconsulare (27) and Tribunicia 
Potestas (23). The PZmpire organised. 

Cicero, Virgil, Livy, Horace. 



Republic, he finally crushed his rival 
Pompeius and became acknowledged head 
of the state. Before he could complete 
the work of reconstruction, Casar fell 
beneath the daggers of Republican enthu- 
siasts ; but ere many years had passed 
his adopted son Octavian triumphed over 
all rivals, and established the Principate 
or Empire, the absolute dominion of one 
ruler over the whole Roman world — 
although that dominion was still main- 
tained under the Republican forms. 

A tremendous event in itself, the reign 
of Augustus also witnessed one which has 
had a great influence on the history of the 
world — the birth of Christ. His ministry, 
Th B' fh *° which perhaps the term 
- pvent should be applied, was 

Christ during the reign of the 

second Emperor, Tiberius. The 
new laith born on the soil of Judaea was 
to modify profoundly all the ideals, social 
and political as well as theological and 
personal, of the entire Western world ; 
but for many years its adherents remained 
nothing more than a persecuted yet 
steadily growing sect ; suspected and 
hated as anarchists rather than as mis- 
believers, in a world where the rankest 
and wildest superstitions lived side by 
side with a general intellectual scejiticism. 
For four centuries the Imperial city 
ruled over nearly the whole known 
world. Beyond the Euphrates on the 
east, beyond the Rhine and the Danube, 
she could maintain no permanent 
footing ; within her own borders it 
seemed as though her sway became a j^art 
of the natural order — so much so that 
when her power had jiassed away her 
very conquerors did her homage and took 
upon themselves titles as her officers. 

P)Ut the overthrow was yet a long way off. 
The reconstruction organised by Augustus 
_ . and his Ministers was developed 

Y^^^ by able rulers — Tibenus, Tra- 

Decline J'*"' Hadrian, the Antonines— 
during some two hundred 
years, in spite of intervals when a mur- 
derous tyranny or a feeble incompetence 
occupied the throne of the Cresars. From 
the Pillars of Hercules to the river of 
Mesojiotamia, northward as far as Britain, 
.southward to the deserts of Africa, Roman 
civilisation, Roman law and justice, Roman 
military discipline, and Roman roads 
maintained the Roman peace. 

Then came an era when the Imperial 
purple became the ])rize of successful 

generals acclaimed by their legions ; and 
the frontier armies, themselves largely 
formed out of Teutonic or other semi- 
" barbarian " tribes, found themselves face 
to face with new barbarian hordes which 
for another century and a half they held in 
check. But the tremendous external pres- 
sure on frontiers so vast made it impera- 
tive that the Government should be some- 
what decentralised. At the end of the 
third century Diocletian parted the empire 
into four great divisions. The new system 

i:> 11 rn could uot cudurc I Constautine 
Fall of Rome .1 /- . 1 1 

. the Great agam became sole 

„. rr- ». emperor. Under himChiisti- 
KiseoiOoths .f , , ,, , , 

anity was at length adojited as 

the state religion ; the Church herself be- 
came a fundamental factor in the political 
system ; and the political centre of gravity 
was transferred from Rome to Byzantium. 

Again the empire was partitioned, and 
then, for a brief while before the end of 
the fourth century, united again under 
Theodosius. But the end was at hand. For 
a few years the great general Stilicho held 
the Teutonic Goths at bay in Italy, while 
Vandals and Sueves poured through Gaul 
into Spain. Then, early in the fifth cen- 
tury, Stilicho died. Alaric led his conquer- 
ing hordes to the gates of Rome, and sacked 
the Eternal City. His successor, Ataulf, 
took his Goths away, to drive the Vandals 
out of Spain into Africa, and set up a great 
western kingdom on their own account. 
But after the Goths, fresh barbarians 
swarmed in — Tartar Huns under Attila, 
who wrought huge devastation and then 
vanished for ever ; then fresh Teutonic 
armies, which took possession of Italy, 
though in the East the Em})ire still held 
its own. And in Gaul the (German) 
Franks under their king, Clovis (Chlodwig, 
Ludwig), established the dominion which 
was to give its name to France when the 
Prankish element had almost passed out 
of the country. Far-away Britain had 
already been abandoned, and was falling 
a ])rcy to the Saxons and the Angles, the 
" English " who were driving the earlier 
Celtic inhabitants before them into the 

. . motmtain fastnesses of the west 
^^eginning ,^j^^j j^^^j.^j^ Again, in the East, 

Byzantium "^ *'"' sixth century, the empire 
centrcfl at I^yzantuun asserted 
its power. Justinian is memorable for that 
great codification of Roman Law on 
which the legal systems of half the jurists 
in Europe have been based. His reign is 
famous also for the exploits' of his brilliant 


A.D. 1 to 500 

Organisation of the Roman Empire. The Rise of Christianity. Partition of the 
Empire. The Barbarian Invasion and Fall of the Western Empire. Rise of the Franks 







The East and Africa 


liejiinning of the Christian -Era. 

Imperial system completed under Tiberius. 

Rhine, Danube, and Euphrates form frontiers 

of'the Empire. 
Caligula and Claudius emperors. 
Britain: Roman occupation. 
Spread of Christianity. 

DL'struction of Jerusalem by Titus, 70. 

Nero emperor: (ialba, Otho, Vitellius. 

Vespasian : the " Flavian " emperors. 

Nerva cliosen by Senate in succession t(. 

Domitian. The "Five good Emperors,"' 

Succession of Trajan, 98. 

Arabia designated as a Roman province. 

Traj in's expedition to the Persian Gulf unsuc- 
cessful. Eastward expansion of Rome 

Trajan's campaigns in Dacia. 
Administration organised under Hadrian. 
Roman law systematised by Salvius Julianas 
Antoninus Pius. 




Establishment of Roman supremacy in Armenia. 

Successful campaigns of Severus against Par- 

Persian kingdom of the Sassanides displaces 
the Parthian Empire. 

Development of Roman civilisation in Gaul 

and Spain. 
Campaigns of Marcus Aurelius in Pannonia. 

The legions in Illyria, largely composed of 

" barbarians," acquire power. 
After Commodus, series of emperors by military 

Severus temporarily assigns the West to Clodius 


Further systematising of Roman law by the 

juris coiisuiti, Ulpian, etc. 
Increasing pressure of I eutonic tribes on the 

frontier. Campaigns of Maximinus. 
Decius emperor : official persecution of 


Overthrow of Emperor \'alerian in the East by 

the Persians. 
Destruction of Palmyra in the reign of 


Extension of Buddhism in China. 

Advance of the Goths and .Alemanni checked 

by Claudius and .Aurelian. 
Diocletian emperor. Division of the I^mpin- 

under a subordinate '',\ugustus" and tw^ 

subordinate " Ca;sars " 

Last persecution of Christians under Dio 

Constantine the Great. 
Constantinople (New Rome, Byzantium) i> 

made the centre of the Empire. 
Christianity established as the State religion 

Council of Nica;a. 

Unsuccessful Roman campaign against Persia. 

Temporary revival of Paganism under Julian 

the Apostate. 
Advance of the Goths checked by Theo- 

Empire separated into P'ast and West, 396. 
Alaric the Visigoth held in check in the 

Western Empire by Stilicho. 
Westward movement of Vandals through Gaul 

to Spain. 

Vandals, expelled from Spain, established in 

Sack of Rome by Alaric, after death of Stilicho. 

End of the Roman occupation of Britain. 

The Goths withdraw westwards. Establish- 
ment of the Visigothic kingdom of Theoderic 
in Spain and Ar|uitania. 

Irruption of the Huns under Attila. 

Britain : The coming of the Saxons. 
Barbarian " Patricians" set up and depose 

Western Emperors. 
Odoacer, " King " in Italy, r cognises supremacy 

of the Eastern Emperor Zeno. 
Theoderic the Ostrogoth founds a Teutonic 

State in Italy. 
Rise of the Franks in (laul, und'-r Clovis. 



general, Belisarius, who destroyed the 
Vandal kingdom in Africa, restored the 
Imperial rule in Italy, and recovered 
provinces in Asia which had been in danger 
of falling into the grip of the now aggressive 
rulers of Persia. But in the West, the suc- 
cess was only temporary. Under pressure 
of Tartar or Slav^onic hosts from the 
East, a fresh Teutonic swarm, the Lom- 
bards, entered Italy and mastered the 
North. The significance of Rome now lay 
in the supremacy of her pontificate, un- 
acknowledged in the East. 

In Spain, the Gothic supremacy gave 
promise of an orderly and just govern- 
ment. In the wide realms of the Franks 
anarchy and bloodshed were almost cease- 
less. In neither did the dominant Teutons 
drive out the older Iberian and Celtic 
populations, as the English were doing in 
the open lands of the northern island. In 
both, the German institutions were de- 
veloping into that feudal system which 
was utterly incompatible with the main- 
tenance of a strong central rule, since it 
enabled a powerful vassal to bid defiance to 
his nominal suzerain. Throughout the 
sixth and seventh centuries progress was 
stayed in ancient Gaul ; in Spain it was 
to be revolutionised by a new invader. 

Eastward, at the end of the sixth cen- 
tury, the Slavonic wave was surging upon 
the empire's northern frontier ; in Asia, 
Persia was again forcing her 
way towards the Mediterra- 
nean. Both were checked by 
the Emperor Heraclius early 
in the seventh century. But, meantime, a 
new Power had come into being. Moham- 
med had arisen. Inspired by the fanatical 
fervour of Islam, the warriors of Arabia, 
soon to be known as the Saracens, swept 
all before them. They did not at first make 
P2uro}ie their objective ; the Caliphs car- 
ried their conquering arms over Western 
Asia, into Egypt, and along the southern 
coasts of the Mediterranean. Then they 
began to beat against the emj^re itself. 
The eighth century had hardly opened 
when they poured into Spain ; dissensions 
among the Gothic chiefs gave them prompt 
victory. They swept up to the Pyrenees ; 
but their advance was stayed by Charles 
Martel, the virtual lord of the Frankish 
kingdom. On the East their armies as- 
sailed Constantinople, Init were disastrously 
repulsed by the Emperor Leo the Isaurian. 
Now, for the first time, Paj^al sanction 
was demanded and obtained for a change 



of dynasty. The last Merovingian king 
of the Franks was deposed in favour of 
Pepin, the son of Charles Martel. He was 
succeeded by his son, Karl, a German of 
the Germans, despite the French form of 
his popular title Charlemagne. 

During his long reign the ■Vloors in Spain 
were driven back beyond the Ebro ; the 
Saxon tribes across the Rhine were forced to 
-. , submit and to accept Christi- 

„. anity; the Lombard oppres- 

j, . sors of Italy were vanquished ; 

and on the Pope's initiative, 
Charlemagne himself was acclaimed and 
crowned at Rome as emperor and suc- 
cessor of the Caesars. All of the West that 
remained to Byzantium was Southern 
Italy. The revived empire came into being 
on Christmas Day, a.d. 800. 

The great dominion and the organisation 
constructed by Charlemagne fell into- 
divisions after his death. The lands east of 
the Rhine remained German ; on the west, 
the Teutonic forces yielded to the Latin- 
ised Celtic sp)irit. Slowly France and Ger- 
many emerged. In England the supremacy 
among the rival peoples passed from the 
Angles of Northumbria or of the Midlands 
to the Saxon house of Wessex. Hungary 
was held by the Mongolian Avars, presently 
to be displaced by their Magyar kinsmen ; 
otherwise Eastern Europe, Illyria, as well 
as the Trans-Danube districts, was being 
gradually possessed by the Slavonic races. 
Their westward movement was decisively 
stayed in the tenth century by Henry the 
Fowler and Otto the Great, who, for the 
second time, revived the " Holy Roman 
Empire " in the West in a form which 
effectively translated it into the " German 
Emi)ire." Meanwhile, the Vikings from 
the north first ravaged the western coasts, 
then wrung great provinces from the kings 
of England, and of " Francia," prei')aring 
for the day when the Norman spirit should 
set the tone of Western Europe. 

In the Eastern Mohammedan world the 

Saracen dominion was passing to Tartar 

races — to the Seljuk Turks or the Ghaz- 

navid Turks, and later to the Ottomans ; 

the genuine Saracens had 

'^ . ?. seen their greatest days in 
Feudalism - ■' - 

in Europe 

the times of Harun-al-Raschid, 

when the Frankish Empire 
of Charlemagne was being dismem- 
bered. Europe in the eleventh century had 
passed, or was passing, into what is dis- 
tinctively known as the Feudal Period, or 
later Middle Ages. Everywhere it became 

TIME-TABLE OF THE WORLD: A.D. 500 to 1000 

Teutonic Races Dominate the West. Rise of Mohammed ; extension of Mohammedan 
Rule from Cordova to Kabul. Western Empire Revived by Charlemagne and again by Otto 













The East and Africa 

Overthrow of the African Vandal kingdom by 
IJelisarius, general of Justinian. 


Franks predominant on Rhine and in (iaul. 
Justinian emperor at Constantinople. 

Roman Law codified in the Institutes. 

Overthrow of Gothic kingdom in Italy by 

Belisarius. [in England. 

Advance of Saxons (South) and Angles (East) 

Buddhism introduced in Japan. 

.\dvance of Persia against the Eastern Empire. 

Lombard conquest of North Italy. 

Spread of Celtic Christianity in Britain by 

St. Columba. 
Pontificate of Gregory the Great. 
Latin Christianity introduced into Kent by 

St. Augustine, 597. 

Overthrow of Persia by Emperor Heraclius. 

Mun.VM.MED. The Hegira (622). 

Conquest of Egypt and Syria by the Caliphs 

Abu-bekr and Omar. 
Conquest of Persia, and extension of Caliphate 

over West Asia. 

Saracens (Caliphate) attack the Empire in the 

East and in ,\frica. 
Rise of the Shiite sect of Mohammedans. 

England: Supremacy of Northumbria. 
Italy : North under Lombard dominion ; 

South attached to the Eastern Emp re. 
.Avar dominion in Hungary. 
Slavonic settlement in Servia. 

Engl..\nd: Final overthrow of Paganism. 

Triumph of Roman over Celtic Christianity. 
Franks: Dukes of Austrasia (East Franks) 

dominate the Merovingian kings. 

Revival in India of Brahmanism, gradually 
developing into modern Hinduism. 

Saracens (or Moors) overrun Spain. 

Saracen advance checked by Emperor Leo the 
Isaurian at Constantinople, and by Charles 
Martel at Tours. 

Beginning of the Iconolastic controversy. Dis- 
cussions between Papacy and Eastern Church. 

Division of the Caliphate into Eastern (Abassid) 
at Bagdad and Western (Ommeiad) at 

Rise of the Turks in the Caliphate armies. 

Harun-al-Raschid Caliph at Bagdad. 

England: Supremacy of Mercia. 

Franks : Fall of the Merovingian dynasty. 
Pepin the Short founds the Karling or Caro- 
lingian Dynasty. 

Empress Irene at Constantinople. 

FR.A.NKS : Karl the Great (Charlemagne) suc- 
ceeds Pepin as king of the F"ranks. He drives 
the Moors beyond the Ebro, conquers the 
Lombards, and is crowned as Roman Emperor 
by the Pope. (800). 

Increasing power of the Western Caliphate. 

I'atemide Mohammedan dynasty established in 

Decline of the Abassid Caliphs. 

Subjugation of the Saxons by Charlemagne. 
Division of Charlemagne's dominion among 

his grandsons. 
England : Supremacy of Wessex under Egbert. 
The Danes, or Northmen, harry the coasts of 


Carolingian dominion divided into West 

(Francia), East (Franconia, Germany), 

Central (Burgundy) and Italy. 
Pressure of Slavonic peoples on East Germany. 
England; Atfred the Great. Settlement of 

the Danes in the Danelagh. Organisation of 

Government, Law, etc. 
Advance of Magyars in Hungary. 
Iceland colonised, 874-950. 

Recovery of Eastern Provinces from the Sara- 
cens by the Byzantine Empire. 

France : Duchy of Normandy ceded to Rollo. 
Norway united under Harold Haarfager. 
England: House of Wessex kings of all England. 
Germany : Henry the Fowler, Saxon King of 

Germany, and his son Otto the Great, check 

the Magyar advance. 
Pressure of Slavs on Eastern Empire. 

Empire: Otto becomes King of Italy and 
Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire 

I is from tliis time definitely German. 

: France: The Capet dynasty replaces the Caro- 

I lingian. 

I Slavs driven back by Eastern Emperors. Rus- 

j rians Chiistianised. Slav dominion estab- 
lished in Poland. 



the object of the great rulers to establish 
a strong central government, and of the 
Papacy to establish a supremacy over all 
governments. Feudalism and the Papacy 
were the rivals of the centralising tendency. 

In England, where a Norman dynasty 
and Norman aristocracy established them- 
selves, the unifying process was astonish- 
ingly raj^id. The country was compara- 
tively shielded from Papal interposition by 
distance. A series of vigorous 
"^ ^^ and able monarchs prevented 
P** pure feudalism from ever get- 

ting developed ; it resulted that 
in the thirteenth century baronage and 
people made common cause in imposing 
not feudalism, but constitutional control 
over the kings. In France, the victory of 
the crown over feudalism was far slower ; 
the feudatories were too powerful, and 
among them were the kings of England, as 
dukes or counts of great territories within 
France. The Hundred Years' War 
was, in fact, not so much a contest for 
the French crown as a struggle between 
the French kings and their mightiest 
vassals. It was not till the English had 
been finally expelled that Louis XI. 
was enabled to make the crown supreme 
in France. There, as in England, the 
monarchy never submitted to the Papacy ; 
it was so far victorious in that struggle 
that in the fourteenth century the seat 
of the Roman pontificate was transferred 
to Avignon, and the Pontiff himself 
became literally the creature of France. 

Spain and Byzantium alike remained 
for the most part outside the general 
Euro]")ean current. They were the buffers 
between Christendom and Islam. In the 
Spanish Peninsula the Moors were held 
. more or less at bay, but the 

ris en om j^^^| ^^^^ ^^^ freed from their 

_ . dominion till the close of the 

Crusades ^., ,, , ,, .. 

nitecntli century, nyzantnun 
held the Turks at bay till the middle of 
the same century ; then she fell for ever. 
Between the eleventh and thirteenth 
centuries, Christendom carried on against 
Islam the long contest of the Crusades ; 
but the warriors who took part in those 
wars neither fought nor organised as 
though them'^elvcs forming an organic 
body ; the Christian hosts in Palestine 
were mere miscellaneous gatherings, united 
only in the tcmjiorary fits of enthusiasm. 
The Holy Sepulchre was gained, but with- 
in a century it was lost again ; the 
crusading cause was one to wliirh not 


& Papacy 

states, but individuals only, devoted | 
themselves. Conquest would have been 
possible only if the Crusaders had gone i 
forth prepared to make their own homes i 
in Asia. The East could not be held by I 
garrisons with no abiding interest there. 1 
Islam, then, held, and more than held, j 
its own against the West ; while during ' 
these same centuries it swept east and south \ 
through the passes of the Punjab into 
India, establishing Turk and Afghan king- 
doms over most of the great peninsula ; 
though the vast bulk of the popula- 
tion there held to the Hinduism which, 
born of the earlier Brahmanism, had ' 
almost expelled the Buddhist religion, 
which, however, had established itself 
permanently in Further India and China. 
The might of Islam could have been 
overthrown only by a united Christendom, 
and for that the disintegrating forces 
were too great. England and, more slowly, j 
France freed themselves from feudalism. I 
But Christendom required one head. If | 
the Papacy had stood by the ' 
empire, feudalism might have 
been broken down, and the 
emjieror have become that 
head. But the Papacy aimed at supremacy 
for itself — the spiritual power was at war 
with the temporal. Anti-imperial factions 
claimed the support of the Church ; the 
efforts at consolidation of the great 
Hohenstaufen Emjierors, Barbarossa and ' 
Frederick II., were unsuccessful. The i 
empire itself became only a congeries of 
kingdoms and dukedoms, counties, bishop- 
rics, free cities, and leagues of cities, under 
the Austrian house of Hapsliurg ; while , 
Rome, mighty from the days of Gregory 
VII. to Innocent III., lost its prestige 
in the captivity at Avignon and by the 
Great Schism which followed. In j 
England Wycliffe's voice was raised ; on j 
the south-east of the emjiire the Hussite 
wars raged, premonitory of the Refor- 

In 1453 Constantinople fell, and the 1 
Turk was permanently established in the ■ 
east of Europe. As a counterstroke, in 

the west, not forty years later, I 
the Moorish dominion in Spain 
was wi])ed out, Spain emerging 
as a united Christian kingdom. 
Before the end of the century Columbus 
and Gama had discovered America, and J 
virtually rediscovered India. Across the | 
ocean a new, almost unlimited field for 
expansion, for enterprise, for rivalry had I 

End of 
the Middle 

TIME-TABLE OF THE WORLD: A.D. 1000 to 1500 

Development of Feudalism. The Rise and Decadence of the Papacy. The Crusades. 
Holy Roman. Empire. The Organisation of England, France, and Spain. The Renaissance 




1 150 








1 he Non>Christian World 

Mahnuid of Ghazni. Beginning of Moham- 
medan invasions of India. 

Power of the Seljuk Turkish Dynasty. 


."^candiiuivian power: Canute, King of Norway, 

Sweden, Denmark, and Enjjland. 
Francduian line of emperors ; Burgundy reunited 

to Empire. 
Dynasty of Hugh Capet in France. 

England: The Norman conquest, 1066. 
Norman conquests in Sicily and S. Italy. 
Power of the Empire under Henry HI. 
Pontificate of Gregory VII. (ilildebnuul). 

Beginning of the strugnle between r..pacy 

and Empire (Henry IV.) 
First Crusade. 

Development of Papal power. 

England: Organisation of central govern- 
ment under Henry I. checked under Stephen. 

Norman kingdom of Sicily. 

Conrad, first Holienstaufen emperor. He 'in- 
ning of Guelphs (Papal) and (ihibellines 

Establishment of Mohammedan (Ghori) dynasty 

at Delhi. 
Conquests of the Saracens under the Seljuk 

Third Crusade (Cceur-de-Lion). 

The Angevin dominion of Henry II., comprising 

half France. 
England: End of feudal anarchy. Ma.ximuni 

power of Crown. Henry worsted in the 

struggle with the Church. 
Chivalry typified in Richard Cccur-de-Lion. 
P"rederick Barbarossa emperor, 1 155-1 i(>o 
City development. Eombard League ; and 

German Free Cities. 
Advance of Moors in Spain. 

Genghis Khan : Tartar conquests in Asia and 

irruption into Europe. 
Buddhism obsolescent in India. 

Highest power of Papacy, under Innocent III. 
Francis of Assisi : institution of Mendicant 

England: Magna Charta; contest of Crown 

and Barons. Loss of Angevin dominion. 
France : Development of central power under 

Louis Vni. and IX. 
Institution of the Teutonic knights. 
Break up of the Eastern Empire. Venice. 

Rise of the Ottoman (Othman) Turks. 
Khublai Khan in Eastern Asia. 

Decadence of Imperial power. First Habsburg 

End of the Crusading period. [emperor. 

Italy : Rise of Florence. Dante. Giotto. 

England: Establishment of Parliament (Mont- 
fort and Edward I.). Organisation of the 
English nation. 

Mameluke Sultans in Egypt. 

The Pap.icy " in captivity " at .-Vvignon. 
Independence of Scotland. 
Independence of Switzerland 
Ottoman Turks establish a footing in Europe. 
England and France: Beginning of the 
100 Years War. 

Rise of the Ming dynasty in China : expulsion 
of Mongols. 

Conquests of Timur the Tartar (Tamerlane) 

The Jacquerie in France. 

The Great Schism : period of dual Papacy. 

Engl-^nd: Peasant revolt. Failure of Richard 

II.'s attempt at absolutism. Wycliffe. 
Union of Lithuania with Poland. 

Empires of Me.xico and Peru. 

End of Great Schism. Hussite wars. 

English contpiest of France, and subsequent ex- 

pulsi(m Increasing powers of Parliament. 
Invention of printing press. 

Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus; 
and of Cape route to India by Vasco da Gama. 

Turks capture Constantinople. 

England: Wars of the Roses, 1455-14S5. 

Maritime greatness of PoRTUGiL. [Isabella. 

Spain consolidated under Ferdinand and 

France consolidated under Louis XI. 

England con.solidated under Henry VII. Es- 
tablishment of absolutism under constitu- 
tional forms. 

Revival of learning. Humanists. Savonarola. 



been opened to the European peoples. 
Already in the realms of intellect old 
forgotten knowledge had been gradually 
recovered by the Renascence, the revival 
of learning and letters ; with the intellec- 
tual expansion and the invention of the 
printing press paths to new knowledge were 
being opened. Men were shaking them- 
selves free from the shackles of authority 
and tradition. Hence, the sixteenth cen- 
tury witnessed that revolt of half Western 
Christendom from Rome which we call the 
Reformation ; in its essence, though by no 
means in its form at the first, a revolt 
against the interposition of any human 
authority between the individual man an i 
his Maker. With that revolt political 
and national divisions were inextricably 
blended, while the whole was compli- 
cated by the new conditions of political 
supremacy created by the New World. 

The next two centuries, then, saw 

France, already a consolidated state, 

develop into the first military Power 

under the most absolute monarch in 

Europe — through a stage of prolonged 

religious strife which ended by 

("ma establishing the tolerationist 

j^ . Bourbon, Henry IV., on the 

throne, through the rule of the 

two great cardinals, Richelieu and 

Mazarin, to the intolerant autocracy of 

Louis XIV., with a close aristocracy no 

longer in opposition to the crown but 

allied to it. 

In England the development was on 
different lines. There we find an absolutist 
movement, the outcome of the Wars of 
the Roses. But however autocratic the 
Tudors were, they held by constitutional 
forms, and preserved the intense loyalty 
of their people. On Ehzabpth's death, 
a century-old matrimonial alliance placed 
the sceptres of England and Scotland in 
a single hand. 

Then, on the theory of Divine right, the 
Crown attempted to override the consti- 
tution ; the Civil War gave the power 
neither to king nor parliament, but to a 
military dictator. On his death the coun- 
try reverted to a compromise between 
Crown and Parliament ; the Stuarts, again, 
with the aid of their cousin, the autocrat 
of France, attempted to recover absolu- 
tism. They were driven from the country, 
and constitutionalism — in effect, govern- 
ment by an oligarchy of landowners — was 
decisively established. The religious prob- 
lem had found a decisively Protestant 



solution at an early stage ; but Anglican- 
ism and Puritanism soon grew mutually 
intolerant ; it was only with the Revolu- 
tion of 1688 that toleration and constitu- 
tionalism definitely triumphed together. 

Meanwhile, in the reign of Elizabeth, 
England had asserted her intellectual 
eminence by giving birth to Shakespeare 
and to Bacon ; and had decisively dis- 
placed Spain from the ruler- 
ship of the seas. In the 

n I * next century her colonisation 

Development t t^t ,^ a 

of North America counter- 
balanced the Spanish dominion in the 
south and centre of the Western Hemis- 
phere, though it was not unchallenged by 
France. In the East a great commercial 
rivalry had grown up between English, 
Dutch, and French — a rivalry still to be 
fought out. 

In the early years of the sixteenth 
century matrimonial alliances had joined 
Spain, the Low Countries, and the empire 
under a single ruler, a Hapsburg of the 
(Austrian) Imperial house. The vast do- 
minion was extended by the acquisition 
of the golden territories of the American 
continent. The Empire passed to one 
Hapsburg branch, Spain and her depend- 
encies to another. In the empire, a tem- 
porary tnodus Vivendi was established 
between Roman Catholics and Protest- 
ants ; but Spain, the colossus which 
threatened to dominate Europe, was split 
by the revolt of the Netherlands, and her 
power shaken to its foundations by the 
collision with England. In the 

o ision sixteenth century, Germany 
° ^ . was devastated by the religious 

ynas les thirty Years War ; Austria 
emerged only as the chief among a numl^er 
of German states, and Holland won a 
naval and commercial position second only 
to that of England. The Ottoman Turks, 
still aggressive, were still held in check. 
In India, a Turkish dynasty known as the 
Moguls (Mughals, Mongols) extended its 
sway from Kabul to the mouth of the 
Ganges, and almost to Cape Comorin. 

At the opening of the eighteenth cen- 
tury the aggressive Continental policy of 
Louis XIV. involv^ed Eurojie in the " War 
of the Spanish Succession." The French 
king's armies were shattered by repeated 
blows at the hands of Marlborough and 
Eugene, but he finally obtained his primary 
object, the recognition of his grandson as 
king of Spain. The threat of a Hapsburg 
domination passed into the threat of a 

TIME-TABLE OF THE WORLD: A.D. 1500 to 1700 

New World Entered, and East Re-entered. The Reformation. Organisation of European Nations 
under Absolute Monarchies. Constitutional Struggle in England. English Naval Supremacy 













Asia and Africa 

Tlie New World Ixistovved on Spain and 
Portugal by the Bull of Pope Alexander \'I. 

Portuguese dominion established in the Indian 
seas by Albuciuerque. 

Conquest of Egyjjt by Ottoman Turks. 

Safid dynasty in Persia (" The Sofy "). 

First circumnavigation completed, 1 522. 
Invasion of Hindostan (Northern India) by 
Baber, the first " Mogul" emperor, 1526. 

E.\pu!sion of Moguls: dynasty of Sher Shah at 
Delhi, 1540. 

Francois Xavier in Japan. 
Restoration of Moguls, 1556. 

Rule of Akbar, 1556-1605. 
Toleration of Hinduism. 

Mogul dominion established and organised 
throughout Northern India. 

Development of Japanese Feudalism. 
Reign of Jehan Gir in Hindostan, 1605-27. 
First English factory at Surat, 1611. 
First English Embassy to Delhi, 1615. 

Reign of Shah Jehan, 1627-5S. 
The I'aj Mahal built. 
End of the Portuguese power in the East. 
E.xtension of the Mogul dominion into the 

Rise of the Manchu (Tartar) dynasty in China. 

Reign of Aurangzib, 165S-1707. 
Rise of the Mahrattas under Sivaji. 

France enters the field in India. 

Revival ot intolerant Mohammedanism by 

Expansion of the Mogul Empire over Southern 


Europe and America 

Raphael, Miciiael Angelo, and Titian. 

Rivalry of Henry VIII. (1509-47), Francis I. 
(1515-47), and Charles V. (1519-56), who 
combines Spain, Burgundy, and the Empire. 

Luther challenges the Papacy, 1517-20. 

The Reformation era opens. 

Turkish advance under Solyman the Magni- 

Gustavus Vasa in Sweden, 1523-60. 

Spain conquers Me.xico (1520) and Peru (i53'i)- 

Reformation : Subjection of Church to Crown 
(England). Confession of Augsburg: Protes- 
tant League. Calvin creates Presbyterianisni 

Russia : Ivan the Terrible. 

Order of Jesuits formally established. 

Germany : Contest between Charles V. and 

Protestant princes of Germany ended by com 

promise at Peace of Augsburg. 
England : Protestant Revolution (Edward VI.) 

followed by Romanist reaction (Mary), and 

final establishment of Protestantism (Eliza 

beth) in England and Scotland. 

Spain : Philip II. and the Inquisition. 

Council of Trent defines limits of Roman 

France: Seriesof civil wars of religion, 1562-05 
Revolt of Netherlands from Spain. 
Turkish advance checked at Lepanto, 1571. 
Portugal absorbed by Spain. 

Gradual success of the Netherlands revolt. 
English naval supremacy proved by the Armada 
Decadence of Spain. ['S'^'^ 

France: Toleration secured by Henri TV. 
Spenser, Marlowe, and Shakespeare. 

Galileo and Bacon. 

Union of English and Scottish Crowns, 1603. 
Dutch and English commerce in the East Indies. 
Virginia, first successful British colony in North 

America, 1606. 
Holland : Independence established, 1609. 
Germany: Thirty Years' War begins, 1618-48. 

Gustavus Adolphus. 

Fr.-^nce : Richelieu organises absolutism. 

England: Constitutional struggle between 

Charles I. and ParHament. The Petition of 

Right, 1628. 
Portugal recovers independence. 

France: Rule of Mazarin: absolutism estab- 
lished, [protectorate. 

England : Civil War, resulting in militar\ 

Thirty Years War ended by Peace of Westphalia. 

Commercial and naval rivalry of English and 
Dutch. [power. 

Development of France into the leading military 

France: LouisXIV. initiates policy of aggression 
ENr.L.\ND: Charles II. undermines supremacy 

of Parliament. Repression of Nonconformity 

by Parliament. 
Louis XIV. attacks Holland, with occasional 

support from Charles II. 
England: Attack on Romanism. 

Aggressive movement of Turkey. [16S5. 

France: Louis XIV. revokes Edict of Nantes, 
Constitutionalism established in England by 

the revolution of 168S. 
Wars of England and Holland against France. 
Russia: Peter the Great. 
Newton and Leibnitz. 



Bourbon domination. In the east of 
Europe a final limit was set to the Ottoman 
aggression. In Britain, the incorporation 
of Scotland was completed, formally by 
the Union of 1707, effectively by the 
suppression of Jacobitism in 1746. 

From 1739 to 1763 Europe was again 
plunged into wars, with an eight years' 
interval. The motives of those wars, and 
of the combinations of states on either side, 
were complicated ; the results 
e ing ^yere simple. Prussia, under 
.. „ Frederick the Great, emerged 

the Powers r . ^ T-. T- 

as a nrst-class rower ; I' ranee 
lost her North American Colonies to 
Great Britain ; the British East India 
Company defeated the attempt of the 
French to establish a paramount influence 
with the native princes, the Mogul EmjMre 
having broken up into a congeries of prac- 
tically independent satrapies ; and the 
British themselves became established as a 
territorial Power by the conquest of Bengal. 
Russia also, organised at the beginning of 
the century by Peter the Great, had taken 
her place definitely among the great Powers. 

During the next twenty years (1763- 
1783) Poland was absorbed by her neigh- 
bours. The British Empire was sundered 
by the revolt of the older American 
Colonies, which were established as the 
United States of America ; while Canada 
remained loyal. By this time the whole 
of Europe was practically governed by 
absolute monarchies ; but a cataclysm was 
at hand. France became the scene of a 
tremendous revolution. Crown and aris- 
tocracy were toppled into the abyss. 

France proclaimed herself the liberator 
of the peoples ; the monarchs of Europe 
coml)incd to suj)press the ]iroletariat. 
., , During the last decade of the 

Napoleon , , .. 

. ,. century one revolutionary con- 

and the ,-, ^ ■ -^ .^ ,, -^ 

„ , ,. stitution alter another was set 
Revolution n u 1 ^i 1 

up in Pans, while the revolu- 
tionary armies shattered monarchical 
armies, and turned the " liberated " j^eoples 
into subject dependencies of the Rejiublic. 
On the seas, however, Britain successfully 
asserted her supremacy. Of the com- 
manders of the Republic, the most bril- 
liant was the Corsican Bonaparte. He 
dreamed of making Egypt the basis for 
achieving an Asiatic empire, and thence 
overwhelming Europe ; but tlie dream was 
shattered when he found himself isolated 
by Nelson's destruction of the French fleet 
at Aboukir in the Battle of the Nile. 
Returning to Paris, he transformed the 

republic into an empire : he set up his 
brothers or his generals as rulers over half 
the kingdoms in Europe ; he dictated terms 
to every government except Britain. Bri- 
tain annihilated his fleets, and fought and 
beat his generals in the S})anish Peninsula. 
He conquered the kings, but the nations 
rose against him, and overthrew him ; his 
last effort was crushed at Waterloo. 

Absolutism was reinstated, but the 
proletariats had learnt to demand freedom 
Steam - power and steam - traction so 
changed the conditions of production as to 
revolutionise the relations between labour 
and capital, and between the landed and 
the manufacturing interests. In Great 
Britain political power passed from the 
landowners to the manufacturers with the 
great Reform Bill of 1832, and from the 
wealthy to the labouring classes with the 
Franchise Bills of 1867 and 1884. Every 
monaichy has been compelled to submit 
to limitations of its own powers more or 
less copied from Britian. 

Britain herself, not untaught by the 
breach with America, has learned to estab- 
lish res})onsible government in her Colo- 
nies, making them virtually 
free states ; and among those 
states the idea of federation has 
taken root and is bearing fruit. 
In India, challenged by one native race 
after another, she has extended her sway 
over the whole peninsula, and has abolished 
the anomaly of governing her great depen 
dency through a trading company. In the 
West her kinsmen have raised the United 
States into a mighty nation. 

In Europe France has passed through 
monarchy and republic and second 
empire intx) a stable rejmblic ; Italy has 
revolted against foreign rulers, and become 
a united nation ; the small peoples of the 
Balkan Peninsula have now achieved 
by arms their liberty from Turkish rule. 
Prussia has won the hegemony of the 
German states, and established a new 
German Empire. Russia, the bogey of 
the West, and of Britain in particular, 
has shown her weakness in collision with 
the sudden development of Japan. 

Finally, the Dark Continent has been 
explored and partitioned : in the south, 
after a sharp conflict, British and Dutch 
are on the way to become a united people ; 
in the north, Egypt has ])cen reorganised 
under British administration. We end, as 
we began, with the land of the Pyramids. 
Arthur D. Innes. 


World as 
it is 

TIAE-TABLE OF THE WORLD: A.D. 1700 to 1914 

Struggle for Colonial Supremacy. French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. Growth of Democ- 
racy and Consolidation of European States. Colonial Extension of Responsible Government 













Asia, Africa, artd Australasia 

Europe and America 

War of Spanish Succession, 1702-13. Bourbons 

established in Spain. 
Career of Charles XII. of Sweden, 1697-1718. 
Grkat Britain: Incorporating union of 

England and Scotland, 1707 [Eugene, 1717. 
Turkish advance decisively stopped by 
Alliance of France and Great Britain. 

Struggle between British and French in Southern 
India, 1746-61. 

Clive conquers Bengal; beginning of British 
territorial power in India, 1757. 

Anglo-Spanish War, combined with War of the 

Austrian Succession, 1739-48. 
Development of Prussian military power 

under Frederick William. 

Great Britain : End of Jacobitism (the 
Forty-five) consolidates the union. 

Seven Years' War (1756-63) : Prussia and Great 
Britain against I'rance, Austria, and Russia. 
Achievements of Frederick. Overthrow of 
France at sea, and in Canada and India. 

British dominion receives Mogul's sanction. 

Haidar Ali in Mysore. 

Governor-Generalship of Warren Hastings 
(1774-S5), establishes the British power. 

Dual control in India by East India Company 
and Parliamentary Board of Control set up 
by Pitt's India Act. 

Administration of British India systematised. 

Overtlirow of Mysore, and institution of sub- 
sidiary alliances by Lord Wellesley. 

Overthrow of Mahratta power by Lord Hastings 

(1819) : e.xtensive annexations. 
Acquisition of Cape Colony from Holland by 

Great Britain. 
Gradual planting of Australasian Colonies. 

Aggressive Eastward movement of Persia 

checked at Herat. 
First Af. han Wars, 1S39-42. 
China : First collision with Europe. 

Treaties of Paris and Hubertsburg exclude 
France from .\nierica and India, and confirm 
the position of Prussia. 

Partition of Poland. 

Great Britain; Quarrel with Colonies; lead- 
ing to War of American Independence, 1775-83. 

British recovery of naval predominance. 
United States: Independence established 
F'rance : French Revoluton, 1789. [1783- 

War between European Coalitions and French 

Republic, 1792-1802. Rise of Bonaparte. 

Triumphs of French Army and British Navy. 
Great Britain : Legislative Union with 
Kant and Goethe. [Ireland. 

War renewed (1803) between European Coali- 
tions and Emperor Napoleon (1804). 
Trafalgar and Austerlitz, 1S05. Peninsula 
War, 1808-13. Moscow Campaign, 181 2. 
Waterloo Campaign, 1815 [the Holy alliance. 

European reconstruction. Absolutist reaction : 

Independence of South and Central American 
Greek War of Independence, 1822-29. [States 
France : Constitutional Monarchy under 

Louis Philippe,' 1830-48. 
Great Britain: Parliamentary Reform and 

manufacturing development Railways. 

Sikh Wars, 1845-49. 

Annexations under Dalhousie. 

Indian Mutiny, 1857. Transfer of Indian 

Government to British Crown, 1858. 
Japan : Admission of foreign traders. 

Charles Darwin. 

Revolutionary movements in Europe. 

France: Republic (1S49) passing to Empire 

of Napoleon III. (1852). 
Crimean War, 1854-56. [British Colonies. 

Establishment of responsible goverment in 

Japan : Revived power of the Mikado. 
Advance of Russia in Central Asia towards 

Second Afghan War, 1878-80. 

Mahdism in the Eastern Sudan; ended at Om- 
durnian in 189S. British control establislied. 

Partition of Africa into " Spheres of Influence." 

War between China and Japan. 

Annexation of Philippines by United States. 

South African War (189Q-1902) and incorpora- 
tion of Dutcii States into British Empire. 

Federation of Australian Colonies, igoi. 

War between Russia and Japan, 1904-5. 

American Civil War, 1861-65. Abolition of 
Slavery. Independence of United Italy under 
Victor Emmanuel. [States 1866. 

Prussia acquires leadership of German 

Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71. New German 
hmpire, and new French Republic. 

Russo-Turkish War, 1S77-78. 

China: Revolution: Manchu dynasty displaced 

by Republic, 1912. [1912. 

Tripoli annexed by Italy from Ottoman Empire, 

British control established in Egypt. 
Repeated disturbances in the lialkan States 
established by the Russo-Turkisb War 

First Peace Conference of European powers at 
the Hague, 1899. 

Norway seuaratesfroni Sweden and elects King 

Haakon, 1905 
Second Peace Conference at the Hague, 1907. 
Allied Balkan States defeat Turkey, 1912. 
Creation of .Albania asindependent state,i9i4. 
Revolution in Mexico, 1913-14. 























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975 B.C. Division of the Hebrew king- 
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Growth of the Hellenic States. 

The age of Homer. 

850 B.C. Foundation of Carthage. 
Beginnings of the Latin and Etruscan 


Assyrian conquest of Babylon, Syria, 
and Israel. 
753 B.C. The foundation of Rome. 
Rapid spread of the Greek Colonies. 

Beginnings of the Macedonian kingdom. 
Rise of Media. j 
Beginnings of Japanese history. 1 
Decline of Assyria, fall of Nineveh, 
and establishment of new Babyl nian 
Empire. 1 

Cyrus, King of Persia, conquers 
Media, establishes his empire over Lydia. 
Assyria, and Babylonia (538 B.C.). His 
son Cambyses concjuers Egypt, 525 B.C. 

The Greek States revolt against Persia 
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Egypt regains independence. 1 

Steady growth of Roman ascendancy 
in Italy. 

Struggle between Athens and Sparta. 

Conquests of Alexander the Great (334- 
322 B.C.). He conquers Persia , masters 
Egypt, and invades India. At his death 
his empire is divided ; Egypt falls under 
the Ptolemies, Syria under the Seleucida;. 

Babylon absorbed by Parthian Empire. 
Carthage dominates Spain. 
Wars between Rome and Carthage. 
Overthrow of Carthage (202 B.C.) 

Judea attains independence under the 

Growing power of Rome. Macedon a 
Roman province; Egypt and Syria made 
Roman protectorates. The Greek States 
are absorbed into province of Macedon. 1 

C.fsar conquers Gaul and lands in 

Egypt becomes a Roman province. 

Augustus Caesar. Establishment of the 
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HTHE origin of our planet is a problem 
•'■ which has appealed to the intellect 
of thoughtful men from the most remote 
times, and the earliest recorded specula- 
tions concerning it — those of the Mosaic 
cosmogony — possess a peculiar interest, 
since they embody the views of the ancient 
Chaldeans, who were not only systematic 
observers of the heavens, but made prac- 
tical use of their results. 

The Mosaic cosmogony is not unworthy 

of the great people among whom it took 

. . its rise ; it recognises the fact 

eginnmg ^^^^^ ^j^^ earth had a history an- 

of a Famous , j.-.i, i . c 

^. tecedent to the advent of man, 

and its account of the order of 
events in this history is not only remarkable 
as a feat of a priori reasoning, but accords 
in some respects with the results achieved 
after much labour by modern science. 

It was not until the middle of the 
eighteenth century that the reign of 
evolution began, and attempts were made 
to trace the history of a planetary 
system from its source in a primeval 
nebula on purely mechanical grounds. 
Swedenborg (1735) was the pioneer in this 
direction, then came Thomas Wright (1750) 
of Durham, whose work furnished inspira- 
tion to Emanuel Kant (1755), and led him 
to construct a consistent scheme of the 
Universe. The last of this group of 
cosmic philosophers is Laplace (1796), 
whose admirable description of the evolu- 
tion of the solar system was arrived at 
independently, and without knowledge of 
the previous work of Kant. 

Laplace assumed as his starting-point 
tlie existence of a nebula formed of in- 
candescent gas, and extending beyond 

the limits of the outermost planet of our 
system. It was in rotation about a 
central axis, and possessed in consequence 
a disc-like or lenticular form. Radiating 
its heat away in all directions through 
surrounding space, it grew contmually 
colder, and in cooling diminished in bulk. 
As a consequence of this contraction its 
rate of rotation increased, till at length the 
centrifugal force of the outermost part 
became so great that this could no longer 
continue to follow the contracting mass 
within, and thus remained behind as a 
great rotating ring. The continued con- 
traction of the internal mass, and the re- 
sulting increase in the velocity of rotation, 
again brought about the same condition 
of things, and a fresh ring was left behind. 
This process was repeated time after 
time, till as many rings were formed as there 
are planets in the solar system ; the central 
mass which survived within the innermost 
ring conden.sed to form the sun. The 
rings were highly unstable — that is to 
say, a slight disturbing force was sufhcient 
to destroy their continuity ; they broke 
across and rolled up into great nebulous 
globes, which revolved round the sun in 
the same direction as the original nebula, 
and rotated on their axes in the same direc- 
tion as that in which they re- 
volved. Most of them repeated 
the behaviour of the original 
nebulae, leaving behind rings as 
they contracted, and these rings either 
rolled up to form moons or satellites, or, 
in the solitary instance of Saturn's rings, 
retained their annular form. The rings 
are now known to consist of a multitude of 
solid bodies, as proved by Clerk-Maxwell. 


of the 


By this hypothesis, so beautiful in its 
simphcity, an explanation was afforded 
embracing all the more important facts 
of our system ; the revolution of all the 
planets in nearly circular orbits and in the 
same direction as that in which the sun 
rotates, and the revolution of their 
satellites, also in circular orbits and in 
the same direction as their primaries ; 
the comparatively high tem- 

^ ^'"" perature and consequent low 
pera ure o (jgj^j^j^y ^f ^j^g larger planets 

the Earth , , J- i,'^ ^ . , 

and the sun, as well as a variety 
of other phenomena, all seem to follow 
naturally from it. The fundamental as- 
sumption seems to be in harmony with a 
number of known facts. Thus in the case 
of our own planet the volcanoes distributed 
around the margins of the oceans, and the 
hot springs scattered irregularly over the 
whole terrestrial surface, suggest that great 
stores of heat exist beneath our feet, a 
presumption which finds confirmation in 
the fact that whenever we descend to- 
wards the interior of the earth, as in 
deep mines or wells, the temperature 
continues steadily to rise after we have 
passed a depth below which seasonal and 
diurnal changes of temperature cease to be 
felt, the rise being in some cases as much 
as 3 deg. for loo ft., in others only i deg. 
for the same distance, but on the average 
I deg. for 60 ft. or 70 ft. If this increase 
of temperature continues down to great 
dej)ths, and there seems to be no reason 
why it should not, then a jwint will be 
reached, say, at thirty or forty miles down, 
where the interior will attain a white heat. 
Thus the earth might be regarded as a 
white hot body surrounded with a film of 
rock growing continually cooler towards the 
surface. But such a hot body suspended 
in space must be cooling, just as all bodies 
which are hotter than their surroundings. 
It is cooler to-day than it was yesterday, 
or — what is the same thing — it was hotter 
yesterday than it is to-day, and so of 
all previous yesterdays. And thus as we 
travel backwards in time we 
perceive that the earth will be 
growing hotter, the level of 
white heat will be mount- 
ing upwards towards the surface, and 
will at last reach it, so that the earth, 
instead of being, as it now is, a dark l)f)dy 
shining only with the reHected light of the 
sun, will be self-luminous, a tiny star of 
a magnitude so diminutive as to have 
awakened resentment on the part of some 



Earth as 
a Star 

terrestrial inhabitants, who have regarded 
it as disproportionate to their dignity. But 
we cannot arrest imagination at this stage ; 
our thought still extends its retrospective 
glance into the abyss of past time, and we 
perceive the earth still growing hotter, 
till its temperature transcends those 
limits at which it can exist in the solid 
state. It becomes molten — nay, mqre, it 
becomes gaseous, and thus resumes the 
nebular state from which it sprang. 
Precisely the same argument apj)lies 
to the sun ; our mighty luminary is also 
a cooling body, and if we could restore to 
it the heat which it has lost in the course 
of past aeons it would resume a completely 
gaseous state. Modified in one way or 
another, this chain of reasoning seemed 
irrefragable in those happy days which pre- 
ceded the discovery of radium. 

The question may be considered from 
another point of view. On searching the 
heavens we find that many of the stages 
which are assumed in Laplace's hypo- 
thesis are still represented by actual 
existences. There are, to begin with, 
those immense diffused nebulse, almost 
incapable of definition, which are proved, 
on spectroscopic examination, 
niverse ^^ emit that kind of light 

_* , '". which is characteristic of glow- 
Evolution r xi J 
mg gas ; from these we pass to 

others which are resolvable by the telescope 
into a central and more condensed nucleus, 
with two mighty nebulous arms whirled 
round in a spiral, and bearing more con- 
densed masses in their midst ; even ring 
nebulae are known to exist ; and, finally, 
there are nebulous halos which surround 
some of the stars. Then we come to the 
stars themselves, which are suns of various 
degrees of magnitude, some immensely 
larger than our own luminary, and these 
are evidently in various stages of existence. 
Some are blue, and afford evidence of a 
higher temjierature than that of our sun ; 
others are yellow, and make a nearer 
approach to the solar temjierature ; while, 
again, others are red, and certainly colder. 
These, in conjunction with other con- 
siderations, lead to the conviction that 
the universe is in a state of evolution, and 
that the solar system at one time existed 
in a nebular state. But whether La- 
))]ace's description of the series of events 
through which the original nebula passed 
is the true one or not is a very different 
matter ; it presents so many difficulties 
that scarcely any student now supports it. 

Or, like the nebula of Cygrii, with the central sun well 
formed and the gaseous ring far removed, the earth would 
begin to shape, and the ring would roll up to form the moon. 

In the beginning, it is supposed that the earth was 
part of a vast nebula of gaseous matter and meteo- 
rites, resembling the nebula of Argo, illustrated above. 

Jupiter, which is in a molten state, wreathed in thick 
vapour, with the "great red spot" indicating the begin- 
ning of the solidifying process, shows what the earth 
was like before it assumed its present solid condition. 

Later, as the cooling process advanced, the nebula assumed 
a rotatory movement in the form of a spiral. The nebula 
of Andromeda affords an excellent illustration of this. 

Another stage would be as in the annular nebula of Aqua- This shows the earth and the moon in their relative sizes ; 

ns, the mass forming into a ball with outer ring attached. while the diagram below it illustrates the distance apart. 


6 8l 


A fundamental difficulty is the extreme 

tenuity of the gas which is assumed 

to have formed the planetary rings. A 

, , second difficulty, which has 

ap ace s \^QQ^ emi:)hasised by Professors 

Ak J J Chamberlin and Moulton, is 
Abandoned , , . j ■ ,i 

to be found m the com- 
paratively small amount of rotational 
energy which the system at present 
possesses, for this is less than oj^ of 
that which, on the most favourable 
assumption, must have been contained 
within the original nebula. Less funda- 
mental, but equally fatal, is the fact that 
one of the satellites of Saturn revolves 
round its primary in a direction opposed to 
that of the rotation of the planet itself. 
[Recently Mr. Stratton, following out a sug- 
gestion of Professor W. H. Pickering, has 
shown that this is quite consistent, and, 
indeed, is a natural deduction from La- 
place's hypothesis.] Hence for these and 
other reasons we are reluctantly compelled 
to abandon an hypothesis which for over 
a century has exercised an influence on 
oui conception of the cosmos not less 
profound, penetrating, and far-reaching 
than that of the famous Darwinian 
doctrine of natural selection, now on 
its trial. 

At present, unanimity of opinion, even 
on questions of the most primary kinrl, 
is far to seek. Philosoi)hers are not even 
agreed as to the constitution of the nebuhe. 
It is questioned whether even those least 
resolvable and most diffused forms which 
give bright line spectra really consist of 
masses of incandescent gas. Many ob- 
servers, among them Sir Norman Lockyer, 
now maintain that they are formed 
of swarms of meteorites, which, moving 
with prodigious velocity, meet in frequent 
collision, and by their impact evolve 

sufficient heat to become self- 

^ luminous. Others, again, like 

N7bulL? ^^^^' distinguished investigator 

Arrhcnius, while admitting 
the gaseous nature of these nebuke, deny 
that they are incandescent, and assert 
that their temperature is not much 
above that of surrounding space. Their 
exterior parts consist of the lighter 
gases in a highly rarefied state, and 
minute particles of negative electricity, 
which are always careering through 
space, on penetrating these gases ])ro- 
duce a luminous discharge. A nebula 
composed of swarms of meteorites would, 
as Sir George Darwin has shown, behave 


very much in the same way as one com- 
posed of gas, and if in rotation would 
rotate as a solid mass. The meteorites 
would stand in the same relation to 
the nebula as molecules to a gas, and 
thus the question of the constitution 
of the nebula, although of great in- 
terest in itself, becomes of subsidiary 
importance in tracing its subsequent 

One of the latest attempts to frame a 
nebular hypothesis is that of Professor 
J. H. Jeans. His reasoning is of a highly 
mathematical character, and his con- 
clusions are expressed in the most general 
terms. Starting with a spherical nebula 
of gas or meteorites endowed with a 
small amount of rotation, he shows that 
as it cools or loses energy the temperature 
of the interior will not fall continuously 
in precise correspondence with the cooling 
of the outer parts, and this " lag" of the 
interior temperature will bring about a 
tendency to instability. The contraction 
of the nebula due to cooling will increase 
g. . the velocity of rotation, and 

f th"*^ ^^^^ again will tend to insta- 
p. bility. As a result of the insta- 

bility so produced the nebula 
will change its form, and become more 
or less pear-shaped. The narrow end of 
the pear will then separate from the 
body and assume an indejiendent existence 
as a primitive planet. This process will 
recur again and again till the nebula is 
resolved into a sun with its attendant 
planets. The planets, existing at first 
as gaseous masses or quasi-gaseous masses, 
will be liable to the same kind of trans- 
formation, and may thus bud off moons 
or satellites. 

If the nebula were not in rapid rotation, 
a slight disturbing cause, acting at the 
critical moment when a planet was being 
ejected, might determine the inclination 
of the planet's orbit, which might thus 
be very oblique to the equatorial plane 
of the nebula. Thus the hypothesis is not 
open to one of the objections which have 
been urged against that of Laplace — 
namely, that the orbits of some of the 
planets in the solar system are inclined 
at a large angle with the plane of the 
sun's equator. 

Jeans mentions two disturbing causes 
in particular which might easily arise — 
one the penetration of the nebula by a 
wandering meteorite, which might pre- 
cipitate an event already on the verge 

This illustrates Laplace's theory, which conceived of a vast nebula filling the whole space of the solar 
system and rotating around a central axis. The outer and thinner part had much greater move- 
ment than the denser central mass, finally being thrown off as a ring, which in turn rolled up into 
a ball, still following the same course as the ring had followed. Thus the earth broke off from the 
sun and the moon from the earth. The theory is, however, no longer credited by scientists. 

The pear-shaped nebula is the theory of a young English mathematician. Professor J. H. Jeans. Starting with a 
spherical nebula, he argues that in cooling it will assume the form illustrated above, and that the smaller part 
will separate and form a satellite rotating independently but within a distance influenced by the parent mass. 

The spiral nebula in Canes Venatici, a revolving mass of gas or meteorites, supplies, according to the nebular 

hypothesis of Messrs. Chamberlin and Moulton, an excellent example of how the earth and moon were formed. 

We may reasonably imagine the smaller spiral to represent the moon in the act of being thrown off by the earth. 




of happening, and simultaneously deter- 
mine both the birth of a planet and thr; 
obliquity of its orbit ; the second, the 
presence of some distant mass, such as 
a star, which, by raising a quasi-tide in 
the nebula, would give the final touch 

-. , required to overturn its equi- 

neavenly i-i • ti • n 1 

_ . . librmm. Ihe mfluence of a 

^ ,,. . distant body, such as a passing 

Collision , , ■{' 1 J 1 

star, has been mvoked by 

Moulton in another version of the nebular 

hypothesis. In conjunction with Cham- 

berlin, he calls special attention to the 

spiral nebulae, which are by far the 

commonest kind, as presenting the closest 

approach to the conditions which obtain 

when planets are actually in course of 

formation. Chamberlin and Moulton enter 

on a detailed account of the manner 

in which they suppose the planets to 

have grown by the gradual accretion of 

meteoric masses as these encountered 

each other while moving in various 

elliptical orbits. 

At present it would seem impossible to 
speak with certainty as to the precise 
history of the solar system. Meanwhile, 
we may console ourselves with the closing 
words of Professor Jeans' paper, to the 
effect that " no difficulty need be ex- 
perienced in referring existing planetary 
systems to a nebulous or meteoric origin 
on the. ground that the configurations of 
these systems are not such as could have 
originated out of a rotating mass of 

An investigation by Sir George Darwin, 
which has furnished inspiration to such 
hyjjotheses as that of Jeans, brings us 
nearer the immediate subject of this essay, 
since it treats of one of the last acts in 
the great drama of planetary existence, 
and attemj^ts to derive the earth and 
moon from a common origin in a single 
rotating sphere. 

It is well known that, owing to the 
M/i. .i r» frictional effects produced bv 

Why the Day,, ,• , ,, . i/ • i • ■^ 

. _ . ' the tides the earth is being gra- 
Lon er dually slowed it rotates 

upon its axis. Thus the day 
is constantly getting longer, so that in a 
few millions of years it will have increased 
in length from twenty-four to twenty-five 
hours. On the other hand, in jmst time 
it must have been shorter than at present : 
a few millions of years ago it was only 
twenty-three hours in length, and many 
millions of years earlier it was still less, 
only some five hours or so. At that time 


the earth was hotter than it is now, less 
rigid, more yielding, and, owing to its 
rapid rotation, less stable. The action on 
the moon of the tides produced in it by the 
earth is similar, and the rotation of the 
moon has been so far diminished by them 
that its day has become as long as the 
month — i.e., our satellite only turns 
once round on its axis in the time that it 
takes to revolve once round the earth ; 
it is for this reason that our satellite 
keeps always the same face turned to- 
wards us. 

The retardation of the earth in its 
rotation has, however, a very remarkable 
effect on the revolution of the moon ; it 
involves — by the principle of the con- 
servation of moment of momentum — a 
corresponding acceleration of the moon 
in its orbit, and, as a consequence of this, 
an enlargement of this orbit — that is, 
the moon is pushed away from us, as it 
were, and thus becomes more remote. 
But if so, the moon must have been nearer 
to us in times past. It is possible to trace 
the approach of the moon to the earth 
as we go backwards in time till the dis- 
tance between them was only 

c oon ^^^ ^^^ ^ Y^^if terrestrial radii 

^ c 1. instead of the sixty radii which 
Our Sphere . .t_ at ^i 

now separate them. Mathe- 
matics do not take us farther back than 
this. But it is difficult to resist the 
suggestion that in the immediately pre- 
ceding stage of development the earth 
and moon formed together a single 

If we may adopt this view, then we 
must regard the sphere as subject to the 
tidal influence of the sun. It was much 
hotter, and therefore more yielding, than 
the present earth ; it was also rotating 
much faster, probably once in about four 
or five hours. It would be contracting 
as a consequence of cooling, and the 
contraction would lead to instability 
(gravitational instability) ; its rapid rota- 
tion would also tend toward instability 
(rotational instability). It is difficult to 
say which of these two, gravitational or 
rotational instability, would be the most 
effective ; but the combined result would 
be to give a pear-shaped form to the 
rotating mass, and eventually to deepen 
the constriction between the narrow and 
the broad end, till the smaller protuberance 
became comj)letely dissevered from the 
larger mass, and so entered on an inde- 
pendent existence as the moon. This 


final step in the process would probably 

depend on the tide-producing power of the 

sun ; the larger mass remained behind as 

the earth, whose individual existence may 

be said to date from this event. 

The young earth would be subject to 

very much the same conditions after as 

before the ejection of the 

ow c moon, and might very possibly 
Moon Broke • • ? v, j 

. agam pass mto a pear-shaped 

^*^ form, but without proceeding 

further through those subsequent changes, 
which would have led to the formation 
of another satellite ; and while possessing 
some such form as this, she might very 
well have consolidated. With advancing 
years she would lose, as we have seen, 
the activity of her youth, the drag of the 
tides would cause her to spin ever more 
slowly on her axis, till the day would 
become pro- 
longed to the I • . L U f S 
t w e n t y-four 
hours of the 
present. With 
this dimin- 
ished rate of 
spin, the earth, 
if free to yield. 
would lose tilt 
pear - shaped 
form and be- 
come an oblate 
spheroid, and 
the oblateness 
of this spheroid 

would con- 

tinuallydimin- the shaping of the face of the earth 

ish so that it Soon after the earth had cooled down, so that the oceans were formed, the would appear 

' ,j . shaping of the great continents began. The action of moving water in the ,■, , ,, j- 

would COntm- makingofnewlandiswelliUustratedbythevastdeltaoftheMississippi, where inat tne Qia- 

Uallvanoroach *" area larger than Wales has been formed by debris deposited by the river, j-fig^gj- drawn 

towards a true sphere. Suppose, however, 

great continent of Africa projects like 
the narrow end of a pear ; around it are 
oceans — the Atlantic, the Indian Ocean, 
and the Mediterranean Sea, which was 
once of far greater extent ; then comes 
a great dismembered ring of land, the 
two Americas, the Antarctic continent, 
Australia, Asia, and Europe. Within 
these, on the side opposite to Africa, is 
the great Pacific Ocean, which covers 
over the broad end of the pear. 

A line drawn from somewhere in Central 
Africa to its antipodes in the Pacific, 
through the centre of the earth, would 
correspond to the long axis of the pear ; 
a second, at right angles to this, would 
correspond to its breadth ; and a third, 
at right angles to both, would correspond 
to the axis on which it rotates. A dia- 
meter of the earth taken through the 

equator is 



C^^fi relon 

Sou nd 




almost 8,000 
miles in length, 
the Polar dia- 
meter is about 
sixteen miles 
shorter, and 
this slight 
measures the 
oblateness of 
the spheroid, 
or the depar- 
ture of the 
form of the 
earth from a 
true sphere. 
Further, it 

that the earth as it cooled lost its power 
of readily yielding — and at present it is 
more rigid than a globe of steel — then it 
would pass from form to form, not by a 
flowing movement, but by a series of 
ruptures, and its form at any moment 
might be a little in arrear of that which 
it would have possessed if it had been in 
the fluid state. 

Thus it might indeed be possible still 
to discover some trace of an old-fashioned 
form in the existing planet ; and a careful 
examination of the distribution of land and 
sea as represented on a terrestrial globe 
does, in fact, reveal a remarkable sym- 
metry, in which we seem to recognise a 
surviving vestige of its early state. The 

by debris deposited by tne river, rnpter 

through Africa is about half a mile longer 
than the equatorial diameter taken at 
right angles to it, and this insignificant 
quantity measures the departure of the 
form of the earth from that of an oblate 
spheroid to that of a pear, so nearly 
complete is the adjustment of its form 
to existing conditions. Before 
this nice adjustment was 
reached, the earth must have 
suffered many changes, passed 
through many times of stress and storm, 
and witnessed many geological revolutions. 
If, at the beginning of her career, the 
earth was molten, or at a very high tem- 
perature, she must have been surrounded 
by a very deep and dense atmosphere, 
for all the waters which now rest on her 






surface — oceans, lakes, and rivers — would 

have contributed to it in the state of 

steam ; and not till the temperature of 

the ground had fallen to 380 deg. C. could 

liquid water have begun to 

r D 4^ accumulate. Then a steady 

of Red-hot ^lo^npour of almost red-hot 

*"^' rain would have set in, filling 

up the neck of the pear and extending 

far and wide over its broad end. 

The temperature would now fall some- 
what rapidly, and in a short space of time 
the surface of the earth would have 
become as cool as it is at the present day. 
Directly the waters of the firmament had 
collected into the oceans, leaving behind 
an atmosphere like that which now 
exists, geological agencies of the kind we 
are now famihar with would begin their 
sway. Air and rain would exert their 
insidious power upon the rocks, sapping 
their strength, converting the hardest 
granite into soft sand and clay, which 
would be washed away by the rain 
through brooks and rivulets into the 
channels of many rivers, all hastening 
with their burden of sediment, to deposit 
it finally in the sea. Here it would 
accumulate, layer after layer, building up 
those mighty masses of strata which now 
form the greater part 
of the visible land. 
While this general 
action was every- 
where in progress, 
wearing down con- 
tinents and islands 
towards the level of 
the sea, more special- 
ised activities were 
assisting to the same 

The waves which 
fall upon our coasts 
are now constantly 
undermining the cliffs 
and extending the 
margin of the sea at 
the expense of the 
land, and rivers not 
only serve to trans- 
l)ort sediment, but 
cut down their chan- 
nels deep into the 

Action of 
and Tides 

rock, and so carve 

out the most varied two stages in the life of the earth 

1 inrkrnnpQ nf Viill nnH This illustrates in striking manner, based on the cal- f„„ rnorp widflv Hi<s 

landscapes 01 mil ana culations of the best authorities, the comparative sizes of ^^^ "1"^^ WlUCiy QIS 

valley from mono- theearth.first as a gaseous mass, and, second, after it had tributcd than are 

When we enter into calculations we are 
astonished at the rapidity with which 
these agents perform their work even at 
the present day ; but as we proceed 
farther back into the past, when the earth 
was full of youthful energy, their power 
must have been greatly enhanced. We 
might almost take the measure of the day 
as the measure of their work, for they 
probably accomplished as much during the 
eight hours' day which once existed as 
they do now in twenty-four hours. A 
little consideration will make this clear. 
It is the winds which, blowing over the 
surface of the ocean, produce the sea 
waves, and it is these falling on our coasts 
that perform the work of marine denuda- 
tion. But the winds are due in the first 
place to the heat of the sun, and the 
difference of temperature established at the 
equator and the poles ; and, in the next 
place, to the rotation of the earth. Thus, 
with the increased rapidity of 
rotation which we know to have 
existed, and with increased 
radiation from the sun, a very 
probable contingency, the winds would 
increase in strength and more powerfully 
erode our coasts. Again, with the moon in 
greater proximity, and with a more rapid 
rotation of the earth, 
the tides would be 
much higher and 
more frequent, and 
these, raising and 
lowering the cutting 
edge of the sea, great- 
ly assist it in its work 
of destruction. The 
winds and the tides 
produce various 
marine currents, and 
these help to distri- 
bute the sediment 
which the rivers de- 
liver into the sea, so 
that when stronger 
currents flowed as a 
result of more power- 
ful tides and more 
violent winds, the 
sediments would be 
strewn over wider 
areas ; hence, the 
more ancient strata 
of our planet are 

t ono us 


cooled down and solidified into the planet on which we live, j-t,- ^f '[dor +im<:> 

The small dot represents 8,000 miles, the earth's diameter. mOSC OI laicr lime- 

In the days when the earths crust had formed but was still unstable, the process of cooling not having gone far 
enough, there would not be the mountains which now characterise it. These came when the earth contracted and 
crumpled up along certain well defined lines, which are now represented by the three great mountain chains of the world. 



the Earth 

Finally, a heavier rainfall would result 
from a more active atmospheric circulation, 
creating larger rivers, and thus, at the 
beginning, all those denuding agents which 
are engaged in wearing the land down into 
the sea would be working at a more rapid 
pace. Correspondingly, all the 
agents which are occupied in 
building up deposits of sedi- 
ments would have extended 
their operations over a wider area, laying 
down a foundation broad and deep. 

On the other hand, the contraction of 
the earth, due to the loss of its energy of 
rotation as well as of its internal heat, 
would also have proceeded more rapidly, 
new land would have emerged from the 
sea, old lands would have been submerged 
beneath it far less slowly than at the 
present day ; ruptures of the crust, 
accompanied by earthquakes and volcanic 
action, would have been more frequent ; 
and thus, by the more rapid loss of its 
intrinsic energy, the renovation of the 
earth would have kept pace with its 
accelerated destruction. 

One effect of the contraction of the earth 
which has manifested itself in even late 
geological times is the crumpling up of the 
terrestrial crust into the sharp folds of 
mountain chains ; but at the beginning 
this crumpling must have been far more 
universal and energetic. In this connec- 
tion it is interesting to observe that the 
most ancient rocks known to us— the 
Archaean — never present themselves under 
any other form than as intensely plicated 
masses. They originally consisted of lava 
flows and volcanic ashes, of ancient sedi- 
ments and limestones, into which subterra- 
nean masses of granite and other molten, 
deep-seated rocks have been injected ; 
but under the intense pressures to which 

they were subjected after their formation 
they and the invading granite have entirely 
lost their original character, and have 
been metamorphosed into gneisses, schists, 
and marble, all sharply and closely folded 
together. In any given district the direc- 
tion of their folding is maintained with 
wonderful constancy over great distances. 
There is no succeeding system of rocks 
that has been so completely transformed, 
so universally plicated, as this ancient 
Archaean complex. 

In later times we can pass from stratum 
to stratum of the sedimentary series 
and read their history almost as we turn 
over the pages of a book ; in the Archaean 
all are kneaded together into a state of 
such desperate entanglement as to defy 
the powers of human ingenuity to unravel 
them. Thus the line of demarcation between 
the Archaean and subsequent sedimentary 
systems is the sharpest and most absolute 
that is known to us in the history of the 
earth. It marks the close of our planet's 
infancy, the several events of which have 
passed into oblivion as profound as that 
of our own forgetfulness of our earliest 
days. Later events, on the other hand, 
are recorded in the stratified series with a 
faithfulness which increases as we approach 
existing times. 

A history without dates must seem very 
unsatisfactory to a historian, and the ques- 
tion will naturally arise whether 
we can assign any definite time 
to the various critical events 
recorded in the evolution of 
the earth. At present we can only make 
more or less plausible estimates. Thus, 
from a consideration of the thickness of 
the sedimentary crust, and the rate at 
which sediments are now being deposited, 
it has been asserted that the interval 


How Wc 

Know These 


which separates us from the close of the 
Archsean era may amount to about twenty- 
six millions of years. Professor Joly, basing 
his argument on the undoubted fact that 
the ocean derives the greater part of its salt 
from the dissolved material contributed 
to it by rivers, comes to the conclusion 
that the ocean first came into existence 

—. - about one hundred millions of 
1 ne Ocean . j j.v- 

fn/^ -ii- years ago. As regards the 

100 million 1 • ,, r°,, (V. ^ 

V ,j, birth of the moon, Sir George 

Years old ! tn • i - • 

Darvvm has given a minimum 

limit of fifty-four millions of years, but he 
adds that it may have taken place many 
hundreds of millions of years before this. 
Lord Kelvin has attempted to determine 
the time which has elapsed since the earth 
first acquired a solid crust. If we only knew 
the rate at which the earth is cooling we 
might calculate back to this time with 
some assurance of certainty, always, how- 
ever, on the assumption that the earth is 
simply a hot body cooling like any other 
hot body — such, say, as a red-hot cannon- 
ball. But a few years ago it began to be 
seriously suspected that this assumption 
was a very doubtful one, for a new ele- 
ment — radium — was discovered in 1898, 
which possesses the remarkable property 
of spontaneously liberating heat, and this 
not in small quantities, but at an aston- 
ishing rate. One gramme of radium, for 
example, gives out enough heat in one hour 
to raise the temperature of one gramme of 
water to boiling point ; hour after hour, 
year in, year out, this wonderful substance 
is setting free the energy it contains, and 
will continue to do so until, some thou- 
sands of years hence, it has exhausted its 
store. If this element should happen to 
exist in sufficient quantity within the 
earth, then the earth could not be said 
to be cooling just like a piece of hot iron, 
and the increase of temperature we experi- 
ence as we descend towards the interior 
of the earth might possibly be due to the 
heat set free from radium. Indeed, the 
Th P argument is not confined to 

P '' the earth ; it may apply also to 

. the sun, and much of the heat 

'"*''***' vve derive from that luminary 
mav be provided by bursting atoms of 
radium. This was pointed out by Sir 
George Darwin and Professor Joly in 1903. 
It became obviously a question of the 
first importance to discover what propor- 
tion of the earth's crust consists of radium, 
and an investigation was undertaken for 
this purpose by the Hon, R. J. Strutt, 

who finds that the rocks composing the 
earth's crust contain a superabundance 
of radium — ^sufficient, if this element is 
uniformly distributed through the whole 
earth in the same proportion as it occurs 
at the surface, not only to make good the 
heat which is radiated away into space, 
but actually to raise the temperature of 
our planet, which, on this evidence, should, 
therefore, be growing not colder, but hotter. 

This is a result as disconcerting at first 
sight as it is astonishing, and its effects 
are very wide-reaching. Of course, it com- 
pletely destroys the validity of Lord 
Kelvin's argument, but it also deprives 
the nebular hypothesis of one of its cher- 
ished lines of evidence — a loss which the 
force of the general argument enables us 
to bear with equanimit}^ 

In any case, the vast body of facts 
bearing on the history of the earth suffices 
to show that' its temperature cannot be 
rising. Mr. Strutt has, therefore, imagined 
that the radium is not uniformly distri- 
buted throughout the mass of the planet, 
and supposes that it is restricted to an ex- 
ternal zone forty-five miles in 
„" ^ thickness ; this would suffice 

veo grea ^^ maintain the earth at its 
existing temperature. If, how- 
ever, we admit a restriction of this kind, we 
are in no way bound to fix the limit at forty- 
five miles. All we can say is that we do 
not know how far downwards the radium 
reaches — for aught we know five miles, or 
even less, is as likely a limit as forty-five 
miles. Professor Joly, indeed, maintains 
that the radium we meet with is not proper 
to the earth at all, but comes from the sun. 

Radium is a short-lived element, its 
existence being hmited to a few thousand 
years ; but as fast as it decays it is repro- 
duced at the expense of another element — 
uranium — the lifetime of which is measured 
by hundreds of millions of years. 

The last quarter of a century has proved 
fertile in great discovcries^more so than 
any corresponding ])eriod in the past. As 
a result, the whole world of scientific 
thought has been thrown into commo- 
tion ; old-established theories, and even 
the most fundamental notions, seem to be 
in a state of flux. Under the stimulus of 
new ideas great questions, such as the 
constitution of matter, the origin of 
species, and the birth of worlds are being 
re-investigated with renewed energy, and 
we seem to be on the eve of great ev^ents. 
William Johnson Sollas 


A Postscript to Professor Sollas's Chapter on the Wonderful 
Story of the World's Birth, beginning on page 79 

■yHE earth was once " a fluid haze of light." 
The whole solar system once formed a 
vast nebula, consisting of glowing gas, or 
a swarm of meteoroids. Our planet was 
slowly shaped into a globe out of this primi- 
tive nebula. 

This globe was at first intensely hot, 
and probably liquid. A solid crust formed 
on the surface as heat was lost by radiation, 
and this crust consisted of the oldest rocks 
of igneous formation like the granites and 
gneisses. During this Archaean or Eozoic 
Period, the earth acquired its atmosphere 
and its oceans, and it is probable that the 
mysterious origin of life took place. 

The later history of the earth since the 
stratified rocks began to appear, and life 
existed, is divided into four main periods, 
of which the first is known as Primary, or 

The First Period of the Earth 

Cambrian System. The rocks formed in 
the Cambrian Age are mainly grits, quartz- 
ites, and conglomerates, with shales, schists, 
and limestones. The earth was then mostly 
covered by seas, and the first well-defined 
forms of life were of marine origin. 

Silurian System. The Silurian rocks 
are mostly sandstones, shales, and slates 
deposited in the seas. The first vertebrates 
made their appearance as fishes, whilst 
insects began to flutter in the air, and 
occasionally to alight on the emerging land. 

Devonian System. This was the age of 
the old red sandstone. Fishes reached a 
high state of development, whilst the first 
traces appeared of land vegetation, ferns and 

Carboniferous System. This system 
is exceptionally important, because its chief 
rock is coal, the fossilised remains of the 
luxuriant vegetation which grew in tropical 
swamps. The first terrestrial animals, true 
air breathers, now appeared. 

Permian System. The last of the primary 
systems gave us the new red sandstone, dis- 
tinguished from the old by lying above the 
coal measures. The Permian Age was appa- 
rently unfavourable to life, and is only 
notable for the first appearance of the land 
reptiles into which the amphibians developed. 

The Second Period of the Earth 

The Secondary Period marks the emer- 
gence of the dry land into importance greater 
than that of the sea. 

Triassic System. The Triassic rocks 
chiefly consist of sandstones and hardened 
clays laid down in shallow sea basins. Land 
vegetation now first began to assume a 
modern type, with conifers and cycads. The 
seas were still richly peopled, and the land first 
gave a home to huge reptiles, or dinosaurs. 

Jurassic System. This system is marked 
by a great variety of limestones, the product 

of dead sea creatures. It is essentially the 
age of reptiles. The ichthyosaurus disputed 
the seas with the plcsiosaurus ; the pterodactyl 
ruled the air ; whilst on land, huge monsters 
like the brontosaur and diplodocus browsed 
on tropical vegetation. From these reptiles 
the birds were developing, whilst small mar- 
supials, the oldest of the great mammalian 
race, skipped under the branches. 

Cretaceous System. This was the age of 
the great chalk deposits. The birds, now 
emerging from their reptilian ancestry, 
dominated its life, and the first modern 
plants appeared on the land. 

The Third Period of the Earth 

The Tertiary Period marks the true begin- 
ning of modern geological history, when the 
great outlines of geography were laid down, 
and the first representatives of modern plants 
and animals made their appearance. 

Eocene System. The Eocene rocks are 
mainly limestones, with sandstone and 
hardened clays. We owe them to the sea and 
its organisms. Modern evergreen trees now 
first appeared. The mammals come to the 
front, with the tapir-like palaeotherium and 
the first recognisable ancestor of the horse. 

Miocene System. The Miocene Age 
was a mountain-building period, when the 
great chain which runs from the Alps into 
Central Asia received its final uplift. 
Deciduous trees, like the beech and elm, now 
made their appearance. The giant masto- 
don and the formidable sabre-toothed tiger 
roamed the Miocene forest, and true apes — 
man's first forerunners — mopped and mowed 
in the boughs. 

Pliocene System. The last of the 
Tertiary ages set the final stamp on the 
geological moulding of the earth's crust. 
Its plants were transitional to the flora of 
modern Europe. Great herds of herbivora 
now appeared. 

The Fourth Period of the Earth 

The Quaternary Period is that in which we 
are still living. Its outstanding feature is 
the appearance of man. 

Pleistocene or Glacial System. Its 
essential feature was the appearance of 
glacial conditions over most of the northern 
hemisphere, when great ice sheets rubbed 
our land into shape. The vegetation was 
Arctic, and only animals like the reindeer and 
the hairy mammoth could endure the cold. 

Human or Recent System. The pre- 
cise antiquity of man is still uncertain, but 
it was only after the close of the Glacial 
Period that he made his home in Europe, 
where he shared a precarious existence with 
mammoth, cave-bear, and rhinoceros. Man 
developed through the Palceolithic and Neo- 
lithic ages of stone implements to the Bronze 
and Iron ages, when metal was first worked. 
In the last of these we live. 



This page is an effort, based on Professor Lester Ward's calculations in "Pure Sociology," to show the 
comparative length of each geological period, and the thin white line between Tertiary and Archaean indicates 
the period of human history. Thin as this line is— and we could not show it thinner — it is too thick, and out oi 
proportion to the rest of the clock. If we assume that from the beginning of the world — from its first forming 
into a solid sphere — to the present, time may be represented by a day of twenty-four hours, the time occupied 
by human history does not exceed twelve seconds. This is reckoning human history as ten thousand years. 
There is, of course, no possibility of obtaining more than relative figures for such a scheme as this, which 
should be regarded in connection with the previous page and the chart of the Beginnings of Life, facing page 96 

The thin white line between the Tertiary and the Archaean periods represents the duration ot linnian history 

Geological Periods 


Laurentian . . 







Cretaceous . . 

Tertiary and Quaternary 






72,000,000 = 24 



At a rough gr"ess, three million years may be 
allowed for the Tertiary and Quaternary periods 

Geological Periods 

j Years 







Total .. .. 










Human History 

10,000 = = 12 





pARLY writers on the relation of man 
*--' and animated nature to the material 
universe not only assumed that the latter 
existed for the former, but that both alike 
were the results of special acts of creation. 
Furthermore, they usually took it for 
granted that all things were created very 
much in the condition in which we now 
see them, and that any changes that have 
since taken place are but slight superficial 
modifications of a permanent and un- 
changing whole. Not only were the sun 
and moon and stars created as appanages 
of the earth, but the earth itself in all its 
details of sea and land, hills and valleys, 
mountains and precipices, swamps and 
deserts, was made and fashioned just as 
we now see it, and every feature of its 
surface was supposed to have some 
j)urpose in connection with man. 

These purposes we could, in some cases, 
understand, while in others they seemed 
Th OIH wholly unintelligible, and much 
J . J ingenuity was bestowed by the 
Q . natural theologian and others 

to explain more and more of 
the observed facts from this point of view. 
The same opinions prevailed in regard to 
the infinite variety of animals and plants, 
each individual species being supposed to 
have been an independent creation, and 
all to have some definite and preordained 
purjiose in relation to mankind. 

These views, however absurd they seem 
to most people now, were almost univer- 
sally held so recently as during the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries, and were 
thus coincident with one of the most 
brilliant ej^ochs of our literature and our 
dawning science It was only towards 
the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
when geology became widely studied and 
its results were fully appreciated, that the 
more rational conception of a very slow 
development of the earth's surface during 
countless ages began to be generally 

The grand nebular hypothesis of Laplace 
came to reinforce the views of the geolo- 

gists, by showing how the earth itself may 
have . originated as a gaseous or molten 
g'obe ; and its slow process of cooling, with 
the reaction of the interior and exterior 
on each other, served to elucidate the facts 
of the heated interior, as shown by hot 
springs and volcanoes, as well as many of 
the phenomena presented by the distorted 
Changing ^"^ ^ metamorphosed strata 
Conditions ^^^'^^ ^^^^^d its crust. Hence it 
of the Earth f>'^''ifi"ally came to be perceived 
that the condit on of the earth, 
with all its endless variations of surface, 
of continents and oceans, of seas and 
islands, of vast plateaux and lofty 
mountain ranges and extensive low and 
plains, with their ravines and cataracts, 
their great lakes and stately rivers, was 
subject to perpetual change, f om that 
remote epoch when it seems to have 
been actually the case that " the earth 
was without form and void," and that 
owing to the greater density of the vapour- 
laden atmosphere, " darkness was upon 
the face of the deep." 

Another field of geological research 
forced us to the conclusion that the same 
continued process of change had affected 
the forms of life upon the earth. When 
carefully investigated, the crust was found 
to abound in the fossilised remains of 
animals and ])lants. Careful study of 
these showed that the oldest of all were 
of comparatively simple structure, . nd 
that the higher forms only appeared in 
more recent epochs ; while the highest of 
all were probably very little older than 

Changing ^^^^ ^'^''^^- ^ [* /^ only 
Forms durmg the last half century 

of Life *^^^ *^^ theory of Evolution 

has been elaborated and has 
become generally accepted as applicable 
to the whole of the vast cosmic process 
--from the development of the nebu'.T 
into stars and suns and systems, with 
a corresponding development of planets 
from an early condition of intense heat, 
through a more or less lengthy period 
of cooling and contraction, to an ultimate 



state of refrigeration, the earlier and later 
stages being alike unsuited to the existence 
of hfe. 

More important still, the discovery of 
the theory of Natural Selection by Darwin 
— and at a later period by myself — has 
led to a satisfactory explanation of the 
successive appearance of higher and more 
complex forms of life, and also 

eory o ^^ ^^^^^ wonderfully minute and 

Natural , j l, ,■ r 

c , .. complex adaptation of every 

Selection r , ./ ... J^ 

species to its conditions of 

existence, and to its organic as wel' as 
its inorganic environment, which all other 
theories — even the most recent — have 
failed to gra])j:)le with. 

The logical completeness as well as the 
extreme simi:)licity of this explanation of 
organic evolution has led great numbers 
of thoughtful but ill-informed persons to 
reject it, because it seems to render un- 
necessary the existence of a primary 
intelligent cause ; while another equally 
large but, as I think, equally ill-informed 
class — the so-called monists — use it to 
demonstrate the non-existence, or, at all 
events, the needlessness, of any such cause. 
Both alike err, because they fail to take 
cognisance of the fact that every form of 
evolution, and pre-eminently that of the 
organic world, is an explanation of a 
process of change, a law of development, 
not in any sense or by any possibility an 
explanation of fundamental laws, causes, 
or origins. It presupposes the existence 
not only of matter — itself a thing whose 
nature is becoming more and more 
mysterious and unthinkable with the 
advance of physical science — but of all 
the vast comi)lex of laws and forces 
which act upon it — mechanical, physical, 
chemical, and electrical laws and forces — 
al more or less dependent on the still more 
mysterious, all-pervading ether. Thus, the 
universe n its purely physical and in- 
organic aspect is now seen to be such an 
overwhelmingly complex organism as to 
„, . , , suggest to most minds some 

Wonderful "^ 

Complexity of 

vast ntelligent power per- 

the Universe ^'^[^"g ^"-J sustaining it. 

Persons to whom this seems 
a logical necessity will not be much disturbed 
by the dilemma of the agnostics — that, how- 
ever wonderful the material universe may 
be, a being who could bring it into existence 
must be more wonderful, and that they 
prefer to hold the lesser marvel to be self- 
existent rather than the greater. When, 
however, we pass from the inorganic to 


the organic world, governed by a new set 
of laws, and apparently by some regulating 
and controlling forces altogether distinct 
from those at work in inorganic nature ; 
and when, further, we see that these organ- 
isms originated at some definite epoch 
when the earth had become adapted to 
sustain them, and thereafter developed 
into two great branches of non-sentient 
and sentient life, the latter gradually 
acquiring higher and higher senses and 
faculties till it culminated in man— ^a 
being whose higher intellectual and moral 
nature seems adapted for, even to call 
for, indefinite development — this logical 
necessity for some higher intelligence to 
which he himself owes his existence, and 
which alone rendered the origin of sentient 
life possible, will seem still more irre- 

The preceding remarks arc intended to 
suggest that the theory of evolution, 
combined with the quite recent and very 
startling advances in physical science, so 
far from making the universe around us 
more intelligible as a self-sustaining and 
self-existent whole, has really rendered it 
less so, by showing that it is 

n 'f . J .t infinitely more complex than 
Behind the 1 j <■ 1 j 

^ we had formerly supposed ; 

and further, that matter itself, 
instead of being, as was once believed, a 
comparatively simple thing, eternal and 
indestructible, is in all its various forms sub- 
ject to decay and disintegration. We now 
see that the only thing known to us that we 
can conceive as having unending existence 
is mind itself ; and, just as Darwin's theory 
of Natural Selection has opened up to us 
an infinite field of study and admiration 
in the forms and colours and mutual 
relations of the various species of animals 
and plants, so does modern science open 
up to us new and unfathomable depths in 
the inner structure of matter and of the 
cosmos, and thus compels us more and 
more to recognise a mental rather than 
a mere physical substratum to account 
for its existence. 

There is, however, another set of rela- 
tions which have been hitherto very little 
studied — those between the organic and 
the inorganic worlds in their broader 
asjjects. These are now found to be 
very much more complex and more 
remarkable than is usually supj^o.scd, 
and they also have an important bearing 
upon the great problem of the origin 
and destiny of man This is a subject 


which opens up a variety of considera- 
tions of extreme interest, showing that 
the exact adaptations of our earth — 
and presumably of any other planets—to 
enable it to sustain organic life, from its 
first appearance and through its long 
course of development, is as varied and 
complex and as much beyond the pos- 
sibihties of chance coincidences as are 
any of the individual adaptations of 
animals and plants to their immediate 
environment. Most of these latter adap- 
tations have been made known to us by 
Darwin and his followers, and they have 
excited the admiration and astonishment 
of all lovers of Nature. When the ante- 
cedent and grander relations of planet to 
hfe are studied with equal care, these also 
will, I believe, excite deeper admiration, 
still' more profound astonishment, be- 
cause any secondary laws that could have 
brought them about are less easy to dis- 
cover, or even to imagine. 

Before we can form any adequate 
idea of the nature of a world which shall 
be able to support and develop organic 
life, we must consider what are the special 
conditions that alone render 
such hfe possible. We, of 

of Life 

course, refer to the whole of 
the organic world, from the 
lowest to the highest, not to the few 
exceptional cases in which life may be 
possible under conditions that would be 
fatal to the higher as well as to most of 
the lower forms. 

The one striking speciahty of the higher 
animals— and to a less degree of the 
higher i)lants — is that of continuous, all- 
})ervading motion, every portion of their 
substance being in a state of flux : each 
particle itself moving, growing, living and 
dying, and being replaced by other 
particles of the same nature and fulfilling 
the same functions. To keep up this 
growth, and to enable every part of the 
structure to be continually renewed, food 
is required. This is taken into the 
stomach of animals in the solid or liquid 
form, is then decomposed and recomposed, 
that which is useless or superfluous being 
thrown off by the intestines, while what 
is needed for growth is transformed 
into blood and by a wonderfully intricate 
system of branching tubes is carried to 
every part of the body, furnishing nourish- 
ment and repair alike to bone and muscle, 
to all the internal organs and all the out- 
ward integuments, and to that marvel- 

lously complex nervous system which 
also permeates every part of the body 
and is essential to the higher mani- 
festations of life— to the exertion of 
force, voluntary motion, and, apparently, 
to thought itself. Add to this the constant 
influx of air, which at once purifies the 
blood and supplies animal heat, and is so 
important that its cessation 
The Miracle ^^^ ^ ^^^ minutes is usually 

?5 , .- fatal, and we have a machine 

Human Life ^^ complex in its structure and 
mode of action that the most elaborate 
of human machines is but as a grain of 
sand to a world in comparison. 

Now the very possibil.ty of such a 
material organism as this depends upon 
a highly complex form of matter termed 
protoplasm, which is at once extremely 
plastic and of extreme instability, and is 
yet capable of secreting or building up its 
atoms into such solid and apparently 
durable forms as bone, horn, and hair, 
besides the various liquids and semi- 
solids which buid up the organism. 
This fundamental organic substance con- 
sists of only four chemical elements — 
nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon, 
and almost all animal and vegetable 
structures and products have the same 
elemental constitution, though with such 
widely different characteristics. Four 
other elements — sulphur, hme, silicon, and 
phosphorus — also occur in small quantities 
in organic tissues, to supply special needs ; 
but these are not essential to all forms of 
life, and are only taken up and utilised by 
the living protoplasm when required. 
Protoplasm is undoubtedly the basis of 
physical hfe, yet it only exists in, and is 
produced by, living organisms. The 
moment such an organism dies, disorgan- 
isation and decay set in, and the whole 
mass becomes gradually changed into 
more stable compounds, or into its con- 
stituent elements. It appears, therefore, 
that some agency— usually termed "vital 
force " — must be at work, 
®*^'* first to produce this wonderful 

of Physical compound, then to form ,t 
into " cells "—the physiological 
units of all organisms — and afterwards 
to direct the energies supplied by heat 
and light so as to build up the exces- 
sively complex structures, with all 
their wonderful powers and potentiahties, 
which we term animals and plants. All 
this seems to imply not "a force " only, 
but very many forces, all of which must 



hav^e some kind of mind in or behind them, 
to direct these forces to such infinitely 
varied yet perfectly defined ends. 

Consider for a moment one of the 
simplest of these cases. Let us take the 
minute seed of one of the great tropical 
fig-trees, and another seed of a strawberry, 
or of garden cress. Both will be about the 
same size and shape, and the 
"""^^ most acute microscopist would 
° jj not find any difference in the 
very ay -j^^gj-j^^j Structure that could 
intelligibly account for the different results 
when these httle grains of protoplasm are 
exposed to identical conditions. For, 
even if planted near each other, and 
exposed to the same amount of heat and 
moisture, to the very same atmosphere, 
and the same kind of water, as well as 
identically the same soil, yet invariably 
the one will grow into a large tree, the 
other into a small herb, and in the course 
of time, still with no change whatever of 
the physical conditions to which both are 
exposed, each will produce its peculiar 
foliage, and flowers, and fruit, very 
different in all their characters from those 
of the other. Were this result not so 
common as to seem to us " natural," we 
should call it a miracle ; and it is really 
and essentially as inexplicable as many 
things which are termed miracles only 
because they are unfamiliar and 

Now, this wonderful substance, the phy- 
sical base of all life — and as it is the only 
base that exists, or has ever existed, 
on the earth, we may fairly assume that 
no other is possible — can only maintain 
itself and perform its functions under 
certain very definite conditions, which con- 
ditions are now maintained on our earth's 
surface, and must have been maintained 
throughout the long geological periods 
during which life has been slowly develop- 
ing What these conditions are we will 
now proceed to show. 

The first essential for organic 
life is a certain very limited 
range of temperature. We are 
so accustomed to consider the 
change of temperature from winter to 
summer, from day to night, and that 
which occurs when we pass from the 
tropics to the Polar regions as being very 
great, that we do not realise what a small 
proportion such changes bear to the whole 
range of temperature that exists in the 
known universe. The absolute zero of 


The First 
for Life 

temperature is calculated to be minus 
461° F., while the heat of the sun has been 
determined to be over 10,000° F., and many 
of the stars are known to be much hotter 
than the sun. The actual range of tem- 
perature is therefore enormous ; but any 
development of organic life is possible 
only within the very narrow limits of the 
freezing and boiling points of water, since 
within those temperatures only is the 
existence of liquid water possible. But 

a much less range than this is really re- 
quired, because albumen, one of the com- 
monest forms of protoplasm, is coagulated 
or solidified at a temperature of about 
160° F. Now, if, as is generally believed, 
the earth has been once a liquid or even 
a gaseous mass and has since cooled to its 
present temperature on the surface, and 
the sun is undergoing a similar process of 
cooling, we are able to understand that 
the very limited range of temperature 
within which life development is possible 
implies an equally limited period of time 
as compared with that occupied by 
the whole process of solar and plane- 
tary development. 

It must be imderstood, how- 
th^H*^t ^ ^^^'^' ^^^^ ^^^ present tempera- 

f^th ^s ^"^^ °^ *^® earth's surface s 
due entirely to sun-heat, and 
that if that were withdrawn or greatly 
diminished the whole surface of the globe 
would be permanently far below the freez- 
ing point and all the oceans be frozen 
for a considerable depth ; so that aU 
organic life would become extinct. Under 
such conditions no renewed develo{)ment 
of life would be possible ; and it is therefore 
quite certain that the sun has actually 
maintained the uniform moderate tem- 
perature required, and must continue 
to maintain it for whatever future period 
man is destined to continue his existence 
upon the earth. 

But it is not only a certain amount of 
heat that is required, but also a sufficient 
quantity of light ; and this implies a further 
restriction of conditions, because light 
is due to vibrations of a limited range of 
wave-length, and without these particular 
rays plants cannot take the carbon from 
the carbonic acid in the atmosphere, and 
by its means build up the wonderful series 
of carbon compounds, including proto- 
plasm, which are essential for the life 
of animals. What is commonly termed 
dark heat, therefore, would not be suffi- 
cient for the development of any but the 


lowest forms of life, even though it pro- 
duced the necessary temperature during 
a sufficient period of time. 

All organisms, from the lowest to the 
highest, whether plant or animal, consist 
very largely of water, and its constant pre- 
sence either in the liquid or gaseous form 
is essential for organic life. On our earth 
oceans and seas occupy the greater 
part of the surface, while their average 
de{)th is so great that the quantity of 
water is sufficient to cover the whole 
of the globe free from inequalities two 
miles deep. It is this enormous amount 
of water that supplies the air with ample 
moisture, such as renders the life of 
the tropics so luxuriant. Yet even now 
the inequality of water-supply is such 
that large areas in all parts of the 
earth are what we term deserts, only 
supporting a very few iorms of life that 
have become specially adapted to them, 
and certainly unfitted for the continuous 
development of life from lower to higher 

Water is also of immense importance as 
an equaliser of temperature, the currents 
of the ocean conveying the 
warmth of the tropics to ameli- 

Water and 



orate the severity of temperate 
and Polar regions, while the 
amount of water- vapour in the atmosphere 
acts as a retainer of heat during the night, 
without which it is probable that the sur- 
face of the earth would freeze every night 
even in the tropics. When we consider 
that water consists of two gases — oxygen 
and hydrogen — in definite proportions, and 
that without their presence m these pro- 
portions and in the necessary quantity 
the development of organic life would 
have been impossible, we find that we have 
here a remarkable and very complex set of 
conditions which must be fulfilled in any 
planet to enable it to develop life. 

But this is not all. The atmosphere 
is so intimately associated with water in 
its life-relations, and is itself so absolutely 
essential to the existence from moment to 
moment of the higher animals, that the 
two require to be duly proportioned to 
each other and to the globe of which they 
form a part. 

In the first place the atmosphere must 
be of a sufficient density, this being needed 
in order that it may be an adequate storer 
up of solar heat, and also in order that it 
may be able to supply sufficient oxygen, 
water-vapour, and carbonic-acid gas for 

the requirements of both vegetable and 
animal life. We have a striking example 
of the use of air as a storcr-up and dis- 
tributor of heat and moisture in the 
very different character of our south-west 
and north-east winds. The effect of the 
density of the air is equally well shown 
when we ascend lofty mountains where we 
find perpetual snow and 

ProTects* ^^^' ^"^ ^^"^P^y *° *^^ ^^^^ 

e' thV N' ht ^^^^ *^^ ^^^ ^^ ^'^^ dense 

^ enough to retain the heat 

of the sun — which is actually greater than 
at low levels — so that at night the tem- 
perature regularly falls below the freezing 
point. On the other hand a very much 
denser atmosphere would absorb so much 
water vapour as probably to shut out 
the light of the sun, and thus have a 
prejudicial effect on vegetable life. 

Again, there is good reason to believe 
that the proportions of the various gases 
in the atmosphere are, within certain 
narrow limits, such as are most favourable 
not only for the life that actually exists, 
but for any life that could be developed 
from the elements that constitute the uni- 
verse. Oxygen has properties which seem 
absolutely essential to organic life ; but 
nitrogen, though only serving to dilute 
the oxygen so far as the higher animals 
are directly concerned, is yet indirectly 
essential lor them, since it is in vege- 
tables a constituent of that protoplasm 
which is the very substance of their bodies. 
Now, i^ilants obtain their nitrogen mainly 
from the minute proportion of ammonia 
that exists in the atmosphere, and this 
ammonia is formed by the union of the 
nitrogen of the air with the hydrogen of the 
water-vapour under the influence of elec- 
tric discharges — that is, of thunderstorms. 
It is evident, then, that the required 
amount of this essential compound will 
depend upon a due adjustment of the 
quantities of nitrogen and aqueous vapour 
always present ; while the electric dis- 
charges seem to be due to the 
friction of various strata of air 
with each other and with the 
earth's surface, due to the winds 
and storms ; and winds are due to highl}^ 
complex causes, involving the rate of the 
earth's rotation, the rise and fall of the tide, 
the density of the atmosphere, the quan- 
tity of its aqueous vapour, and the amount 
of solar heat which it receives. Unless 
all these very diverse factors existed in 
their due proportion, some of the results 


Use of 



might be highly prejudicial if not quite 
inimical to the development of life. To 
these various adaptations of our gaseous 
envelope we must add one other. Carbonic 
acid gas in the atmosphere is absolutely 
essential to vegetable life, while it is 
directly antagonistic to that of the higher 
animals. Its quantity must, therefore, be 
strictly proportionate to the 

,t °** ^' needs of both ; and that benefi- 
. cial proportion must have been 

™ ^'^ *" preserved throughout the whole 
period of the existence of the higher air- 
breathing animals. 

These various considerations show us 
that our atmosphere, consisting as it does 
mainly of two common gases mixed 
together, and therefore seeming to most 
people one of the simplest things possible, 
is really awonderfullycomplex arrangement 
which is adapted to serve the purposes 
of living organisms in a great variety of 
ways. But this by no means exhausts the 
subject of its adaptation to support and 
develop organic life, because its very 
existence on the earth in a suitable quan- 
tity and composed of the essential ele- 
ments can be shown to depend on other 
and deeper relations which will now be 
pointed out. 

The older writers on the subject of the 
habitability of the planets took no account 
whatever of the importance of size, dis- 
tance from the sun, period of rotation, 
and obliquity of the ecliptic as determining 
the possiliility of organic life, but simply 
assumed that, because the earth possessed 
an abundant life-development, all the other 
planets must also possess it. But we know 
that the above-mentioned factors are of 
very high importance, as we will proceed 
briefly to j^oint out. 

It is now believed that the amount of- 

atmosphere possessed by a planet is due 

mainly, perhaps entirely, to the planet's 

mass, and its consequent gravitative power. 

Spectrum-analysis has shown that vast 

-, ... masses of gaseous matter exist 

Earth s • ,, ." 1 •- • 

„ , m the universe, and it is pro- 

of Gas hable that, in a state of 

extreme tenuity, these are 
very widely diffused. Just as meteoric 
dust is constantly attracted to the earth, 
and periodically in larger quantities, so 
are gases, and supposing the aggrega- 
tions of free gaseous matter to have been 
distributed with some approach to uni- 
formity, then, as planets grew in size, 
they would also tend to secure a larger 

amount of the diffused gases, thus forming 
deeper atmospheres. The observed facts 
agree with this view. The largest planets, 
Jupiter and Saturn, have such a depth 
of atmosphere as permanently to obscure 
any solid interior they may possess. The 
only planet closely approaching the earth 
in size and density — Venus — has an atmo- 
sphere which appears to be loftier than 
ours, but it may be composed of different 
gases. Mars, which has only one-ninth 
the mass of the earth, has a lofty but 
very tenuous atmosphere, and probably 
no water, the Polar snows being due pro- 
bably to the freezing of some dense gas. 
The climate and physical condition of 
Mars is, however, still a subject of much 
controversy, which I hope to discuss in a 
separate work dealing with the arguments 
of Professor Lowell [see page 105J. In that 
volume the reader will find, fully set forth 
my reasons, on scientific grounds, against 
the supposed habitability of Mars. 

But, besides attracting cosmic masses 
of gaseous matter to form its atmosphere, 
there is another equally important func- 
tion of the mass of a planet — its selective 

'.'I. r *!. power on the kind of gases it 

The Earth , i j • • 

_, , , . can permanently retain in a 

Selects and c . , 'ri 1 1 c 

., _ tree state, ihe molecules ot 

Uses Oas ,.. ■ , j 
gases are in a condition ot rapid 

motion in all directions, which explains 
the elastic force they exhibit. The speed 
of this motion has been determined for 
all the chief gases, and also the gravitative 
force necessary to prevent them from 
continually escaping into space from the 
upper limit of the atmosphere. Thus the 
moon, which has a mass only one-eightieth 
that of the earth, can retain no free gas 
whatever on its surface. Mars can retain 
only the very heavy gases, but neither 
hydrogen nor water-vapour. The earth, 
however, has force enough to retain all 
the gases except hydrogen, which is just 
beyond its limit ; and this may explain 
why it is that there is no free hydrogen in 
the atmosphere, although this gas is con- 
tinually ])roduced in small quantities by 
submarine volcanoes, is emitted some- 
times from fissures in volcanic regions, 
and is a jiroduct of decaying vegetation. 
Once united with oxygen to form water, 
it becomes amenable to gravity in the 
form of invisible aqueous vapour, and is 
thenceforth a permanent possession for 
us in its most valuable form. 

The very accurate adjustments that 
render our earth suitable for the production 


and long-continued development of 
organic life, culminating in man, may be 
well shown by another consideration. If 
our earth had been 9,600 miles instead of 
8,000 miles in diameter — a very small 
increase in view of the immense range of 
planetary magnitudes from Mercury to 
Jupiter — with a slight proportionate in- 
crease in density, due to its greater force 
of gravitative compression, its mass would 
have been about double what it is now. 
This would probably have led to its having 
attracted and retained double the amount 
of gases, in which case the water produced 
would have been double what it is — 
perhaps even more, because hydrogen gas 
would not then escape into space as it 
does now. But the surface of the globe 
would have been only one-half greater 
than at present ; so that, unless the ocean 
cavities were twice as deep as they actually 
are, the whole surface of the earth — except, 
perhaps, a few tops of submarine vol- 
canoes — would have been covered several 
miles deep in water, and all terrestrial 
life would have been impossible. 

From the various considerations here 
Th D ^^^ forth it appears clear to me 

. , . that no other planet of the solar 

Atmosphere , , ^ , 

of Venus system makes any approach to 
the conditions essential for the 
development of a rich and varied organic 
life such as adorns our earth. One only 
— Venus — has a sufficient bulk and density 
to give it the needful atmosphere ; but as 
it receives about twice as much solar heat 
as does the earth, it is probable that its 
very deep atmosphere may be mainly due 
to the fact that a large proportion of its 
water is held in a state of vapour, 'ts 
seas and oceans being proportionately 
reduced in extent. Judging from what 
happens on the earth, this would probably 
lead to an excessive area of deserts, and 
thus be inimical to hfe. But this planet 
appears to possess one feature which 
renders it fundamentally unsuitable for 
organic life. 

Several modern observers have found 
that the older astronomers were all in error 
in giving Venus a rotation-period almost 
exactly the same as ours, an error due to 
the indefinite and variable markings of its 
surface. They have now deduced a period 
about equal to that of its revolution round 
the sun — a rate whi^h has been confirmed 
by spectrum-analysis, and further con- 
firmed by the fact that this planet has no 
measurable polar compression. As during 

transits of Venus over the sun's disc the 

conditions for the accurate measurement 

of the compression, if any exist, are 

the best possible, and as none has been 

found, this alone affords a demonstration 

that the rate of rotation must be very s ow, 

because the laws of motion necessitate a 

-J.. ,. definite amount of equatorial 

Why there , , ^ ,. , 

, .- protuberance correspondmg to 
IS no Liifc ii , , TT ir ^r 7 

on Venus ^^^^' "-^^^ ^^® surface 

has, therefore, perpetual day 
and the other half perpetual night, lead- 
ing to violent contrasts of heat and cold 
for the two hemispheres with, in all pro- 
bability, correspondingly violent winds, 
rains, and electrical disturbances — con- 
ditions so entirely opposed to the uni- 
formity of temperatures and stability of 
meteorological phenomena during long 
geological epochs which are essential for 
the full development of organic life, that 
such development is perhaps less probable 
on this planet than on any other. 

I think I have now shown not only that 
no other planet in the solar system makes 
any approach to the possession of the 
varied and complex adaptations which 
are essential for a full development of 
organic lite, but also that on the Earth 
itself the conditions are so numerous and 
so nicely balanced that very moderate 
deviations in excess or defect of what 
actually exists in the case of any one 
of them — and of others not referred to 
here — might have rendered it equally 
unsuitable, so that either no organic life 
at all, or only a very low type of life, could 
have been developed or supported. 

If, then, the more superficial indications 
of design in the relations of animals to 
their environment, and of man to the uni- 
verse, have been shown by modern science 
to have required no special interference of 
a higher power to bring them about, but 
that they have been due to natural laws 
acting in accordance with and in subordina- 
tion to the deeper laws and forces that 
determine the very constitution of matter 
. and the unknown power and 
Pur''osrin P""ciple we term "hfe," — yet, 

Jll^vjlJ^ 01^ the other hand, we find that 
our world r 1 . 1 r , 

a more careful study of the 

outer universe, or cosmos, reveals a new set 
of adaptations not less wonderful or more 
easily explicable by chance coincidence 
than those presented by the organic world. 
Even the very brief sketch of the sub- 
ject here given suggests the idea of pur- 
pose in a world so precisely and uniquely 



adapted to develop organic life, and to 
support that life during the countless ages 
required for the completed evolution of 
man. But that suggestion becomes a 
logical induction when the whole of the 
available evidence is set forth, as I have 
attempted to set it forth in my work on 
" Man's Place in the Universe." I have 
there shown not only that the cumulative 
evidence for the earth being the only sup- 
porter of a fully-developed organic life 
within the solar system is irresistible, but 
that there is some direct, and much more 
indirect, evidence that this uniqueness 
extends to the whole stellar universe ; and it 
is ccEtain that no particle of aired evidence 
for the existence of organic life elsewhere 
has been, or is likely to be, adduced. 

I have also shown (in an appendix to 
the second edition of my book) that the 
purely biological argument for the unique- 
ness of the development of man — as the 

culminating point of one line of descent 
throughout the diverging ramifications of 
the animal kingdom — is overwhelmmgly 
strong ; hence the logical conclusion from 
the whole of the evidence is that man is 
the one supreme product of the whole 
material universe. 

My object in the present essay has been 
limited to showing that, besides and 
beyond the special adaptations of the 
various kinds of animals and plants to their 
special environments, there exist in the 
earth as a planet, in its various physical and 
cosmical relations, a whole series of adapta- 
tions of a very remarkable character which, 
so far as we can judge, are essential to its 
function as a life-producing world. The 
study of these adaptations, therefore, may 
be considered to be appropriate here, as 
constituting a preliminary chapter in the 
natural history of the Earth and of Mankind. 
Alfred Russel Wallace 






For some decades past we have been 
faced with a critical difficulty at the most 
critical and important point in the history 
of the earth. In the first place, it has been 
definitely established that in the earlier 
period of its history there was no life 
whatever — as the word is usually under- 
stood — upon the earth, as is abundantly 
shown elsewhere in this work. None of the 
conditions that make life possible, as we 
know it. were satisfied. As a recent French 
writer has said, life is an aquatic pheno- 
menon, absolutely incapable of existence 
except in the presence of liquid water ; 
and there was an age of vast duration 
in the history of the earth when all its 
water must have been in the gaseous 
state. Other reasons of equal cogency 
may be at present ignored. The broad 
fact is that, however widely students of 
this matter may differ on other points, 
there is absolute agreement upon the 
cardinal and initial fact that whereas 

Ti. r .1. there is life upon the earth 
The Earth ,, ^ ,. , 

now, there was a time when 

there was none. 

Now, in the ever memorable 
year 1859, Charles Darwin published a 
volume, the main thesis of which is now 
universally accepted, wherein the following 
is the last sentence : " There is grandeur in 
this view of life, with its several powers, 
having been originally breathed by the 
Creator into a few forms or into one ; 
and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling 
on according to the fixed law of gravity, 
from so simple a beginning endless forms 
most beautiful and most wonderful have 
been, and are being evolved." " The 
Origin of Species " may be said, in a word, 
to establish the doctrine of the evolution 
of living organisms upon the earth " by 
laws acting around us " — to use Darwin's 
own phrase. But Darwin's work begins 
with and assumes the existence of life 
as an established planetary fact. There 
obviously remains a tremendous gap 
in the evolutionary philosophy as it stands 
in our statement of it thus far ; and the 
first fact which we have to note is that 


the existence and recognition of this 
supposed gap, so far from being a matter 
of common recognition from the earliest 
times, so far from being an observation 
made by the critics of the doctrine of 
evolution, is, on the contrary, a speciil 
doctrine peculiar to scientific study and 

A Gap in the °^ ^"^^^ '"^^^"^ °"S^"' ^^'"& 

Philoso h '"'^l<^6d established — as was 

ofEvoTuuL supposed— within the memory 

of many now livmg. 

If we turn to the first chapter of Genesis, 
we shall see no suggestion or recognition 
of the supposed difficulty involved in the 
beginning of life upon the earth. In this 
immortal piece of ancient poetry it is 
stated that after the creation of the heaven 
and the earth, which were at first " with- 
out form and void," God said, " Let the 
earth bring forth grass . . . and it was 
so " ; and later God said, " Let the 
waters bring forth abundantly the moving 
creature that hath life ... let the earth 
bring forth the living creature after his 
kind." Here we have suggested to us 
the natural origin of living creatures in 
earth and sea under the will and direction 
of the Creator as conceived by the poet. 

Partly to the influence of Genesis, 
partly to the apparent facts of observa- 
tion, and partly to the views which would 
naturally be held by poets and thinkers, 
we may attribute the belief which has 
been held by man, simple and philosophic 
alike, since first men began to think, 
until, we may say, the third quarter of the 
nineteenth century — the belief that the 
lowest of living things arose by a natural 
genesis or so-called spontaneous genera- 
F" Id ^^^^ ^^ suitable materials 

11 rv *^- already provided on the land 
on the Origin • ,1 t, 

of Life °^ ^^ ^^^' ^ ^^^ "°^ 

suggested or believed that very 

large and conspicuous living creatures were 

thus bred, though it is true that the ancients 

thought even crocodiles to be generated 

by the action of the sun upon the slime 

of the Nile. The living creatures supposed 

to arise naturally in the womb of earth — 

the all-mother — were mostly small crea- 



tures, like insects and worms. The ordi- 
nary belief of the uninstructed to-day — a 
belief which they share with the greatest 
thinkers of antiquity and the Renaissance 
— is that the cheese-mite, for instance, 
is evolved from the substance of the 
cheese. Now, it is of particular moment to 
observe the vast contrast between the 
. significance of this belief prior 
The Coming ^^ the publication of "The 
° . Origin of Species " and its 

significance to-day. Before we 
accepted the doctrine of organic evolution, 
the supposed spontaneous origin of the 
cheese-mite in cheese, or of the maggot 
in putrid meat, was of no very great 
moment ; a maggot or a cheese-mite is 
an extremely insignificant object. So 
far as the great problems of the universe 
are concerned, a cheese-mite, as we say, 
is neither " here nor there," and its spon- 
taneous generation was not regarded as a 
fact of any great moment. 

But then there arose Darwin, who, in 
establishing the doctrine of organic evolu- 
tion already supported by his own grand- 
father, by Lamarck, and Goethe, and 
Herbert Spencer, gave an entirely new 
importance to the question. He demon- 
strated how we could conceive the evolution 
of all organisms, including man, from a 
" few simple forms," under the continuous 
influence of natural law ; and thus such 
forms ceased to be insignificant, and the 
manner of their genesis came to be a vital 
problem in more senses than one. Such 
organisms — the mite, the maggot, and 
even the mould — could no longer be re- 
garded as insignificant, for they were 
revealed as not unlike the ancestors of man 

The question of the beginning of life upon 
the earth had only to be satisfactorily 
answered for the establishment of the 
belief in a continuous process of evolution 
by natural law, even from the very begin- 
ning of the earth itself " without form and 

_ , ^. void," until the production of 

Evolution a ,1 i,- i, j. t • 

„ .. the highest livmg organisms 

Continuous i • i_ ■■ j- i ■ 

_ which it displays in our own 

A roccss 

time. And all ages, even by the 
mouths of their great thinkers and closest 
observers, had agreed in giving an ap- 
parently satisfactory answer to this ques- 
tion. It might well have been thought 
that Darwin was quite entitled to ignore 
altogether, as he did, the question of the 
origin of life. Everyone knew, so to say, 
that simple living organisms were every 


day evolved in organic refuse and else- 
where. Darwin himself, if we may judge 
from a casual remark in a letter, regarded 
the question apparently as purely specula- 
tive, and of small real moment. It is 
all rubbish, he says, thinking about the 
origin of life ; we might as well argue 
about the origin of matter. We must be- 
ware of illegitimately attributing opinions 
to the immortal dead, but this remark, 
though a casual one, does seem to suggest 
that Darwin regarded these two questions 
as on aU-fours, if not, indeed, as different 
forms of the same question, and that, if 
he had actually formulated his views, 
they would have taken the shape of the 
doctrine which asserts that life is implicit 
and potential in matter ; in other words, 
that when suitable conditions arose — 
such, for instance, as the presence of liquid 
water — matter would display the pro- 
perties of life. 

Now, the remarkable fact — one of the 
most striking in the history of science — 
is that the time-honoured belief in spon- 
taneous generation should have been 
attacked, and attacked with apparent 
success, just at the very time 
when it would otherwise have 
begun to assume real philo- 
sophic importance. For ages 
it had been accepted, taken as a matter 
of course, and not regarded as having 
any particular bearing upon the supreme 
questions. Then there came the time 
when this belief would have been an 
all-important link, without which the 
chain of evolution could not be com- 
pleted, a link without which we were left 
to contemplate a perfect chain of inorganic 
evolution — the history of the earth before 
life — and a perfect chain of organic evolu- 
tion — the history of life upon the earth, 
with an abyss between the two that could 
not be bridged, for how came life where 
there was no life ? A series of experiments 
were made, experiments in which, strikingly 
enough, some of the greatest evolutionists 
of the day took a leading part, and these 
seemed to upset, just when it was most 
wanted by themselves for the establish- 
ment of their new doctrine, the belief 
which had gone without question for so 
many ages. 

Now, some may be inclined to wonder 
how it should be that certain pioneers 
of the new doctrine of evolution, such 
as Tyndall and Huxley, should devote 
themselves with such persistence and 

An Abyss 
that could not 
be Bridged 


labour and force to the overthrow of a 
doctrine which was so necessary for the 
complete establishment of their own case 
— so much so, that when they had over- 
thrown it, they found themselves, as regards 
their own doctrine of evolution, placed 
in a difficulty from which they did not 
live to emerge. It is my own belief that 
this question can be answered, and the 
answer is of strict relevance to our present 
inquiry. I believe that Huxley and Tyn- 
dall were largely impelled by the desire to 
oppose a doctrine of the nature of life 
which was current in their time and is 
usually called "vitalism." We shall not 
begin to understand the question of the 
beginning of life upon the earth, as that 
question may be legitimately stated to- 
day, unless we fully realise in what terms 
the doctrine of spontaneous generation 
was accepted in the past, and an under- 
standing of this will teach us that the 
present-day revival of this doctrine pre- 
sents it in a form very different from that 
which it so long held. Our discussion must 
be somewhat philosophic in character, 
but the question at issue is a highly 
philosophic one, and the reason why we 
have made so little progress in 

^ . '/ ir answering it hitherto is that 
only Self- r • v , r 

^ men of science have too fre- 
quently discussed it without 
paying any serious attention to the pro- 
found philosophic questions which really 
underlie it. We have permitted ourselves 
to talk freely about life and matter, whilst 
claiming the right to take for granted the 
absolute validity of our conceptions of 
life and our conceptions of matter. 

It was universally held by those, 
philosophic and simple, who also held 
throughout so many centuries the belief 
in spontaneous generation, that there 
is an overwhelming contrast between 
living and lifeless matter, and it was their 
belief in this overwhelming contrast that 
led them to give to the doctrine of spon- 
taneous generation, as they held it, a form 
which cannot possibly be defended. The 
great character of life was conceived to be 
self-movement, this self-movement being 
displayed in the matter which composed 
the living organisms. But it was univers- 
ally held that matter, as it was seen 
otherwise than in living organisms, was 
obviously and notoriously inert, gross, 
brute, and dead. 

The great influence of Plato taught men 
to despise matter in this fashion, and 

there was the everyday experience that 
a stone lies where it is placed until some- 
thing from outside moves it, being, 
therefore, inert, whilst a living creature 
such as a bird moves freely at its own 
will. The more strongly men held the 
natural matter of which the earth is com- 
posed to be inert, the more necessary was 
_. it to suppose that when life 

J J. was displayed in it the dif- 

f PI ference consisted in the taking 

possession of this dull clay 
by a vital force — a mystic and wonderful 
principle of quickening — which endowed 
even gross, inert matter with activity and 
power. From the time of Plato until the 
last few years of the nineteenth century 
thinkers vied with one another in insisting 
upon the impotence and grossness and 
inertness of matter, and each fresh 
insistence upon this doctrine rendered 
more necessary a corresponding doctrine 
of vital force or vitalism, which should 
explain the amazing transformation under- 
gone by, let us say, the gross and inert 
matter composing food, when that food 
was converted by the " living principle " 
into the tissue of a living creature, and 
then displayed self-movement. 

This doctrine of vitalism, which held 
sway for so long, was naturally invoked 
to explain the origin of life upon the 
earth, when the advance of astronomy 
and geology demonstrated a natural 
evolution for the earth and proved that 
there must have been a time when no life 
was possible upon it. The prevalent 
conception of matter came in at this 
point and denied altogether any such 
monstrous doctrine as that the wonderful 
thing called life could spontaneously 
arise in the despicable thing called matter. 
The material of the earth, whether solid, 
liquid or gaseous, consisted of eternal, 
unchangeable, and indestructible atoms. 
These were moved as forces from out- 
side moved them. They had no energy 
p or power of their own. 

f D°^°d ^ ^^^^ simply thought of them 
»j as of incredibly minute 

grains of sand of various 
shapes and sizes, and it was as im- 
possible to conceive of life being spon- 
taneously generated in a chance heap 
of inert atoms as to conceive that a 
heap of grains of sand should organise 
themselves into a little organism. As for 
spontaneous generation occurring on the 
earth to-day, the development of mites 



from cheese and so forth, that was a very 
different matter, men must have thought — 
in so far as they thought at all — since 
cheese and flesh and so forth were them- 
selves products of life. It is well worth 
noting that the common doctrine of 
spontaneous generation was always held 
in reference to organic materials, such 
_ _ as the slime of the Nile — not 

y, .^ the dry sand of the desert. 

, x> t The reader may be inclined to 
of Pasteur , > ur t +u- 

say that men s belieis on this 

subject in the past generation make very 
confused reading, and indeed, that is true. 
But the fact is that their beliefs were most 
confused. The work of Darwin had 
staggered everybody, and straightforward, 
systematic, unprejudiced thinking was very 
nearly impossible in the welter of con- 
troversy. Nevertheless, something ap- 
parently definite was done. The doctrine 
of the beginning of life upon the earth 
was left almost undiscussed, and the 
accepted notion of the nature of matter — 
a notion which to us who know radium 
seems puerile — was left unchallenged in 
all its falsity. But the work of the great 
French chemist Pasteur led to a close 
examination of the belief that humble 
forms of life are daily produced from life- 
less organic materials, and the conclusion 
was reached that no such spontaneous 
generation occurs. 

This conclusion is of great importance 
in the history of modern thought, and 
it was proclaimed with much rejoicing 
and vigour as a great achievement of 
science, whilst some of its chief advocates 
seemed at times to forget the extreme 
awkwardness of the inferences which had 
to be made from it. The doctrine may 
be stated in Latin in the form of the 
familiar dogma, " Omne vivum ex vivo," 
every living thing from a living thing. 
Just as the existence of a man is quite 
sufficient to prove to us the prior existence 
of living human parents, just as we feel 
J, , . . sure that every beast of the 

Living Thing f "^ ^hat every oak has sprung 
irom an acorn developed m a 
previous oak, so, according to the doctrine 
of " Omne vivum ex vivo," we must 
believe that every living creature, whether 
human, animal, or vegetable, whether as 
big as the mammoth or as small as the 
smallest microbe not one-twenty-thou- 
sandth part of an inch in diameter, has 
sprung from living parents. Nature, 


according to this doctrine, was divided — as 

Nature, being a mighty whole, can never 

be divided — into two absolute categories, 

the living and the lifeless, or living matter 

and dead matter. Dead matter was 

notoriously dead and impotent, and life 

could not conceivably arise in it, though 

it could be used by life for purposes of 

food. On the other hand, living matter 

rejoiced in the possession of all those 

great attributes which lifeless matter 

lacked, and, in accordance with the 

contrast between the two kinds of matter, 

the living could never be produced from 

the lifeless but only from the living : for 

every creature, microbe or mammoth or 

man, we must trace back in imagination 

a series of living ancestors, differing 

perhaps in various characters, but always 

living. This series must be traced back 

and back and back until ? 

And there the difficulty arose. For 

the uninhabitableness of the primitive 

earth was a fact of which men of science 

were as certain as if from some habitable 

planet they had been able to gaze upon it. 

Notwithstanding the dogma of " Omne 

w .1. T. . .vivum ex vivo," it was im- 

Life Evolved i , , . ii, - 

, possible to assert that every 

*K f -f I living creature has an endless 

series oi ancestors. How, then, 

did life begin ? 

What we may call the doctrine of the 
older orthodoxy — the doctrine of special 
creation, of supernatural interposition for 
the introduction of a new entity into the 
scheme of things — offered one alternative. 
To accept it, however, would be to 
abandon the whole modern conception of 
natural law and of a universe which was 
not created once on a day, and has not 
been tinkered with subsequently, but 
from everlasting to everlasting is the con- 
tinuous expression to us of the Infinite 
and Eternal Power which to some eyes 
it veils and to others it reveals. Unless 
we are to abandon our philosophy, this 
alternative cannot be accepted, and it is 
now accepted by no philosophic thinker. 

Thus, whether " Omne vivum ex vivo " 
be true or false to-day, we are compelled 
to accept the only other alternative, which 
is that it has not always been true, or, in 
other words, that life was spontaneously 
evolved from the lifeless (so-called) at some 
remote age in the past. Just at the 
present time philosophic biology is out of 
fashion. Minds of the great cast which 
endeavour to see things in their eternal 



Photos by Gerschel, Maull Sc Fox, E. Walker, London Stereoscopic, Barraud, and Mills 


aspect have been lacking to the science 
of Hfe since the days when Huxley and 
Spencer were in the plenitude of their 
powers. Anyone who cares to compare 
the principal reviews of the last decade 
with those same reviews from the year 
of, say, 1875 to 1890, can readily see this 
fact for himself. In the absence of that 
deliberate thought and discussion without 
which clear ideas on any subject are 
impossible, what may be called the official 
opinion of biology at the present time is 
thus most remarkable and contradictory. 
On the one hand, it is strenuously asserted 
as a matter of dogma that at the present 
day no life is produced or producible upon 
the earth except by the process of repro- 
duction of previously existing life ; and 
on the other hand it is asserted — when the 
direct question is put, though otherwise 
the subject is simply ignored — that life 
must somehow or other have been 
naturally evolved in the past, presum- 
ably once and for all. I have called this 
opinion contradictory, and it is indeed far 
more contradictory and unsatisfactory 
than it may at present appear. The 
obvious question that the critic asks 
is, "If then, why not now?" 

" If then, 

The answer alleged is that, 
,,, of course, the experiments 

of Pasteur and Tyndall, to 
which some reference must afterwards be 
made here, merely demonstrated the 
impossibility of the spontaneous genera- 
tion of life in our own day or under any 
conditions similar to those of our own 
day ; but doubtless the first few simple 
forms of living matter arose by natural 
processes at some distant epoch " when 
the conditions were very different from 
those that obtain to-day." Now it hap- 
pens to be true that every difference 
between past and present conditions which 
physics and geology and chemistry can 
assert tends to the probability that if 
spontaneous generation is impossible now, 
it must have been a hundredfold more 
impossible a hundred million years ago. 
Yet for some three decades the great 
majority of biologists have been content 
to believe that spontaneous generation is 
impossible now, even though land and 
sea and sky are packed with organic 
matter under the very conditions which 
obviously favour life — as the all but 
omnipresence of life abundant to-day 
demonstrates — but that spontaneous 
generation was possible in the past when, 

by the hypothesis, there was no organic 
matter present at all, and when life had to 
arise in the union and architecture of 
such simple substances as inorganic car- 
bonates ! Such biologists are like those 
who know that the human organism can 
be developed from the microscopic 
germ in a few years, but find it 
, _ ., -, incredible that man can have 

Is Life Now 1 J ^ J X 11 

... , been developed from lowly 
Arising from ■ ■ j- -^ 

♦K I -f I 9 organisms m aeons of aeons. . 

JNor has any livmg biologist 

even attempted to make an adequate 

answer to the question, why what is 

impossible now should have been possible 

a hundred million years ago. On the 

contrary, so soon as the matter is looked 

at philosophically, we see that all the 

probabilities, all the analogies, all the 

great generalisations of science, are in 

favour of the belief that life must be 

arising from the lifeless now, as in the 

past, whenever certain conditions, such 

as the assemblage of carbon, oxygen, 

nitrogen and hydrogen in the presence of 

liquid water, are satisfied. 

For the moment, however, I propose to 
postpone this question of the truth of 
" Omne vivum ex vivo " at the present 
day, for I desire to throw into the fore- 
front of my argument two quite recent 
developments of science, unreckoned with 
because non-existent in the controversy 
of the 'seventies, and in my judgment not 
yet duly appraised to-day. In the present 
and future discussion of the manner and 
causation of that supreme event in the 
earth's history, the beginning of life upon 
it, we must reckon with two new orders of 
inquiry relating to facts unthinkably con- 
trasted in physical magnitude yet equally 
relevant to our subject. The first series 
of facts with which I will deal are astro- 
nomic, and the second atomic. 

In discussing the origin of life upon the 

earth, we of the twentieth century must 

recognise such facts as may be obtainable 

in regard to life upon other 

orbs than ours. Now, in the 

i^^i!" \iT ij first place, there is at least 
Other Worlds fi . • 

one illustrious contemporary 

astronomer. Professor Pickering, the chief 
living student of the moon, in whose opinion 
there are many evidences upon our 
satellite of the action of vegetation, either 
past or present. This, of course, is not 
the place for a discussion of that evidence ; 
it is, however, the place to record the 
most highly qualified opinion at present 

The Evidence 


obtainable, and to remind ourselves of the 

certainty that when the moon was first 

borne — or born — from the earth, life 

caqnot possibly have been evolved, since 

the conditions of temperature alone, to 

name one factor, were such as life could 

not sustain, no liquid water being extant. 

There is some reason to suppose, then, . 

that, whatever the present 
cgc a c ^^^g ^^y ^^^ ^-^g ^^^ ^^ Qj^g 

„ time spontaneously evolved 

on Mars ., ^ -' 

upon the moon. 

The second piece of astronomical evi- 
dence relevant to our inquiry is afforded 
by the planet Mars. This, of course, is 
a much controverted question, which 
cannot receive any discussion here. It 
suffices to note that Professor Lowell, who 
is admittedly the greatest living authority 
on Mars, has observed and photographed, 
not merely to his own satisfaction, but 
to that of an ever increasing number of 
astronomei's, signs of vegetation upon 
Mars. I will say nothing here as to the 
existence of intelligent beings there. 
That fascinating and momentous question, 
upon which there will doubtless be differ- 
ence of opinion for some time to come, does 
not now concern us. It is of quite sufficient 
significance for our present purpose if 
the existence of merely vegetable life, 
and no more, upon the planet Mars can 
be demonstrated, and there are now very 
few astronomers indeed who question 
this demonstration, however chary they 
may be of going any further. I submit 
that the question of the beginning of life 
upon the earth should not be considered 
without reference to the evidence which 
suggests the spontaneous origin of life 
upon the moon, and to the practically 
positive demonstration of the present 
existence, with seasonal alternations, as 
on our own earth, of vegetable life in the 
watered areas of Mars. 

These considerations were entirely un- 
known to the great controversialists of a 

_, _ ^ , generation ago ; but there 
The Earth s P , i r . , 
^ is another order of facts, en- 
rum mg tirely unimagined by them. 

Foundations , . •<, "^ -^ , ' 

which are now demon- 
strable and admitted. For them, or for 
most of them, the ancient conception 
of matter which we trace to Plato was 
substantially true ; nay, more. The 
recent work of the physicists and chemists 
had endowed that ancient conception 
of matter as gross and inert and dead 
with a new concreteness and vividness. 

One of the greatest physicists of the age, 
James Clerk-Maxwell, in his famous 
address to the British Association, spoke 
of atoms as the " foundation stones of the 
visible universe, which have existed since 
the creation unbroken and unworn." 
The accepted conception of an atom was 
that of a passive thing ; it had its own 
inherent shape and properties, which 
were impressed upon it at its creation. 
It had " the stamp of the manufactured 
article," as Sir John Herschell said, and 
throughout its endless history it responded 
to and behaved under the influence of 
external forces in due accordance with 
its shape and size. But it was unchange- 
able, inert and brute, the sport of its 
surroundings, like the mote in the sun- 

But to-day we stand amazed at such 
conceptions. We have learnt that within 
the atoms of matter there is a fund of 
energy so incalculably vast that the sum 
total of all the energies previously, 
recognised, and now to be styled extra- 
atomic, is as nothing compared with it. 
This is a change indeed, that all the 
energies hitherto known to us should be 
merely the overflow trickling 
from the immeasurable ocean 
of the intra-atomic energy, the 
very existence of which has 
been formally and repeatedly denied by 
practically all thinkers from Plato down 
to our own time. Matter is not gross and 
inert, brute and dead. The atom, the 
so-called unchangeable foundation stone, 
is, on the contrary, itself an organism, 
the theatre of Titanic forces about which 
we at present know practically nothing 
except that they certainly exist, and are 
powerful beyond all our previous con- 
ceptions. The atom is no atom, but a 
microcosm ; it is no more the unit of 
inorganic matter than the cell is really 
the unit of living matter. 

Now it is surely evident on considera- 
tion, though the significance of the change 
has been ignored, that the whole dis- 
cussion of the spontaneous origin or 
evolution of life in matter takes an entirely 
new shape when our old and widely 
erroneous conception of matter is aban- 
doned, and a true one is substituted. 
Life is a marvellous and characteristic 
demonstration of energy. When the 
origin of this energy in matter was 
formerly discussed, we were told that the 
constituent parts of matter contain no 




of Energy 


energy at all, but now we know that a 
quite overwhelming proportion of the 
sum total of universal energy is to be 
found there, and nowhere else. This is 
one of the most revolutionary advances 
in the whole history of thought, and its 
full significance has yet to be recognised. 
There must also be added an essential 
to any future discussion of this question, 
the extraordinary achievement of synthetic 
chemistry, of which Professor Berthelot was 
the grand master. As long ago as 1828 it 
was shown that there was at least one 
exception to the doctrine of the vitalists, 
that chemical compounds characteristic of 
living matter cannot be built up except 
by the living organism. To-day chemistry 
has succeeded in building up alcohols, 
starches, sugars, and even the forerunners 
of the proteids themselves, from the 
inorganic elements in the laboratory, under 
the action of non-vital forces. This fact 
could not be reckoned with a generation ago. 
We are now entitled to state very 
briefly the sequence of events which 
may reasonably be imagined as culmin- 
ating in the origin of life upon the earth 
for the first time. Whatever we may hold 
as to the present, we have to 
recognise that the origin of life 
for the first time constituted 
a fact utterly different in 
certain essentials from any origin of life 
that may be expected to be occurring 
to-day. The capital fact is that in the 
beginning there was no organic matter 
to serve as food material. If ever there 
was a case in which it is the first step that 
costs, it is here. Nothing can be easier 
than to imagine the spontaneous origin of 
Hfe in organic matter to-day, favoured 
with sun and water and air. The case is 
far different when a primary origin in 
inorganic matter has to be conceived. 
But of some things we are certain. We 
are certain, for instance, that so long as 
the earth's surface temperature was above 
that of boiling water, no life was possible. 
It was not until the gaseous water in 
the atmosphere became liquefied by the 
lowering of the earth's temperature that 
the production of life became possible. 
The first seas were seas of boiling water, 
or rather water infinitesimally. below the 
boiling point, and we may reasonably 
suppose, with Buffon, that the Polar seas, 
being the first to cool, mu.'^^t have provided 
the first " nest " for life upon the earth. 
I assume, of course, that this essay will be 


Can Che- 
mistry Build 
Up Life? 

read in conjunction with that of Professor 
Sollas upon the formation of the earth 
[page 79], and that of Dr. Wallace upon 
the exquisite adaptation between life and 
the earth to-day [page 91]. 

But how were those complex organic 
bodies formed, especially those vastly 
complex proteids with which all life 
whatsoever, as we know it, is 
" ^ invariably associated ? Apart 
P from the laboratories of the syn- 

thetic chemists of to-day, these 
compounds are always the products of 
pre-existing life, and yet without them 
there could be no pre-existing life. 

It is my belief that this most difficult 
question, which quite baffles us, will seem 
simple and straightforward in another 
generation, when science has devoted 
itself on a large scale to a study now 
in its very infancy — I mean the study of 
those curious bodies which chemists call 
ferments. The properties of ferments are 
shared both by the familiar ferments, such 
as trypsin and pepsin, and also by certain 
inorganic substances, such as the metal 
platinurn. Now, though pepsin is a product 
of living cells, platinum is certainly riot. 
Altogether apart from the living world 
there are substances which have powers 
of fermentation ; and ferments do not act 
exclusively, as is erroneously supposed, in 
breaking down complex compounds, but 
also build them up from their constituents. 
The powers of a ferment, moreover, 
are, so far as we know, inexhaustible. 
All life whatever is exercised by ferments, 
and it is true that life, chemically con- 
sidered, is "a series of fermentations." 
Now, there is quite recent evidence already 
which seems to show that certain ferments, 
acting in suitable material, have the power 
of reproducing themselves— that is to say, 
of converting that material into their like. 
These facts are highly suggestive, and it is 
difficult to refrain from suggesting that 
the gap between living and lifeless matter, 
which seemed so ■ absolute to 
ys «ry ^^^^. j^j^(.gg^Qi-3^ ^j^fj which even 

c *° ""^' ^^^ have a new con- 

ception of matter, seems wide 
enough, may yet be bridged by the 
ferments. We are far too apt, I think, 
to assume , that when we can see no 
intermediate stage there were no 
intermediate stages, and thus to make 
difficulties for ourselves. We declare 
that life began as a single cell, which was 
the starting-point of organic evolution. 


I myself believe rather that the cell consti- 
tutes" the acme of a vast epoch of evolution, 
which may yet be reproduced in brief in 
the laboratory. Denying or declining to 
think of this, the biologist who knows the 
amazing complexity and intricacy of the 
architecture of the cell may well decline 
to believe that such a thing could spring 
J c II ^^^^ ^ single jump from in- 

T. J * , organic matter. We preach and 
a Product of ^ , . , , ^ , ^^ , 

_ , ^. „ go on preachmg that ^lature 
Evolution? 3 J.I.- 1, ■ J • 

does nothmg by jumps, and m 

the same breath we declare that life began 
as a simple cell. In another hundred years 
we may begin to realise that a cell in its 
own measure and on its own scale is an 
organism, as complex and mature a pro- 
duct of evolution as a society, or, for the 
matter of that, as the atom of modern 
chemistry ! 

But the reader will legitimately declare 
that so long as the spontaneous generation 
of life to-day in the most favourable cir- 
cumstances is a proved impossibility, he 
cannot be expected to accept the doctrine 
of its spontaneous origin in the past. There 
are signs, however, that the biologists are 
now beginning to listen to Dr. Charlton 
Bastian, the sole survivor from the great 
controversy of the 'seventies, whose book, 
" The Evolution of Life," was published 
only a few months ago. Against Pasteur 
and Tyndall and Huxley, Dr. Bastian main- 
tained that their experiments, asserted to 
be conclusive, were not conclusive — the 
facts observed were certainly facts, but 
the deductions were unwarrantable. The 
experiments only proved the impossi- 
bility under the experimental conditions. 
The difference is the difference between 
proving what you set out to prove, and 
begging the whole question. First establish 
conditions under which spontaneous gen- 
eration is impossible, then demonstrate 
its non-occurrence under those conditions, 
and thence infer that it is impossible under 
any conditions. 

_ The student is right in 

ft ^^^ declining to believe in the 
P spontaneous beginning of life 

upon the earth so long as the 
possibility of spontaneous generation to- 
day is denied, but there are not a few 
who think that the most conservative 
attitude that can be adopted is one of 
suspended judgment. 

The present philosophic tendency is un- 
doubtedly in the direction of a return to 
the ancient conception that matter is not 

without its own degree of life, and that the 
distinction between the organic and the 
inorganic is a distinction of degree and 
not radical. Nature does not admit of being 
sorted into any of our puny categories. 
As the facts accumulate they point more 
and more definitely towards the opinion 
that hylozoism, or the doctrine of poten- 
tial life in all matter, will be part of the 
scientific creed of the future. 

Controversies as to the origin of life, 
judged in the light of this great conception, 
seem to become trivial if not puerile. 
Knowing, as we now do, that Plato's 
conception of matter was as false as it 
possibly could be, and having had re- 
vealed to us by radio-activity the omni- 
presence within the very atoms of matter, 
of forces incessant and stupendous, we 
find the doctrine of vitalism, however 
stated, to be wholly meaningless ; we find 
that the gap between the living and the 
lifeless is by no means abysmal or im- 

And the definition of life as self-move- 
ment seems to become almost comical, 
for on that definition surely the whole 
„ _ physical universe, the only per- 

ow ong pg|^^^^J^Q|-JQJ^J^g^chine we know 
E • t a ? of, is itself alive. A discussion of 
this question can at the utmost 
only be suggestive. Very few positive 
assertions have been made, nor can their 
number be added to, in reference to a 
question which is bound to be asked : How 
long has life existed on the earth ? The 
study of radium and its presence in the 
earth's crust alone suffices to abolish 
altogether the old estimates, and new 
ones cannot yet be substituted. Only it is 
certain that the past history of planetary 
life may be far longer than any previous 
estimate has indicated. It now seems that 
the earth is not only not self-cooling, but 
actually self-heating, and if on the older 
assumption Lord Kelvin could talk of a 
hundred million years since, so to speak, 
water first became wet, and life, as we know 
it, possible, who shall say of how long 
periods we may speculate now ? Mean- 
while, the glass-eyed stare vacantly around 
them and declare that the progress of 
science means the destruction of the 
spirit of wonder and reverence. To them 
we reply in the words of the Earth Spirit 
in Goethe's " Faust " : 

" At the whirring loom of Time unawed, 
I weave the hving garment of God." 
C. W. Saleeby 




ALL the world— at any rate, all that part 
of the world which is acquainted 
with the facts — is now agreed that man 
is a product of evolution, and that his 
remote ancestors were of different bodily 
make and shape, and of different mental 
type and calibre, from their late descend- 
ants. No study of human kind can be com- 
prehensive that does not include a survey 
of the mode by which the faculties that 
have given man the mastery of the earth 
were evolved. 

A history of his evolution, based, like 
a pohtical history, on episodes, cannot, of 
course, be written. But man is a bundle 
of parts and capabihties. By comparing 
the civilised being with the savage and the 
savage with lower animals, we are able to 
trace, in many important particulars at 
least, his natural history with a degree of 
certainty to which, I think, no political 
history can aspire. As our comprehension 
of adult man is helped by a 
We Know knowledge of the development 
the Present „r ,i i -ij ^^ ^„^ „„^^^c-+o»i^ 

by the Past 

of the child, so our understand- 
ing of our species is aided by a 
study of its past. Armed with some clear 
conceptions of what man was, and is, we 
shall be the better fitted to investigate social 
and political change, and to perceive how it 
happens that while some nations have 
inherited the earth and the fruits thereof, 
others have stagnated or fallen into decay. 
At a certain stage in his development 
the caterpiUar builds himself a cocoon. 
His dwelling is a wonderful structure, but 
from our human point of view the re- 
markable thing is that he does not learn 
to build it. He may never have seen a 
cocoon before, and he constructs only one 
in his life. Yet his work is perfect, or at 
least very excellent, and it is as good in 
its beginnings as in its endings. Evidently 
he ( -ves nothing to experience, but is 
imi^elled and guided throughout by a 
faculty which we term instinct. An instinct 
may be defined as an innate, inherited 
impulse, an inclination to do a certain 
definite act, the instinctive act, on receipt 


of a certain definite stimulus or incitement 
to action. In the case of the caterpillar 
the stimulus appears to be the sight at the 
proper time of a suitable spot in which to 
build a cocoon. Since this particular impulse 
does not appear at the beginning of con- 
scious life, it is termed a deferred instinct. 
Man, on the other hand, cannot build 
his house unless he first learns 
ow an j^^^^ ^^ build. He depends, not 

Learns by • i- j_ i ^ 

_ .on mstmct, but on experience. 

Experience ^, c ^^ ^ c 

Ihe faculty by means of 

which experience is stored in the mind is 
memory. The faculty by means of which 
we use stored experience to guide present 
or future conduct is intelligence. When 
the contents of memory are very vast, 
and the processes of thought by which 
they are utilised comparatively difficult 
and complex, intelligence is termed reason. 
Intelligence and reason depend, therefore, 
on memory, on ability to learn, on 
capacity to profit by experience. Memory 
is not the whole of intelligence, but it is the 
basis of it. Without memory there could 
be feeling and emotion, but no thought, for 
the materials of thought would be lacking. 
We always measure the intelligence of an 
animal by its power of profiting by ex- 
perience. Thus, a cat is more intelligent 
than a rabbit because it can learn more ; 
a dog, for the same reason, is still more in- 
telligent. A purely instinctive animal, 
one that has no memory, can have no con- 
ception of its past, and therefore no idea 
of its future. It lives wholly in the im- 
mediate present ; feeling, but not think- 
ing. It acts entirely on inclina- 
Instinct tion, not on reflection. It makes 
in Place of pj-Q^.j^ion fo^ the future, not 
Memory ^^^-^j^ ^^^ notion of providing, 
but simply because it has an impulse 
to a certain course of action, the per- 
formance of which gives it pleasure of the 
kind a child derives from playing or eating, 
and with the ultimate result of which it 
is no more consciously concerned than a 
child. If a caterpillar sheltered ii a hole 
with the idea, founded on past experience, 


The Basis 
of Rational 

of avoiding danger, his action would be 
intelligent. If, appealing to a memory in 
which a great number of complex expe- 
riences were stored, he took thought and 
designed himself a shelter in 
which provision was made for 
all sorts of remembered dangers, 
his action would be rational. 
But if, making no appeal to the past 
nor taking thought for the future, he 
builds only because impelled by an 
innate impulse, then, no matter how 
elaborate the edifice he rears, his action 
is instinctive. 

Animals low in the scale of life — for 
example, most insects — appear incapable 
of learning. But often they are won- 
derfully equipped by instinct. The de- 
tails of the behaviour of a small beetle, 
as quoted from Professor Lloyd Morgan, 
may not have been quite correctly ascer- 
tained, but the}^ are sufficiently accurate 
for our purpose. 

A certain beetle (Sitaris) lays its eggs at the 
entrance of the galleries excavated by a kind of 
bee (Anthophora), each gallery leading to a cell. 
The young larvae are hatched as active little 
insects, with six legs, two long antenna?, and 
four eyes, very different from the larvae of other 
beetles. They emerge from the egg in the autumn, 
and remain in a sluggish condition till the spring. 
At that time (in April) the drones of the bee 
emerge from the pupae, and as they pass out 
through the gallery the Sitaris larvae fasten upon 
them. There they remain till the nuptial flight 
of the Anthophora, when the larva passes from 
the male to the female bee. Then again they wait 
their chance. The moment the bee lays an egg, 
the Sitaris larva springs upon it. Even while the 
poor mother is carefully fastening up her cell, 
her mortal enemy is beginning to devour her 
offspring, for the egg of the Anthophora serves 
not only as a raft, but as a repast. The honey, 
which is enough for either, would be too little 
for both, and the Sitaris, therefore, at its first 
meal, relieves itself from its only rival. After 
eight days the egg is consumed, and on the empty 
shell the Sitaris undergoes its first transformation, 
and makes its appearance in a very different 
form. ... It changes into a white, fleshy 
grub, so organised as to float on the surface of the 
honey, with the mouth beneath and the spiracles 
above the surface. ... In this state it re- 
mains until the honey is consumed, and, after 
some further metamorphoses, develops into a 
perfect beetle in August. 

The beetle has sense organs ; therefore 
she feels. But we have no 
reason to suppose that she 
remembers or thinks. Memory 
would be of little use to her ; 
parsimonious Nature bestows 
httle or none. Cast adrift in a hostile 
world, she must come into existence 
ready armed by instinct for the battle of 

Instinct of 
the Beetle 


life. She has no time to learn, and during 
the rapid and strange changes in her 
career has little opportunity of acquiring 
knowledge that could beneficially guide 
her future conduct. Since memory and 
its corollary reflection are most developed 
in the highest animals, and are impercep- 
tible m the lower, they are clearly later 
and higher products of evolution than 

Family life is a product of memory, 
for the mate and offspring are r<j-cognised ; 
therefore it always implies some degree 
of intelligence. The young are watched 
and protected, and taught by the higher 
animals. Opportunities are thus afforded 
of learning about the world, and more 
particularly of acquiring the traditions, 
the stored experiences, of the race. With 
the opportunity to profit by experience 
comes the ability to profit by it, and with 
the latter a gradual decay of instinct. 
Intelligence is substituted, more or less, 
for unthinking impulse. All the instincts 
are not lost, but in the higher animals 
we find no such elaborate innate impulses 
as in the lower. " Sitaris " is able to fend 
for herself from the first ; but 
just in proportion as animals 
are highly placed in the scale 
of life, so they are helpless 
at the beginnings of consciousness, but 
correspondingly capable later. A young 
pig can run as soon as it is born, but the 
acquirements of the most learned pig 
are small compared to that of a dog, 
which, though more helpless than the pig 
at birth, is so teachable that he becomes 
the companion of man. Our domestic 
animals are all teachable, otherwise we 
could not tame them. 

Of living beings man is by far the most 
helpless at birth. He cannot even seek 
the breast. In him instinct is at its 
minimum. For him more than any other 
animal prolonged and elaborate tuition 
is necessary ; but so vast is his memory, 
and so great his power of utilising its 
stored experience, that in later life he is 
beyond comparison the most capable of 
the inhabitants of the earth. Compare 
what even a dull man knows, including 
the words of a language and its inflections 
and articulations, with what is acquired by 
the cleverest dog, and the immensity of 
the difference is at once apparent. We 
may take a solitary frog and rear him 
from the egg in an aquarium. If, subse- 
quently, we remove him to a pond, he 



at Birth 


will take his place with his fellows at once. 
He has little, if anything, to learn. In- 
stinctively he knows his food, and how 
to seek it ; his enemies and rivals, and 
how to escape or light them ; his mate, 
and how to deal with her ; and she knows 
how to dispose of her eggs. But how 
forlorn and helpless would be a man 
reared from infancy in a dark cell out of 
sight and sound of his kind, and then 
turned into a world where his experienced 
fellows struggle for existence ! 

Traditional knowledge — knowledge, that 
is, imparted by one generation to the next 
— is common enough amongst the higher 
of the lower animals, and forms no 
inconsiderable part of their mental equip- 
ment. Thus we may see the hen teaching 
her chickens how to seek food, and the 
cat instructing her kitten how to ambush 
mice. Birds and mammals inhabiting 
desert islands have none of that fear of 
man which in our country they acquire 
from dire experience. We have a saying, 
" as wild as a hawk " ; but Darwin 
relates how he almost pushed a hawk 
from its perch with his gun in the Gala- 

17. • ^t pagos Islands. Round our coasts 

Fear IS the Ii i ■ i ^■ ^ 

„ ,^ - the sea-birds are exceedmgly 

Result of , . 11 .. r J 

£ . shy ; m a harbor they teed 

xpenence ^^^^ ^j^g hand. Formerly 

the Arctic seals, impelled by fear of bears, 
inhabited the outer margin of the floes ; 
at the present day they have retreated 
from the more dangerous neighbourhood 
of man to the landward edge. Antarctic 
seals, harried by the great carnivora of 
the ocean, are watchful in the water ; 
on land or on the surface of the ice, where 
till lately they met no danger, they may 
be slaughtered like sheep in a shambles. 
They are capable of profiting by experi- 
ence ; but they are slow to learn, and can 
acquire but little. Judged by our human 
standard, they are very stupid. The means 
of escape adopted by Arctic seals, and 
the means of capturing them, the ships and 
f^uns adopted by man, furnish a measure 
of the intellectual difference. 

When animals are social, and so have 
the opportunity of learning, not only 
from their parents, but from other mem- 
bers of the species, the power of making 
useful mental acquirements is corre- 
spondingly great. It reaches a remarkable 
degree of development even amongst 
insects, some species of which live 
together in great communities. Young 
ants, for example, are tended with anxious 


care. It is said that they are led about 
the nest and instructed by older indi- 
viduals. They are reported to be playful. 
Most significant of all is the fact that 
some species have the habit of capturing 
slaves belonging to other species, which 
they take as pupse, never as adult ants, 
and to whom, as they develop, they teach 
their duties. The slaves are 


in the World 

neuter individuals, and have 
o7hrsrct's'""° offspring, the supply being 
maintained by fresh captures. 
It follows that the slaves must learn their 
work, and therefore that their performance 
of it is not instinctive, but intelligent. 

It is a fair inference that many of the 
so-called instincts of ants, are really 
acquired habits, bits of knowledge and 
ways of thinking and acting which are 
handed down from one generation to the 
next, not by actual inheritance, but 
traditionally and educationally, just as 
children receive from us language, or 
religion, or a trade. Indeed, there is 
reason to believe that the power of making 
mental acquirements has evolved to a 
greater degree in the favourable environ- 
ment of the ant-nest than among any other 
species except man. 

The instincts of man, though compara- 
tively few and simple, are yet essential 
to his existence. He has the instinct of 
hunger and the instinctive recognition 
of food as food, the instincts to sleep 
periodically, to rest when tired, and to 
sport when rested, the instincts of curiosity 
and imitativeness, and the deferred in- 
stincts of sexual and parental love, and 
perhaps one or two others. All these innate 
impulses he shares with the lower animals, 
but those which impel him to store and 
use his vaster memory are more developed 
in him than in any other type. Thus the 
instinct of sport urges him, not only to 
develop his limbs, but, through experience, 
to acquire dexterity and much besides. 
The httle girl turns naturally to her doll, 
, which she handles as she will 

Es'lential ^^^ ^^^^^ '^^^ P^^^ °^ ^ ^^^ 
ssen la ^^ naturally involves contests. 
Instincts 1 • 1 r 1 J J.-U 

which foreshadow the grimmer 

battles of adult life. As he grows older the 

character of his sport changes. More and 

more it becomes an appeal to the wits, 

an appeal to wider experience and a means 

of adding to it. 

The higher amongst the lower animals 

also have their sports, which, in every 

instance, are adapted to fit the members 


of the species for the future business of Hfe. 
Compare, for example, the ambush and 
pounce of the kitten, the ardent chase and 
overthrow of the puppy, and the chmbing 
prochvities of the kid. As a general rule, 
in proportion as an animal is capable of 
becoming intelligent, and as long as it is so 
capable, it is inclined to sport. A cat 

loses the desire early in life, 
Pla Fits it ^ ^^^ retains it to the end. 
r ^Ti. r^/ A child's play, therefore, 
for the Future • ■ t .• r 

IS no mdication of mere 

frivolity. It is the outward and visible sign 
of an eager and splendidly directed mental 
activity. Curiosity also prompts the child 
to store its memory. Imitativeness impels 
him to acquire those mental traits which 
enabled his progenitors to survive in their 
world. Parental love prompts to the care 
and instruction of offspring. Very illu- 
minating and beautiful is the instinctive 
delight of some dull and careworn mother 
in babyish play with her infant, and 
her joy when it first "takes notice," and 
in its earliest beginnings of speech and 

Every animal species is fitted by its 
structures and their associated faculties 
to its particular place in Nature. In some 
cases it holds its own largely through the 
evolution of some one structure or group 
of structures. Thus, the bat is especially 
distinguished by the great development 
of its fingers and of the web between 
them, and the elephant by its trunk. 
The principal distinguishing physical pecu- 
liarity of man is the enormous relative 
size in him of that upper part of the verte- 
brate brain which is termed the cerebrum, 
and, we have every reason to believe, 
constitutes the organ of memory and 

Associated in a special way with his 
great brain are his organs of speech and 
manipulation. These three structures, the 
brain, the vocal apparatus, and the hand, 
undoubtedly underwent concurrent evolu- 
tion by the constant survival, 
during a period of intense com- 
petition, of those individuals 
who were naturally the best 
capable of receiving and storing experience, 
of using it for the intelligent manipulation 
of objects, and of communicating it to 
their fellows and descendants through the 
medium of speech. Even the highest of the 
lower animals are able to learn from one 
another only by example or through such 
very elementary verbal signs as calls, 

of Man's 

growls, or cries of alarm, which express no 
more than simple emotions. 

Their traditional knowledge, therefore, 
is as nothing compared with that of 
man, who by means of articulated speech 
communicates not only information con- 
cerning sense impressions and emotions, 
but complex items of knowledge and 
processes of thought which have been 
garnered, elaborated, and systematised 
during tens of thousands of years by 
millions of predecessors. Without speech, 
or some such method of communicating 
abstruse information, his great brain would 
be useless. But knowledge and powers of 
thought are of no avail unless they can be 
translated into action ; and for this the 
hands are necessary. To set free the fore 
limbs, which had hitherto been organs of 
locomotion, for their new function of 
manipulation, man became a biped, and 
assumed the erect posture — by no conscious 
effort, however, but solely by the survival 
of the fittest in each generation. 

Savage man, then, differs from the lower 

animals in that he has a larger brain, a 

more capacious memory, and greater 

p powers of utilising and commu- 

Jj!"'^*''" nicating its contents. Modern 

IS ay o ^^^ differs from ancient man 
because he is the heir of longer 
experience. Civilised man differs from the 
savage chiefly in that he has invented and 
more or less perfected certain artiC-cial 
aids to speech, written symbols by means of 
which he is able to store in an available 
form knowledge immensely more abstruse 
and voluminous than would otherwise be 
possible. His books are artificial memories 
and vehicles of communication of un- 
limited capacity and unerring accuracy. 
Moreover, by means of these symbols 
he is able, as in the mathematics, to per- 
form feats of thinking quite beyond the 
powers of his unaided mind ; just as by 
means of machinery and other mechanical 
contrivances he is able to perform physical 
feats beyond the unaided powers of his 

To memory, then, is due the advance of 
the savage beyond the lower animal ; to 
tradition, the child of memory, the advance 
of modern man beyond ancient man ; to 
tradition stored in books the advance of 
civilised men beyond the savage. To 
written symbols are due also man's vast 
powers for future advance. The brute, 
the mammoth, the mastodon, the whale, 
the elephant, and the tiger, became ever 



more and more helpless in the presence 
of a knowledge and an mgenuity that 
gathered with the rolling years, and, 
though accumulated for ages, were yet 
relati\'ely new things in this enormously 
old world. 

Low animals, in proportion as they lack 
memory, move in a narrow, instinctive 
groove. Their mental traits are all in- 
herited, and therefore each individual 
follows exactly in the footsteps of its pre- 
decessor. Since they cannot learn, they 
cannot adapt themselves to circumstances. 
Removed from the ancestral environment 
they perish. Cast in a rigid, inexpansive 
mould, every individual resembles every 
other of the same species, as much mentally 
as physically. 

It is different Vv'ith man. He is pre- 
eminently the educable, the reflective, 
the adaptive animal. Since the experi- 
ences of no two men are quite similar, 
they differ in knowledge, ideas, and 
aspi ations, and, therefore, none are very 
closely alike mentally. The child does not 
follow exactly in the footsteps of the 
parent. So great is human adaptability 
that, though the mind of the 

an can savage differs immensely in all 
Revert to j ■ ^- • j ' r 

„ except instmct and power of 

avagcry learning from that of the civil- 
ised man, yet, were the child of the latter 
trained from birth by the former, he could 
not be other than a savage. 

On the other hand, utter savages — for 
example, the Macries of New Zealand — 
have passed in a single generation from 
barbarism to civilisation. The average 
individual amongst us may be trained to 
fill the role of a beggar or a king, a scientist 
or a monk, a thief or a legislator. He is 
able to dwell in ihe Tropics or in the Arctic, 
in the town or in the wild. Memory, know- 
ledge, intelligence, adaptability, are all 
links in a single chain of efficiency. 

Memory is of two sorts, conscious and 
unconscious. The conscious memory 
contains experiences which can be re- 
collected, such as the words of a language 
or the sights we have seen. The uncon- 
scious memory contains impressions which 
cannot be recalled to mind, but which 
are none the less important. Thus, we 
learn to use our limbs, a process which 
involves a precise but quite unconscious 
adjustment of the actions of numerous 
nerves and muscles, the very names and 
existences of which are known only to the 
anatomist. So, also, in youth we uncon- 


Dawn of 


sciously imitate our fellows, adopting in 
great measure their mental tones and 
attitudes without knowing how or when 
we were influenced. Much, too, that was 
once capable of being recalled is added to 
that hidden store, and, though apparently 
lost, remains potent for good or evil. Our 
minds are like floating icebergs, of which 
the visible part is but a frac- 
tion of the whole, and are 
moved by deep currents in a 
seemingly unaccountable way. 
At birth Ihe mind of a child, unlike that 
of a beetle, is practically blank. Sights and 
sounds and the other feelings convey 
no meanings to it. But soon the messages 
sent by the sensation are understood. 
In a few weeks the child evolves order out 
of chaos, and comprehends to a wonderful 
degree the world around it. It learns to 
move its muscles in a purposeful way, and 
in a year or two is able to walk and sj^eak a 
language, and do a vast deal more besides. 
In these early years, the period of man's 
greatest mental activity, are made his 
most valuable and indispensable acquire- 
ments. But as he becomes more and more 
completely equipped for the battle of life, 
his powers of adding to the store slowly 
decline. In adult life the gains are balanced 
by the losses. In old age the losses exceed 
the gains. Compare the perfection with 
which the young acquire the manners of 
society, and every accent, inflection, and 
intonation of a language, with the im- 
perfections displayed when learning is 
undertaken later. 

We learn to do new things, acquire new 
knowledge, and think new thoughts with 
toil. But practice brings facility. In the 
end we perform with ease that which was 
acquired with difficulty. We cannot, 
however, unlearn as we learnt, by an act of 
will. The facihty lingers, and, as a con- 
sequence, our actions and thoughts, our 
mental attitudes, our whole outlook on 
life becomes more or less automatic and 

„ , . stereotyped. In other words, 

Habits arc • , , i ; 

, . ,. our acquirements come at last 

Imitation , ui • i. .l i 

, ,. ^ to resemble instmcts, and are 

Instincts r. 11 

often so misnamed, as when a 

boy who has learned to dodge is said to 
avoid a blow instinctively. A being from 
another planet who for the first time saw 
a man walking or cycling could not distin- 
guish the nature of these acquirements from 
such instinctive movements as the running 
or flying of an insect. The patriotism of a 
Spartan or a Japanese differs from that of 


a bee only in its mode of origin. In brief, 

the low animal is a creature of instincts, 

the man is a creature of habits, which are 

nothing other than imitation instincts. 

A principal function, then, of our faculty 

of making mental acquirements, of our 

conscious and unconscious memories, is to 

supply us with .those automatic ways of 

„ , . ., thinking and acting which are 
Mankind s u i.-^ ^ r .l .l 

c k *•. . our substitutes tor instmcts. 

oubstitutes r\ 

f I .. , Uur conscious memories sup- 
lor Instinct , .,, , , ^ , 

ply us with our stereotyped 

mental attitudes — desires, beliefs, aspira- 
tions, habitual way of thinking, and so 
forth. Our unconscious memories supply 
our stereotyped ways of acting — the auto- 
matic ways of acting we have just con- 
sidered. It is a principal business of our 
lives to acquire them ; but, though a great 
advantage is thus gained, one almost as 
great is lost. We act and think more 
quickly in familiar situations, but in pro- 
portion as we grow older we lose our 
splendid human capacity for learning. 
Beyond the verge of our imitation instincts 
spreads a domain, very wide in the infant, 
but narrowing as we pass towards old age, 
which is the real realm of the active 
intellect. Here, where thoughts and actions 
are not yet stereotyped, memory gathers 
fresh harvests, imagination plays, and 
reason ponders. Here man is a rational 
being in the strict sense of the word. 

A little thought renders it evident that 
a feeble-minded person, an idiot, or an im- 
becile, is always one with a defective 
memory. He is unable to profit like the 
normal individual from experience. The 
truth that the higher faculties are more 
often absent in the feeble-minded than 
the lower is due entirely to the fact that 
they can be acquired only by people 
whose receptive powers are well developed. 
In effect and in fact the feeble-minded 
person is an instance of reversion to a 
prehuman mental state. Judged by the 
human standard, every monkey is an 
idiot. But the reversion is 
*^ not complete, for, though the 

„ imbecile loses some part of his 

Memory . r .■ ^ 

power 01 profiting by experi- 
ence, he regains no part of the lost power 
of being guided by instinct. Therefore 
he is correspondingly helpless as com- 
pared with a lower animal. 

Owing to the constitution of the human 
mind, some decay of the faculty of profiting 
by experience accompanies advancing age. 
But it need seldom be so great as it usually 

• 8 

is, and never so great as it often is. Cer- 
tain mental attitudes, certain systems of 
education, certain environments, leave 
the mind of the man almost as open as 
that of a little child ; others inflict on it 
premature senility. An Aristotle or a 
Darwin learns to the last year of his long 
life ; a Mohammedan or a Tibetan ecclesias- 
tic is old before he has ceased to be young. 
Convinced that pestilence is due directly 
to the wrath of God, he scorns the notion 
that sanitation can be right or useful ; 
believing that the earth is fiat, no evidence 
will convince him that it is round ; holding 
his sacred religion with a steadfast faith, 
he will murder the heretic rather than think 
out his propositions. 

But habits of stupidity are not confined 
to particular regions of thought. Becoming 
almost as incapable of mental change as 
a beetle, a man may undergo an arrest of 
mental development which differs from 
that of the idiot only because it occurs 
later in life, is less complete, and is 
acquired, not innate. In his ordinary 
surroundings he appears a normal person ; 
but placed among people of more open 
mind, his brute-like inability 

t^M°^j ^ to learn suggests sharply the 
Minds of , , °° , , , ^r-^ , , 

w ¥>•« resemblance to the feeble- 
Men Differ . . 

minded child. Let us sum up. 

Man has conquered the earth because he 
is pre-eminently the educable, the adap- 
tive animal. His educability — indeed, his 
whole thinking capacity — depends on 
his memory. He has few instincts, a 
fact which increases his mental ductility ; 
but one of the most important of his 
instincts is imitativeness, which impels 
him to copy not only such obvious 
things as the speech of his predecessors, 
but their mental attitudes as well. In 
this way not only the actual knowledge 
and beliefs but also the habits of thought 
of one generation are handed on to the 
next. Apart from a few instincts which are 
more active in the child than in the adult, 
and two or three others whose appearance 
is deferred till later life, the whole mental 
difference between the child and the adult 
lies in the fact that the former has a great 
memory in the sense that it is very capable 
of storing experience, whereas the latter 
has a great memory in the sense that it has 
already stored much experience. As parent 
to child, so one racial generation hands 
on its acquirements to the next, but with 
greater certainty ; for the parent is not 
the only influence in the life of the child, 



who imitates many other people, some- 
times more closely than the parent ; 
whereas, since few individuals travel 
during youth, the young are seldom 
influenced by others than by members of 
their own race. Except in times of great 
change, therefore, racial generations re- 
semble one another even more closely than 
parents and children. 

Like individuals, races differ in their 
mental characteristics. The English have 
one set of characters, the Japanese another, 
and the Russians a third. The problem 
of the extent to which these characters 
are inborn or acquired is very important 
to the student of history. Accordingly 
as we believe they are the one or the 
other we are driven to accept one or other 
of two very different readings of the past. 

Are races, then, brave or cowardly, 

energetic or slothful, enlightened or 

savage, and so forth, by nature or by 

training ? Are the qualities that have 

enabled some races to flourish, while 

others are decadent, transmitted as 

instincts or handed on, as knowledge is ? 

The reader has now materials of a kind 

, „ not usually found in historical 

Influences , i,- i. j. r j 

/^k-ij- works on which to found a 

in & Child s • J i TT J. 1^ 

Life judgment. He must bear m 

mind that, while an American 
infant reared by cannibals would retain 
the bodily characteristics of his race 
mentally, he could not be other than 
a savage. He must remember also that 
some races have altered their mental 
characteristics very rapidly. Thus, in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, immedi- 
ately after the long Dark Ages, the 
British and several other Euroj:)ean races 
suddenly became intellectually active 
and socially progressive. The Japanese 
supply a more modern, the Greeks and 
Romans more ancient, instances. The 
latter quite as suddenly sank into abysmal 
degradation. Innate mental characters, 
such as the instincts, usually change so 
slowly that not merely historical but geo- 
logical time elapses before the alteration is 
perceptible. Again, the reader must note 
that, while the opinion that racial traits 
are inborn is nearly universal, most men 
act as if they knew them to be acquired ; 
for nearly all men are careful in training 
their children, especially with respect to 
those traits that contribute to the for- 
mation of character. 

Doubtless, races of men differ innately 
in mind as they do in body, but these 


differences can o ci '• only within narrow 

limits. The instiiicls of all races are, of 

course, very similar, for all the instincts 

are essential to the preservation of hfe. 

But races may differ in strength of 

instinct, and more especially in powers of 

memory. Thus it is possible, or probable, 

that the Englisji, for example, are more 

capable of profiting by ex- 

'"^* perience than Australian blacks. 

acts to Certainly, their brains are 

™ ™ "^ larger. On the other hand, the 
brain grows under the stimulus of use, and 
therefore the larger size of the English 
brain may be due to more arduous labour. 

Lastly, the reader must ask himself the 
question : What mental effects have 
centuries of freedom or slavery, or of 
civilisation, or of barbarism, on races ? 
Do they produce innate changes, or do 
they merely render certain acquirements 
so nearly universal that their perpetuation 
by imitation is insured ? If he supposes 
that the changes are innate, he must ask 
himself the additional question whether 
they arose through the transmission of 
parental acquirements to offspring, or 
through the actua' and constant destruc- 
tion in certain environments of certain 
definite types of individuals who were 
thus prevented from leaving offspring and 
so perpetuating their like. The former 
hypothesis is now generally repudiated by 
science. The latter may be true, but as 
yet has not been supported by evidence ; 
or at any rate is supported only by such 
evidence as that which Mill and Buckle 
denounced. In either case, though history 
may furnish him with intellectual occupa- 
tion, it will supply few lessons of practical 
value. If, on the other hand, he has 
perceived the greatness of the part played . 
in the human mind by acquirement, if he 
has noted that man is man, a thinking 
and rational being, the conqueror of the 
earth, only because he is the most im- 
pressionable and therefore the most 
_ adaptable of hving types, the 

a ue o racial see-saw of the past what 
>s ory kinds of mental training have 
conduced to success and happiness and 
what to ruin, and so perhaps he may find 
himself in a position to help the fortunes 
of his people and his children. The real 
value of history, as in the last analysis 
of all experience, lies in its educational 

G. Archdall Reid 






By Professor Johannes Ranke 

THE history of the world is the history 
of the human mind. The oldest 
documents affording us knowledge of it 
lie buried in those most mighty and 
comprehensive historical archives, the 
geological strata of our planet. Natural 
philosophy has learned to read these 
stained, crumpled, and much-torn pages 
, that record the habitation of 
a urc s ^^^ earth by living beings ; but 
Great Book , r . ■ r .iT- u i 

. „. only a tew sections of this book 

""^ of the universe have yet been 
perused, and these appear but frag- 
mentary in comparison with the whole 
task. The passages that relate to the 
human race are small in number and often 
even ambiguous, and it is only the last 
pages that can give an account of it. 

The oldest undisputed traces of the 
presence of man on the earth that have 
hitherto been discovered are met with in 
the strata of the Drift Epoch, and it is 
only during the last generation that the 
'existence of " Drift Man " has been 
palaeontologically proved beyond dispute. 
The late Sir J. Prestwick believed, how- 
ever — and his results have been confirmed 
by later discoveries — in the existence of 
evidence of the presence of man in 
Western Europe before the present 
river system of our land was established, 
long before the age of the " Drift " relics. 
The evidence consists of rudely shaped 
pieces of flint, apparently artificially 
chipped along one or more edges. These 
supposed implements are termed " Eoliths." 
They were first discovered by Mr. 

Benjamin Harrison in the high-level 
plateau, probably of the Upper Pliocene 
Age, in Kent, and their significance is 
now widely accepted. 

Up to the middle of last century research 
appeared to have established as a positive 
fact that man could not be traced back to 
the older geological strata ; remains of 
man were said to be found only in the 
newest stratum of the earth's formation — 
in the alluvial, or " recent " stratum. The 
bones of man were accordingly claimed to 
be sure guides to the geological formations 
of the present time, as the bones of the 
mammoth and cave-bear were to the strata 
of the Drift. Where traces of man were 
found it was considered as proved by 
natural science that the particular stratum 
in which they occurred was to be allotted 
to the most recent system, which we see 
forming and being transformed under our 
eyes at the present day. 

While it was declared that man belonged 

to the alluvial stratum, it was at the same 

time stated, according to the doctrine of 

Cuvier, which had the weight 

of Naturar °^ ^ dogma, that man could 
o * *"■* ^qi have belonged to an older 
Catastrophes , . , " 

geological stratum or era, 

and therefore not even to the next older 

one, the Drift. The beginning and the end 

of geological eras are marked by mighty 

transformations which have caused a local 

interruption in the formation of the strata 

of the earth's surface. In many cases we 

can point to volcanic eruptions as the 

chief causes, but more especially to a 


History of the world 

change in the distribution of land and 
water. Cuvier had conceived these changes 
involving the transformation to have been 
violent terrestrial revolutions, the col- 
lapse of all existing things, in which all 
living beings belonging to the past epoch 
must have been annihilated. It appeared 
impossible that a living thing could have 
survived this hypothetical battle of the 
elements, and passed from an older epoch 
into the next one ; and the new epoch was 
supposed to have received plants and 
animals by re-creation. All this had to be 
applied to man also ; he was supposed to 

It is in the successive layers of the earth's strata with 
their human and animal remains that we read the story 
of the past. Embedded in the earth itself we have 
the existence of " Drift Man " established. Our illus- 
tration is that of a section of the famous Kent's Cavern, 
near Torquay, which is rich in prehistoric remains. 

have come into existence only in the 
alluvial period. Not without consideration 
for the Mosaic account of the Creation, 
which, like the creation legends of numer- 
ous peoples scattered far and wide over all 
the continents of the earth, tells of a great 
deluge at the beginning of the present 
age, the Pleistocene Epoch of the earth's 
formation preceding the present period had 
been termed the Flood Epoch, or Diluvium. 
In its stratifications it was thought that 
the effects of great deluges could largely 
be recognised ; but the human eye could 
not have beheld these, for, according to 


the catastrophe theory, it appeared out of 
the question that man could have been 
" witness of the Flood." 

Here modern research in the primeval 
history or palaeontology of mankind begins, 
starting from the complete transformation 
of the doctrine of the geological epochs 
brought about by Lyell and his school. 

Proofs of terrestrial revolu- 
. * tions, as local phenomena and 

c ua y epoch marks, are doubtless to 
Happened i r i • • i j. 

be found, imposing enough to 

make the views of the older school appear 
intehigible ; but, generally speaking, a 
complete interruption of the existing con- 
ditions did not take place between the 
periods. Everything tends to prove that 
even in the earlier eras the transforma- 
tion of the earth's surface went on in prac- 
tically the same way as we see it going on 
before our eyes to-day in a degree that is 
slight only to appearance. The effects of 
volcanic action ; the rising and sinking of 
continents and islands, and the alteration 
in the distribution of sea and land caused 
thereby ; the inroads of the sea and its 
work in the destruction of coasts ; the 
formation of deltas and the overflowing of 
rivers ; the action of glaciers and torrents 
in the mountains, and so forth, are con- 
stantly working, more or less, at the 
transformation of the earth's surface. 

As we see these newest alluvial deposits 
being formed, so in principle have the 
strata of the earlier eras also been 
formed, and their miles of thickness prove, 
not the violence of extreme and sudden 
catastrophes, but only the length of time 
that was necessary to remove such mighty 
masses here and pile them up there. It 
was not sudden general revolutions of 
great violence, but the slowly working 
forces, small only to appearance, well 
known from our present-day surroundings, 
which destroy in one place and build up 
again in another with the material ob- 
tained from the destruction — it was these 
which were the causes of the 
gradual transformation of the 
earth in all periods of its his- 
tory comparable to the jiresent. 
According to this new concej^tion of 
geological processes, a general destruction 
of plants and animals at the end of eras, 
and a new creation at the beginning 
of the following ones, was no longer a 
postulate of science as it had been. The 
living creatures of the earliest eras could 
now be claimed as ancestors of those 




This indicates a vast stretch of the lost land of England, looking towards the Scilly Isles from Land's End. All 
between the broken lines was once land as far as Scilly, thirty miles away and fifty miles thence to Lizard Point. 

/.-Vyr- g 

-'iiijroi.K / 



::■ ./ 

' "-■? 

' .1 


In old maps Bavent was for- The coast of England is being slowly worn away by the sea. In many places 
merly the most easterly point of houses have been swallowed up. Here we see the disintegrating process going 
England; now that is Lowestoft, on at Holderness, where the sea front presented this appearance after a gale. 

The coming of the sea over the land is so slow as to be almost imperceptible, but these pictures illustrate its pro- 
gress. The pictures in the upper half of the page show how the sea is encroaching on the coast ; the opposite result 
is shown in the bottom view from Reigate Hill, where we see an ancient arm of the sea now a rich and populous valley. 



living to-day ; the chain 
seems nowhere com- 
pletely broken. The an- 
cestors of the human race 
were also to be sought in 
the strata of the earher 
geological periods. 

Among the forces 
which we find attended 
by a transformation of 
the fauna and flora of 
the earth's eras, the in- 
fluences of climatic 
changes in particular are 
clearly and surely shown. 
In that primeval period 
in which the coal group 
was formed the chmate 
in widely different parts 
of the earth was com- 
paratively equable, little 
divided into zones, and 
of a moist warmth ; this 
is proved by the really 
gigantic masses of plant 
growth implied by the 
formation of many coal 
strata, in which the 
remains of a luxuriant 
cryptogamic flora are 
everywhere embedded. 
In Greenland, in the 
strata belonging to the 
chalk period, and even 
in the deposits of the 
Tertiary Period, which 
immediately precedes the 
Drift Era, the remains 
of higher dicotyledonous 
plants of tropical charac- 
ter are found. The 
occurrence of palaeozoic 
coral reefs in high lati- 
tudes also goes to prove 
that the temperature of 
the sea water there was higher at that 
time : in fact, that a tropical climate 
existed in the farthest north — an extreme 
contrast to the present ice-sheet on its 
land and the icebergs of its seas. 

In Central Europe the climatic conditions 
can have been only slightly different. During 
the middle Tertiary Period palms grew in 
Switzerland ; and even at the end of the 
Tertiary Period, as it was slowly passing 
into the Drift Era, the climate in Central 
Europe was still warmer than now, being 
much like that of Northern Italy, and its 
protected west coast the Riviera. There 

This map and section illustrate the coast line of Prehistoric Europe when 
the British Isles were part of the Continent and the North Sea did not 
exist. The black parts of the section were all above the level of the Atlantic. 

was also a rich flora, partly evergreen, and 
a fauna adapted to such mild surroundings. 
Even in the oldest (Preglacial) strata, and 
again in the middle (Interglacial) strata 
of the Central European drift, there was 
still an abundant plant-growth requiring 
a temperate climate, at any rate not more 
severe than Central Europe possesses at 
the present day. Our chief forest trees 
grew even then — the pine, fir, larch, and 
yew, and also the oak, maple, birch, hazel, 
etc. On the other hand. Northern and 
Alpine forms are absent among the plants. 
The same holds good of the animal 


This map and section show how the Continental shelf of Europe runs out 
to the Atlantic, and how enormous is the area now submerged in the com- 
paratively shallow water of the North Sea, the Irish Sea, and the Channel. 

world, which was certainly much farther 
removed than the plant world from the 
conditions prevailing now. The gigantic 
forms — the elephant, rhinoceros, and hip- 
popotamus — appear particularly strange 
to us, as also the large beasts of prey — 
the hyena, lion, etc. But besides these, and 
the giant deer with its powerful antlers, and 
two large bovine species — the bison and 
the urus — there were also the majority 
of the present wild animals of Central 
and Northern Europe that were originally 
natives — as the horse, stag, roe, wild boar, 
and beaver, with the smaller rodents and 

insectivora, ai.i the 
wolf, fox, lynx, and 
bears, of which last 
the cave-bear was fai 
larger than the present 
brown bear, and even 
than the Polar and 
grizzly bears. 

We have sure proofs 
that through a decrease 
in the yearly temper- 
ature a glacial period set 
in over Europe, North 
Asia, and North 
America, burying vast 
areas under a sheet of 
ice, of the effect and 
extent of which North- 
ern Greenland, with its 
ground-relief veiled in 
inland ice, can give us 
an idea. 

The immediate conse- 
quence of this total 
climatic change was an 
essential change in the 
fauna. Forms that were 
not suited to the dete- 
riorated climate, that 
could neither stand it 
nor adapt themselves to 
it, were first compelled 
to retire, and then were 
exterminated. This fate 
befell the hippopota- 
muses, and also one of 
the two elephant species, 
Elephas antiquus, with 
its dwarf breeds in Sicily 
and Malta, probably 
thus developed by this 
retreat; then the 
rhinoceros - like Elas- 
motherium, a species of 
beaver ; the Trogon- 
therimn, and the powerful cat Machairodtis 
or Trucifelis, which still lived in England, 
France, and Liguria during the Drift 
Period. Other animals, like the lion and 
hyena, withdrew to more southerly regions, 
not affected by the increasing cold and 
more remote from its effects. 

On the other hand, according to Von 
Zittel's description, an immigration of 
cold-loving land animals took place, which 
at the present day live either in the Far 
North or on the wild Asiatic steppes, or in 
the high mountam ranges. These new 
immigrants mixed with the surviving forms 



of the older drift fauna. The latter lived, 
as we have seen, by no means in a warm 
cHmate, but only in a temperate " nor- 
therly " one, even in the warmer periods 
of the epoch. So we can understand that 
many of this older animal community were 
well able to adapt themselves to colder 
climatic conditions, and among them two 
of the large Drift pachydermata, 

_ f. ^^ the elephant and rhinoceros, 

whose kin we now find only 
in the warmest climes. But a 
thick woolly coat made these two Drift 
animals well fitted to defy a raw climate — 
namely, the woolly-haired mammoth, Ele- 
phas primigenius, one of the two Drift 
species of elephants of Europe, and the 
woolly-haired rhinoceros. Rhinoceros anti- 
qnitatis. A second species of rhinoceros, 
Rhifioceros merckii, was also preserved, 
and maintained its region of distribution. 
The horse was now more largely distri- 
buted, and inhabited the plains in herds ; 
but, above all, the reindeer immigrated 
along with other animals that now belong 
only to Far Northern and Arctic regions, 
and pastured in large herds at the edges of 
the glaciers. With the reindeer, although 
less frequent, was the musk-ox of the Far 
North, besides many other cold-loving 
species, such as the lemming, snow-mouse, 
glutton, ermine, and Arctic fox. Many of 
the animal forms that were very frequent 
then, in the Drift Period, appear now in 
Central Europe only as Alpine dwellers, 
living on the borders of eternal snow, such 
as the ibex, chamois, marmot, and Alpine 

Of special importance for our main 
question is the great invasion of Europe 
by Central Asiatic animals ; immigrants 
direct from the Asiatic steppes pushed 
westward " as in a migration of nations," 
among them the wild ass, saiga antelope, 
bobac, Asiatic porcupine, zizel, jumping 
mouse, whistling hare, and musk shrew- 

^. . . , mouse. According as the gla- 
Thc Animal a ■ ^ a ■ 

ciers and mland ice grew or 

,r shrank, the animals of the 

of Europe i ■ i • j ^ ^ 

glacial period advanced more 
or less far to the North or retired more 
to the South, extending or reducing 
their range of distribution. The Gla- 
cial Period was no invariable climatic 
phenomenon. It is perfectly certain that 
a first Glacial Period with a low yearly 
temperature, under the influence of which 
the ice-masses, with their moraines, ad- 
vanced a long way from the North and 


from the high mountains, so that in 
Germany, for instance, only a compara- 
tively narrow strip remained free and 
habitable for higher forms of life between 
the two opposing rivers of ice — was suc- 
ceeded by at least one period of warmer 
climate, and that certainly not a short 
one. The mean yearly temperature had 
increased so much that the ice-masses 
melted to a considerable extent, and had 
to retire far to the North and into the high 
valleys of the Alps. In this warmer inter- 
glacial Period, as it is called, the Drift 
animals advanced far to the North, es- 
pecially the mammoth, which, with the 
exception of the greater part of Scan- 
dinavia and Finland (districts which 
remained covered with ice during the Inter- 
glacial Period), is distributed throughout 
the drift strata of the whole of Europe 
and North Africa, and as far as Lake 
Baikal and the Caspian Sea in Northern 
Asia. Even the older Drift fauna, so far 
as it had not yet died out or retired, 
returned to its old habitats, so that Ihe 
Interglacial fauna of Central Europe ap- 
pear very similar to the Preglacial fauna. 
A long-sustained decrease of 
f fK I ^^^^ temperature led once more to 
A ^cv^ ^^^ growth of the ice, which in 
gc ima e ^^.^ second Glacial Period 
almost reconquered the territory it had 
won at first. 

In consequence of these oscillations in 
the chmatic conditions of the Drift Era 
as a whole, we have to distinguish the 
Preglacial Era and the Interglacial Era, 
as warmer sub-periods of the Drift, 
from the real Glacial Periods. The latter 
appear as a first, or earlier, and a second, 
or later Glacial Period, as remains of 
which the zone of the older moraines and 
the zone of the later ones clearly mark 
the limits of the former glaciation. 

It was this second deterioration of the 
climate, with the fresh advances made 
by the glaciers and masses of inland ice, 
which definitely did away with the older 
Drift fauna that was not equal to the 
sudden climatic change. Nor did the 
woolly-haired rhinoceros, the Rhinoceros 
merckii, and the cave-bear survive the 
climax of the new Glacial Period. Even the 
woolly-haired mammoth succumbed. It 
and the woolly-haired rhinoceros, accom- 
panied by the musk-ox and bison, had 
made their way into the Far North of Asia. 
But while the two last species bore the 
inclemencies of the climate, the rhino- 

The Ibex The Man ot 


Manv of the animal forms that were very frequent in the Drift Period appear now in Central Europe only as 

Alpme dwellers iTvUg on the borders of eternal snow. Such ai 2 the ibex, chamois, marmot, and Alpme hare. 

ceroses and elephants met their end here. 
And yet they had long preserved their 
hves on the borders of eternal ice. Whole 
carcases, both of the woolly-haired and 
Merckian rhinoceroses, and also of the 
woolly-haired mammoth, the bison, and 
the musk-ox, with skin and hair and well- 
preserved soft parts, have been discovered 
in the ice and frozen ground between the 
Yenisei and Lena, and on the New 
Siberian Islands at the mouth of the 
Lena. The carcases of the mammoth 

and rhinoceros found imbedded in the ice 
were covered with a coat of thick woolly 
hair and reddish-brown bristles ten inches 
long ; about thirty pounds of hair from 
such a mammoth were placed in the St. 
Petersburg Natural History Museum. A 
mane hung from the animal's neck almost 
to its knees, and on its head was soft hair 
a yard long. The animals were therefore 
in this respect well equipped for enduring 
a cold climate. As regards their food they 
were also adapted to a cold climate, traces 



up of 
the Earth 

of coniferae and willows-^ that is, " Northern 
plants " — having been found in the hollows 
of the molar teeth of mammoths and 
rhinoceroses. The mammoth proves to 
have had greater resisting power, and to 
have been more fit for further migrations, 
than the rhinoceros. The latter's range 
of distribution extended over the whole 
of Northern and Temperate 
Europe, China and Central Asia, 
and Northern Asia and Siberia. 
But, as we have seen, the mam- 
moth penetrated not only into North Africa, 
but, what is of the highest importance for 
the proper understanding of the settling of 
the New World, even into North America. 
The connection which in earlier geo- 
logical periods had united Europe, Asia, 
Africa, and North America in the greatest 
homogeneous zoogeographical kingdom, 
the Arctogaea, was broken during the 
Tertiary and Drift Periods, so that several 
zoogeographical provinces were formed. 
The connection with North America was 
the first to be broken, so that even in the 
last two divisions of the Tertiary Period, 
the Miocene and Pliocene Epochs, the Old 
and the New Worlds stood in the relation 
of independent zoogeographical provinces 
to one another. Now, it is of the greatest 
importance to note that during the Drift 
Period North America again received some 
Northern immigrants from the Old World, 
according to Von Zittel " probably via 
Eastern Asia." Consequently, during the 
Drift Period communication existed, at 
least temporarily, between Asia and North 
America in the region of Bering Strait, 
sufficient to allow the mammoth and 
some companions to migrate from the one 
continent to the other. In Kotzebue 
Sound mammoth remains are found in the 
" ground-ice formation," together with 
those of the horse, elk, reindeer, musk-ox 
and bison. Mammoth remains are also 
known to have been found in the Bering 
Islands, St. George in the Pribylov group, 
_ . and Unalaska, one of the 

^°j7/"'°'*" Aleutian Islands. In that 
^ . period the mammoth arrived in 

the New World as a colonist 
driven from the Old. It spread widely over 
British North America, Alaska, and 
Canada ; it has also been found in Ken- 
tucky. A relatively recent union of the 
circumpolar regions of the Northern Hemi- 
sphere — of Europe, Asia, and North 
America — is also proved by the occurrence 
of animals that we recognise as companions 


of the mammoth, but which, surviving the 
Glacial Period, are still distributed over the 
whole region, such as the reindeer, elk, and 
bison. The absence in Asia of several 
animals specially characteristic of the 
European Drift (the hippopotamus, ibex, 
chamois, fallow-dear, wildcat, and cave- 
bear) explains also their absence in the 
North American Drift fauna. It is par- 
ticularly strange that the cave-bear did not 
reach Northern Asia. It is otherwise the 
most frequent beast of prey of the Drift 
Period, and hundreds of its carcases often 
lie buried in the caves and clefts it once 
inhabited. In Southern Russia numerous 
remains of it are found, whereas in the 
English caves it is rarer, the cave-hyena 
predominating here. Apart from the 
exceptions just mentioned, J. F. Brandt 
considers North Asia and the high Northern 
latitudes to be the region in which the 
European, North Asiatic, and North 
American land fauna had concentrated 
during the Tertiary and Drift Periods, and 
whence their migrations and advances 
took place according as it grew older. As 
the northern fauna spread over more 
southern latitudes during 

ArrTv"I° ^^® ^'"'^^ Period, they took 
• ""p^* possession of the habitats 

urope ^^ ^-^^ species there belong- 
ing to the Tertiary Period, drove them 
back into tropical and subtropical regions, 
and formed the real stock of the Drift 
fauna, as described by Von Zittel in his 
" Palasozoology." 

One thing is certain — namely, that the 
northern borders of Siberia were not the 
real home of the mammoth and its com- 
panions ; the original habitat of these 
animals points to the far interior of Asia, 
particularly to the wild table-lands, where 
they so far steeled themselves in enduring 
the climate that in the course of the Glacial 
Period half the world became accessible 
to them. As far as is known to-day, the 
mammoth arrived in Europe earlier than 
on the northern borders of Asia, where, 
protected by climatic conditions, its 
remains are most numerous and best 
preserved. The number of these gigantic 
animals must have been very considerable 
in this Far Northern region for a time, 
judging from the abundance of bones 
found there. In Central Europe only a few 
places are known — such as Kannstatt 
Predmost in Moravia, etc. — where the 
mammoth is found with similar frequency. 
The mammoth attained its widest dis- 

This stuffed carcase of a mammoth is the rarest treasure of St. Petersburg Academy. Skeletons of these 
creatures exist in plenty, but actual carcases are very rare. This was found embedded in the ice on the New 
Siberian Islands. One carcase so embedded was discovered five years before it could be freed from the ice. 

tribution in the Interglacial Period. In 
that period it crossed the Alps, and arrived 
on the other side, in North Asia, at the 
border of the " stone-ice " masses of inland 
ice that were still 
preserved from the 
first Glacial Period. 
The vegetation there 
was richer then than 
it is to-day ; now 
only the vegetation 
of the tundra can 
exist. Animals found 
coniferae, willows, 
and alders in suffi- 
cient quantity to 
enable them to keep 
in herds. All the 
same, we have not 
to imagine the cli- 
mate on the borders 
of the ice to have skeleton of 

been " genial," for 
from that period originate the mammoth 
carcases that are found frozen entire in 
crevasses of the ice-fields. When the new 
period of cold — the second Glacial Period — 
joegan. these Far Northern regions must 

in the Natural History Museum, South Kensing^ton. 

have become unsuitable for the mammoth 
owing to the want of food. Von Toll, who 
has examined the fossil ice-beds and, 
their relation to the mammoth carcases 
particularly on New 
Siberian Islands, says: 

The mammoths and 
their contemporaries 
Uved where tfieir re- 
mains are found ; they 
died out gradually 
in consequence of 
physical geographical 
changes in tlie region 
they inhabited, and 
through no catas- 
trophe ; their carcases 
were deposited dur- 
ing low temperatures, 
partly on the river- 
terraces, and partly on 
the banks of lakes or 
on glaciers (inland ice), 
and covered with mud ; 
like the ice-masses that 
formed the foundation of their graves, their 
mummies were preserved to the present day, 
thanks to the persistent or increasing cold. 

The woolly-haired mammoth did not 
survive the second Glacial Period 




anjAvhere ; in the post-Glacial Period its 
traces have disappeared. 

The Drift series of strata are nowhere so 
clearly exemplified as in the New Siberian 
Islands, where the Drift stone-ice still 
forms very extensive high " ice-cliffs," 
always covered with a layer of loam, sand, 
and peat, and having precipices often 
of great height — in one place seventy- 
two feet. 

Embedded in these cliffs of stone- 
ice have been found the mammoth car- 
cases, which formerly sank into crevices 
in the ice. These crevices are partly 
filled up with snow, 
which has turned into 
" firn " and finally 
into ice, but partly 
also with loam or 
sand, which are 
merged above imme- 
diately into the strata 
overlying the stone- 
ire. In the year 
i860 Bojavski, the 
mammoth- hunter, 
found a mammoth, 
with all its soft parts 
preserved, sticking 
upright in a crevice 
in the ice filled with 
loam ; in 1863 it was 
thrown down, to- 
gether with the coast- 
wall that sheltered it, 
and washed away by 
the sea. 

The Tunguse Schu- 
machow had been 



<^irlTr etc T'rrvn T^nririrr Only one representative of the great Drift fauna, the 
t-clliy db 1799. i^UIlIlg n,„sk-ox, has been able to preserve its life to the 

his boating expedi 

on to the sand of the coast. Here Adams 
found the carcase in 1806, or as much as the 
dogs and wild animals had left of it. The 
whole skeleton, with a portion of the flesh, 
skin, and hair, has since formed one of 
the chief ornaments of the collection in the 
Academy at St. Petersburg. According 
to Von Toll, who personally visited the 
site of Bojavski's discovery, the following 
profile presented itself there : first the 
tundra stratum ; then an alternation of 
thin strata of loam and ice ; under these 
a peat-like layer of grass, leaves, and 
other vegetation, that had been washed 
together ; then a fine 
layer of sand, with 
remains of Salix, etc., 
and finally stone-ice. 
At another place, in 
Gulf Anabar, in 73° 
north latitude, Von 
ToH also found the 
ground-moraine un- 
der a fossil ice-bed, 
which appears to 
jirove his theory of a 
Drift region of inland 
ice, of which the 
stone-ice beds of New 
Siberia and Esch- 
scholtz Bay are re- 

Of these strata the 
frozen loam deposits 
over the stone-ice, 
containing the wil- 
low and the alder, 
are doubtless Inter- 
glacial. Some of the 
remains of the alder 
are in such wonder- 

tions along the coast, 
on the look-out for mammoth-tusks, he 
observed one day, between blocks of ice, 
a shapeless block which was not at all 
like the masses of driftwood that are 
generally found there. In the following 
year the block had melted a little, but it 
was only at the end of the third summer 
that the whole side and one of the tusks 
of a mammoth appeared plainly out of the 
ice ; the animal, however, still remained 
sunk in the ice-masses. At last, towards 
the end of the fifth year, the ice between 
the ground and the mammoth melted 
more quickly than the rest, the base 
began to slope, and the enormous mass, 
impelled by its own weight, glided down 


present day on the larger remnants of its former ful preservation that 
vast home, such as Greenland and Grinnell Land. ,i i-n i 

there are still leaves 

and whole clusters of catkins on the 

The land-mass to which the present 
New Siberian Islands belong was only 
dismembered at the end of the Inter- 
glacial Period, when colder sea-currents 
procured an entrance, and the accumula- 
tion of snow-masses diminished simul- 
taneously with the sinking of the land, 
whereas the cold increased. The flora 
died off, says Von Toll, and the animal 
world was deprived of the possibility of 
roaming freely over vast areas. Only 
one representative of the great Drift fauna, 
the musk-ox, has been able to preserve its 
life to the present day on the larger 


of the 
Ice Age 

remnants of its former vast home, such as 
Greenland and Grinnell Land. 

As we have said, the geological and 
climatic conditions in all regions of the 
earth affected by the Glacial Period were 
closely similar to those just described. 
In other places the Drift stone-ice has long 
disappeared, but the ground-moraines of 
the former inland ice-masses, 
and the surface-moraines (ter- 
minal and lateral) of the former 
gigantic glaciers, constitute its 
unobliterated traces. On the moraines 
of the earlier Glacial Period we find the 
strata of the Interglacial Period deposited, 
and on the later moraines of the second 
(last) Glacial Period lie the remains of the 
post-Glacial Period, in the course of which 
a continual increase in the yearly tempera- 
ture — probably only a few degrees of the 
thermometer — caused the glaciers to melt 
and retreat, and opened the way for the 
return of plants and animals to what had 
been deserts of snow and ice. The place 
formerly occupied by the Interglacial 
and Glacial fauna is then taken by the 
post-Glacial fauna, which proves consider- 
ably different. 

A number of the most characteristic 
species of the former sections of the Drift 
Period are already absent in the earliest 
post-Glacial deposits ; the fauna approaches 
nearer and nearer in its composition to 
that of the present day. The inland ice- 
masses and gigantic glaciers began to melt 
away, and gradually retired to the present 
limits of the glaciation that forms the 
remains of the Glacial Period of the Drift. 
The animal forms of the beginning of the 
post-Glacial Period are still living, and the 
plants characterising this final stage of 
the Drift Period are still growing on the 

borders of the ice at the present day. In the 
post-Glacial Period a few Northern forms — 
such as the reindeer, lemming, ringed lem- 
ming, glutton, zizel, whistling hare, and 
jumping mouse — still retained for a time 
their habitats in Central Europe. Part 
of the Drift fauna — as the horse, wild ass, 
saiga antelope, and Asiatic porcupine 
— concentrated again in the Asiatic 
steppes, from which they had formerly 
won their territory of the Drift Period; 
the specific Glacial forms — the reindeer 
and his above-mentioned companions — 
followed the retreating ice-masses into 
the Far North, and even into Polar regions. 
Another part — the specially Alpine forms, 
such as the ibex, chamois, marmot, and 
Alpine hare — migrated with the Alpine 
glaciers into the high valleys of ihe Alps, 
where they could continue the life they had 
led in the lowlands during the (jlacial 
Period. The mammoth, woolly-haired 
rhinoceros, and cave-bear are extinct. 

The present-day mammalian fauna of 
Europe and North Asia accordingly bears 
a comparatively young character ; during 
the Drift, and especially in consequence of 
the Glacial Period, it underwent the most 
considerable transformations. 

It is in the middle of this great drama 

_ . of a gigantic animal world 

ommg o struggling and fighting for its 

Man upon oo o .., °, ° 

,. c existence with the superior 

powers of Nature, during the 
Interglacial period of the Drift, that man 
suddenly appears upon the scene in Europe 
like a dens ex machina. 

Whence he came we do not know. 

Did he make his entrance into Europe 
in company with the Drift fauna that im- 
migrated from Central Asia, or have we to 
seek his original home in the New World ? 




,^ ^S^. 





This page represents the most typical of the giant creatures that inhabited the world before man. With possibly one 
exception, they had disappeared before man came and, through long centuries, slowly won dominion over the earth. 









HE remains of the Drift fauna are 
usually found mixed up and washed 
together in caves and rock-crevices. From 
the investigation of the caves inThuringia, 
Franconia, and elsewhere practically pro- 
ceeded the first knowledge of the Drift 
fauna of Central Europe. Here, right 
among the bones of primeval animals, 
were also found bones and skulls of man. 
The strata in which they were discovered 
appeared undisturbed ; that they came 
into the old burial-places of the Drift 
fauna subsequently— perhaps by an inten- 
tional burial of relatively recent times- 
was thought to be out of the question. 
The discovery that became most famous 
was Esper's, in one of the richest caves 
of " Franconian Switzerland," the Gail- 
lenreuth cave. There, in 1774, Esper found 
a man's lower jaw and shoulder-blade 
at a perfectly untouched spot protected 
by a stone projection in the cave wall, 
in the same loam as bones 
The Mystery ^^ ^-^e cave-bear and other 
°^ * _ „ Drift animals. Later, a human 
Human Skull ^^^^^ ^- ^^ ^^^^ ^^^g potsherds 

of clay came to light in another place. 
Esper argued thus : 

As the human bones (lower jaw and 
shoulder-blade) lav among the skeletons of 
animals, of which the Gaillenreuth caves are 
full and as they were found in what is in all 
probability the original stratum, I presume, 
and I think not without sufficient reason, 
that these human limbs are of equal age 
with the other animal fossils. 

The Cuvier catastrophe theory could not 
allow this inference ; according to that 
theory it was a " scientific postulate " 
that man could not have appeared on the 
earth until the alluvial period, and there- 
fore after the Drift fauna had become 
extinct. Therefore, in spite of appearances, 
the human bones must have been more 
recent ; and it was indeed absolutely 
proved that the skull that Esper had 
found in the cave with the rude clay pot- 
sherds originated from a burial in the 
floor of the cave. As this was full of 
remains of Drift animals, the corpse, which 
had been covered with the earth that had 

been thrown up in digging the grave, was 
necessarily surrounded by these remains, 
and even appeared embedded in them. 

It was ascertained that in very early 
times, but yet long after the Drift Period, 
the dwellers near by had had a predi- 
lection for using the caves as burial- 
places, so that the fact of human bones 
coming together with bones 
The Story ^^ j)j.-f^ animals in the floor 
°' of the same cave is easily ex- 

the Caves p^^^j^g^j Moreover, it was found 

that from the earliest times down to the 
present day the caves had been used by 
hunters, herdsmen, and others as places 
of shelter in bad weather, as cooking- 
places, and sometimes even — especially 
in very early times— as regular dwelling- 
places for longer periods, so that refuse of 
all kinds, and often of all ages and forms 
of civilisation that the land has seen from 
the Drift Period down to modern times, 
must have got into the floors of the caves. 
If these were damp and soft, the remains 
of every century were trodden in and got 
to lie deeper and deeper, so that, for 
instance, the fragments of a cast-iron 
saucepan were actually found right among 
the bones of regular Drift animals in a 
cave in Upper Franconia. 

The discoveries of human remains in 
caves appeared discredited by this, and to 
be of no value as proofs of the co-existence 
of man with the Drift fauna. And indeed 
this position must practically be still 
taken at the present day : all cave -finds 
are to be judged with the greatest cau- 
tion. They in themselves would never have 
" been sufficient to estabUsh 
The Caves ^^^ existence of Drift Man, 
do not Prove ^j^j^Q^g^^ according to the 
Drift Man ^^^^^^^ change in scientific 
thought that led to the overthrow of 
Cuvier's theory. Drift Man is now just as 
much a postulate of science as was for- 
merly the case for the opposite assumption. 
The first sure proofs were adduced in 
France by Boucher de Perthes, in the 
Drift beds of the Somme valley, near 
Abbeville, at the end of the third decade 



of the nineteenth century. Fully recog- 
nising the inadequacy of proof given by 
cave-finds, he had sought for the relics 
of man in the undisturbed Drift beds of 
gravel and coarse sand that contains the 
bones of Drift animals, which by their 
covering and depth precluded all suspicion 
of having been subsequently dug over. 

_. ,. ,. And he was successful. He had 
Finding the , • ^i ^u 

* argued m exactly the same man- 

d' 'ft M "^^ '^^ Esper had formerly done, 
but with better right. In the 
stratified Drift formations every period is 
sharply defined by the layers of differently 
coloured and differently composed strata 
horizontally overlying one another. Here 
the proofs begin. They are irrefutable if 
it is shown that the relics of man have been 
there since the deposit. Being no less immo- 
vable than this stratum in which they lie, as 
they came with it, they were likewise pre- 
served with it ; and as they have contribu- 
ted to its formation, they existed before it. 
That is the line of thought according 
to which Boucher de Perthes was able, 
in 1839, to lay before the leading experts 
in Paris — at their head Cuvier himself — 
his discoveries proving the former exist- 
ence of Drift man. But his demonstra- 
tions were not then sufficient to break the 
old ban of prejudices that were apparently 
founded on such good scientific bases ; 
his proofs of the presence of man in the 
Somme valley at the time of the Drift, 
contemporaneously with the extinct Drift 
animals, were ridiculed. It was twenty 
years before these long-neglected dis- 
coveries in the Somme valley concerning the 
early history of man were recognised by 
the scientific world. This was only made 
possible by Lyell, whose authority as a 
geologist had risen above Cuvier's, placing 
the whole weight of it on Boucher's 
side, after having personally travelled 
over the Somme valley three times in the 
year 1859, ^^'^ having himself examined 
all the chief places where relics of Drift 

_. _, ,. Man had been discovered. 
The Overthrow . ,• . r ii> i 

- ^ . , Accordmg to Lyell s de- 

of Cuvier s • i- ^i r- ,i 

Famous Theory fcript'on, the Somme valley 
lies m a district of white 
chalk, which forms elevations of several 
hundred feet in height. If we ascend to 
this height we find ourselves on an exten- 
sive tableland, showing only moderate 
elevations and depressions, and covered 
uninterruptedly for miles with loam and 
brick earth about five feet thick and quite 
devoid of fossils. Here and there on the 

chalk may be noticed outlying patches of 
Tertiary sand and clay, the remains of a 
once extensive formation, the denudation 
of which has chiefly furnished the Drift 
gravel material in which the relics of man 
and the bones of extinct animals lie buried. 
The Drift alluvial deposit of the Scmme 
valley exhibits nothing extraordinary in 
its stratification or outward appearance, 
nor in its composition or organic contents. 
The stratum in which the bones of the 
Drift fauna are found intermingled with 
the relics of man is partly a marine and 
partly a fluviatile deposit. The human 
relics in particular are mostly buried deep 
in the gravel ; almost everjrvvhere one has 
to pass down through a mass of overlying 
loam with land shells, or a fine sand with 
fresh-water molluscs, before coming to 
beds of gravel, in which the rehcs of 
Drift Man are found. 

Everything shows that the relics of man 
are here in a secondary situs, deposited 
in the same way as the bones of extinct 
animals and the whole geological ma- 
terial in which everything is embedded. 
That is the reason why the finds cannot 
be more exactly dated. They 
doubtless belong to the general 
drift, but whether to the Post- 
glacial Period, or the warmer 
Interglacial Period, cannot be decided. The 
fauna admits of no absolute limitation, 
owing to its being mixed from both periods. 
The mammalia most frequently found in 
the strata in question are the mammoth, 
Siberian rhinoceros, horse, reindeer, ure- 
ox, giant fallow-deer, cave-lion, and cave- 
hyena. In very similar Drift deposits of 
the Somme near Amiens traces of man 
were found beside the bones of the hippo- 
potamus and the elephant. 

These animals were chiefly prevalent 
in France and Germany in the Preglacial 
and Interglacial Periods of the Drift. 
Part of the animal remains found 
near Abbeville, particularly those of 
the cave-lion and cave-hyena, also point 
to the warmer Interglacial Period ; 
on the other hand, the mammoth, 
Siberian rhinoceros, and especially the 
reindeer, appear to indicate with all cer- 
tainty the second Glacial and Postglacial 
Periods. The bones of the older Drift 
animals may have been washed out of 
other primary situs : the reindeer had 
certainly already taken possession of those 
parts of France when the relics of man 
were embedded. 

of the 
Ice Age 


In spite of the most eager search for 
similar reUc-beds affording sure evidence of 
Drift Man, only a very few have as yet 
been discovered that can be placed by 
the side of those in the Somme valley. 
Two are in Germany, and are the more 
valuable as a more exact date can be 
given to them within the Drift Period. 
One is near Taubach 
(Weimar), the other 
at the source of the 
Schussen. The one 
at Taubach belongs 
to the Interglacial 
Period, that at the 
source of the Schussen 
to the Postglacial 
Period. The former 
lies on the moraines 
of the iirst Glacial 
Period, which was 
followed by the Inter- 
glacial Period ; the 
latter on the moraines 

given by the conditions of stratification. 
In the rich fauna found there, animals 
indicating a cold climate are entirely 
absent, and a comparison of the whole of 
the finds proves that at the time when 
man was present there no kind of arctic 
conditions can have prevailed. There 
is no reindeer, no lemming. The roe, 
stag, wolf, brown bear, 
beaver, wild boar, and 
aurochs were at that 
time inhabitants of 
these regions, and the 
only inference they 
allow is that of a tem- 
perate climate. The 
mollusc fauna, in which 
also all Glacial forms 
are absent, also leads to 
the same conclusion ; 
all that occur are 
familiar to us from 
those of the present 
day in the same 

Cuvier Boucher De Perthes 

When Cuvier was supreme among' geologists his theory that the great geological ages ended with sudden catastrophes 
which annihilated all life, and that all life was then created afresh, was universally accepted. One result of this theory 
was the disbelief in the existence of man before the Glacial Age. Boucher de Perthes sought to establish the former 
existence of Drift Man on finding human relics in the Somme Valley ; but not until Sir Charles Lyell threw his influence on 
the side of De Perthes was the Preglacial existence of man admitted, and the long-accepted theory of Cuvier overthrown. 

of the second Glacial Period, which slowly 
pa.ssed into the Postglacial Period. 

The Drift relic-bed in the calc-tufa near 
Taubach lies, as we have said, over the 
remains of the first Glacial Period, and 
according to Penck, one of the best 
authorities on the Drift, belongs to the 
warmer intermediate epoch between the 
two great periods of glaciation. The 
proofs given by the plant and animal 
remains agree entirely with the proofs 

district. The fauna would really 
appear quite modern were it not that a 
very ancient stamp is imparted to it by 
several extinct types. With the modern 
animals enumerated are associated the 
cave-lion, cave-hyena, ure-elephant, and 
Merckian rhinoceros, characterising the 
whole deposit as a distinctly Drift one, 
which is still further proved stratigra- 
phically by the covering of " loess." The 
Taubach relic-bed is a typical illustration 



of the climatic and biological conditions 
of the warmer Interglacial Period ; the 
regions of Central Europe, which had been 
covered with masses of ice in the first 
Glacial Period, had, after the ice melted, 
become once more accessible to the 
banished plants and animals of the 
Preglacial Period, until they were annihi- 

lated, or at least driven de- 

c ima c ^j-jj|-gjy fj-om their old habitats 

I A ^y ^^^ second Glacial Period. 

The celebrated relic-bed at 
the source of the Schussen, near Schussen- 
ried, at a little distance from Ulm, brings us 
— in strong contrast toTaubach — into quite 
glacial surroundings. It was on the glacier- 
moraines of the last great glaciation, and 
belongs, therefore, to that period which 
must still be reckoned as part of the Drift — - 
the Postglacial Period, which gradually 
passed into the warmer present period. 
Under the tufa and peat at the source of 
the Schussen we find the type of a purely 
northern climate, with exclusively northern 
flora and fauna ; everything corresponds 
to climatic conditions such as prevail 
nowadays on the borders of eternal snow 
and ice, or begin at 70° north latitude. 
Schimper, one of the best authorities on 
mosses at the present day, found among 
the plant-remains under the tufa at the 
source of the Schussen only mosses of 
northern or high Alpine forms. Among 
them was a moss brought from Lap- 
land by Wahlenberg, which, according 
to Schimper, occurs in Norway near 
the chalets on the Dovrefjeld, on the 
borders of eternal snow, and also in 
Greenland, Labrador, and Canada, and on 
the highest summits of the Tyrolese Alps 
and the Sudetic Mountains. It has a 
special preference for the pools in which 
the water of the snow and glaciers flows off 
with its fine sand. There were also found 
mosses which have now emigrated to cold 
regions, to Greenland and the Alps. The 
most numerous animals were the reindeer, 

and yellow and Arctic foxes, 

ora an ^^ distinctly Arctic forms ; and 

th "i A there were also the brown bear 

and wolf, a small ox, the hare, 
the large-headed wild horse— which always 
occurs in the Drift as the companion of 
the reindeer — and, lastly, the whistling 
swan, which now breeds in SjMtzbcrgen 
or Lapland. There is an absence of all the 
present animal forms of Upper Swabia, as 
well as of the extinct Drift animals, either 
of which would indicate a warmer climate. 

More decided climatic or biological con- 
trasts than those afforded by the relic- 
beds at Taubach and the source of the 
Schussen could not be imagined ; here we 
have with certainty two perfectly different 
periods before us, but both belonging to the 
general Drift Era. 

Although almost all the other places 
where Drift Man has been found exhibit 
peculiarities, Taubach and the source of 
the Schussen seem the best representatives 
of the two chief types in Europe. Places 
giving better proof have not yet come to 
light anywhere in the Old World. 

At first sight the palaeontological strata 
of South America, in which the presence of 
man has been proved by Ameghino, appear 
to give a very different picture. The ani- 
mal forms occurring here contemporane- 
ously with man deviate to such an extent 
from those familiar to us in the Drift of the 
Old World that it required the keen eye 
and the complete grasp of the whole 
palasontological material of the world that 
characterise Von Zittel to recognise and 
establish the connections here, while the 
discoverer himself thought that he must 

. date his discoveries of man 

r ^* e ^i back to the Tertiary Period. 
from South ^^ , . i • 1 ^^i 

. . the strata m which the 

America i- ^ . r 

earliest traces of man as 

yet appear to be proved in South America 
are the extensive " loess-like " loam 
deposits of the so-called " pampas " 
formation in Argentina and Uruguay, 
with their almost incomparable wealth of 
animal remains, particularly conspicuous 
among which are gigantic representatives 
of edentates that now occur only in small 
species in South America : Glyptodontia 
(with the gigantic Glyptodon reticulatinn) 
and dasypoda ; also of the gravigrada, the 
giant sloth (Megatherium amcricanum). 
The toxodontia were also large animals, 
now extinct. But besides the specifically 
South American forms, numerous " North 
American immigrants " also appear in the 
pampas formation. It was only at the close 
of the Tertiary Period that the southern and 
northern halves of America grew together 
into one continent, and the faunae of North 
and South America, so characteristically 
different, then began to intermingle with 
one another. The South American autoch- 
thons migrate northward ; on the other 
hand. North American types — as the horse, 
deer, tapir, mastodon, Felis, Cants, etc. — 
use the newly-opened passage to extend 
their range of distribution. The northern 


A section of the earth, representing excavators in the act of disc^ermg the remams^ o^^^^^^^^ m a cave 

in the Sonth of England. Our iUustration is reproduced from Bucklands Reliquiae Uiluvianae, 

London, 1822. 

animal forms are very conspicuous among 
the animal world of South America, hither- 
to cut off from North America and charac- 
terised by the above-mentioned wonderful 
and, in part, gigantic edentates, marsupials, 
platyrhine apes, etc. Of the great ele- 
phantine animals of North America only 
the mastodon crossed over to South 
America. In the middle and latest Ter- 
tiary formations the genus mastodon is 
widely distributed over Europe, North 
Africa, and South Asia. In North America 
the oldest species of the mastodon appear 
in the Middle Tertiary (Upper Miocene), 
but the most species are found in the latest 
Tertiary (Pliocene) and the Drift (Pleisto- 
cene) ; in South America the mastodon 
is limited to the time of the pampas forma- 
tion. Its tusks are long and straight, or 
slightly curved upward ; its lower jaw also 
possesses two tusks, which project in a 
straight direction, bu^" are considerably 

less than the upper tusks in size. From the 
results of Ameghino's investigations man 
appears to have come to South America 
with these northern immigrants, especi- 
ally with the mastodon. In Ameghino's 
lists of the animals of the pampas forma- 
tion Von Zittel describes man. like the 
animal forms enumerated above, as an 
immigrant from North America, and as 
a noithern type. 

According to Von Zittel's statements 
there is no longer any doubt that the 
pampas formation, and with it early 
man, of South America, is to be assigned 
to the Drift Era ; he sums up the case 
in these words : 

In South Asia and South America the 
Tertiary Period is followed by Drift faunae, 
which in the main are composed of species 
still existing at the present day, but yet 
show somewhat closer relations to their 
Tertiary predecessors. 










""THE oldest remains affording us know- 
•*■ ledge of man are not parts of his 
body — not the skeleton from which, in the 
case of primeval animals, we have learned 
to reconstruct their frame — but evidences 
of the human mind. Until the discoveries of 
Boucher de Perthes turned the scale, search 
had been made in vain among the bones of 
the fossil fauna for remains of the skeleton 
of fossil man of undoubtedly the same age ; 
it was not bones, but tools, by which the 
Abbeville antiquary proved that man had 
been a " witness of the Flood " in Europe ; 
tools which taught irrefutably 
that the mental powers of fossil 

Man a 
Witness of 
the Flood 

man of the Drift were similar 
in kind to, if possibly less in 
degree than, those of living members of 
mankind. The Drift tools prove that, 
even in that early epoch to which we 
have learned from Boucher to trace him 
back, man was distinctively man. 

Boucher de Perthes was an expert archae- 
ologist, and he knew that in Europe, in 
a very early period of civilisation, men had 
made their tools and weapons of stone, 
as many tribes and races in a backward 
state of civilisation — for example in South 
America, the South Sea Islands, and 
many other places — do at the present day. 
These stone implements are practically 
indestructible, and from ancient times 
manifold superstitions have attached to 
the curious articles that the peasant turns 
up out of the earth in ploughing. Such 
stone weapons were called lightning-stones 
by the Romans, as they are bj' country- 
folk at the })resent day. Scientific archcTe- 
ology occupied itself with them at an early 
date. In 1778 Buffon declared the so- 
called lightning-stones, or thunder-stones, 
to be the oldest art-j^roductions of prime- 
val man, and as early as 1734, Mahudel 
and Mercati had pronounced them to 
be the weapons of antediluvian man. Such 
views determined the line of thought 
in Boucher's researches. From the very 
lieginning he sought, in the undisturbed 
Drift beds of his home, not so much for the 
bones of Drift Man as for his tools, which 
he suspected to be of the form of the 


lightning-stones, although he knew that, 
so far as was hitherto known, these be- 
longed to a very much later epoch — that 
is, specially to the Alluvial or " Recent " 

His expectations were crowned with 
success. Deep below the mass of over- 
lying loam and sand, right in the strata 
of gravel and coarse sand, he found stone 
tools, which without the slightest doubt 
had been worked by the hand of man for 
definite and easily recognisable purposes 
as implements and weapons. Although to 
a certain extent ruder, they are practically 
the same forms as the tools, weapons, 
and implements of stone that we see 
in use among so-called " savages " of the 
present day. It is the tool artificially 
prepared for a certain purpose that raises 
man above the animal world to-day, as 
it did in the time of the Drift. 

Upon his first visit to the relic-beds near 
Abbeville in the spring of 1859, Lyell 
had obtained seventy specimens of these 
stone tools from the chief of them. The 
tools were all of flint, which occurs in 
abundance in the chalk of the district, and 
is still obtained and worked for technical 
purposes at the present day. The worked 
stones that Boucher found were termed 
flint or silex tools, according to the ma- 
terial of which they were made. They 
occurred in the particular beds, as Lyell 
expressed it, in wonderful quan- 

Drift Man's 


_,. „. . ..v.^... The famous geologist 
Tliree Kinds j- , • • i j . i i ■ r r 

J. ™ . distinguished three chief forms. 

The first is the spear-head form, 
and varies in length from six to eight 
inches. The second is the oval form, not 
unlike many stone implements and weapons 
that are still used as axes and toma- 
hawks at the present day — for instance, 
by the aborigines of Australia. The 
only difference is that the edge of the 
Australian stone axes, like that of the 
European implements of later periods of 
civilisation known as thunderbolts or 
lightning-stones, is mostly ])roduced by 
grinding, whereas on the stone axes from 
the drift of the Somme valley it has always 
been obtained by simply chipping the 


Stone, and by repeated, skilfully directed 
blows. According to Tylor the stone im- 
plements of the old Tasmanians were 
entirely of Drift form and make, all with- 
out traces of grinding, being simply angu- 
lar stones whose cutting-edge had been 
sharpened by being worked with a second 
stone. Some of these stone implements 
of Drift Man may have been 
simply used in the hand when 
the natural form of the stone 
offered a convenient end, but 
the majority were certainly fastened in 
a handle in some way or other, to serve 
as weapons— spear-heads or daggers— 
both for war and the chase. Lyell's 

The Chief 
of Tools 

large number of very rude specimens 
have also been found, of which many may 
have been thrown away as spoiled in the 
making, and others may have been only 
rubbish produced in the working. Evans 
has practically proved that it is possible 
to produce such stone implements in 
their remarkable agreement of form with- 
out the use of metal hammers. He made a 
stone hammer by fastening a flint in a 
wooden handle, and worked another piece 
of flint with this until it had assumed the 
shape of the axe form— the second, oval 
form— of the Drift implements. 

Lyell draws attention to the fact that, 
in spite of the relatively great frequency 


Most of our knowledge of the earliest life of man has been revealed by the excavator. When at a certain depth 

second chief form would have been used 
as an axe for such purposes as digging up 
roots, felling trees, and hollowing out 
canoes, or to cut holes in the ice for fishing 
and forgetting drinking water in the winter. 
In the hand of the hunter and warrior 
the stone axe also became a weapon. As 
the third form of stone implements Lyell 
distinguished knife-shaped flakes, some 
pointed, others of oval form or trimmed 
evenly at one end, obviously intended 
partly as knives and arrow-heads, and 
partly as scrapers for technical purposes. 

Although there are many variations 
between the first two chief forms, yet the 
typical difference indicating the different 
purpose of their use is always easily 
recognised in well-finished examples. A 

of stone implements, it would be a great 
mistake to rely on finding a single specimen, 
even if one occupied himself for weeks 
together in examining the Somme valley. 
Only a few lay on the surface, the rest not 
coming to light until after removing 
enormous masses of sand, loam, and gravel. 
As we may presume with Lyell that the 
larger number of the Drift 
stone implements of Abbeville 

Lyell's Find 
in the 
Somme Valley 

and Amiens were brought into 
their position by the action 
of the river, this sufficiently explains why 
so many were found at great depths below 
the surface ; for they must naturally have 
been buried in the gravel with the 
other stones in places where the stream 
had still sufacient force or rapidity to 




Making an axehead of flint, like that photographed on 
the opposite page. From the painting by F. Cormon. 

wash stones away. They can, therefore, 
not be found in deposits from still water, 
in fine sediment and overflow mud. 

Bones of Drift Man are absent from the 
deposits of the Somme valley, in spite o 
the wonderful abundance of stone im- 
l)lements. The " lower jaw from Moulin- 
Ouignon, near Abbeville," had been 
fraudulently placed there by workmen. 
But proof of the existence of man is 
undeniably assured by the objects, so 
un[)retentious in themselves, that have 
been recognised as the work of his hands. 

When once the recognition of Drift 
]\hm, founded on the authority of Lyell, 
was achieved, search for further relic- 
beds was made in England and France 
with success. Yet scarcely one of the 
newly discovered stations was to be 
compared to those of the Somme valley 
as regards purity of stratification and 
conditions of discovery. The relics of 
the " earliest Stone Age " or " Palaeo- 
lithic Period," as the period of Drift 
Man was called, frequently came from 
caves and grottos, whose primary conclu- 
siveness Boucher had rightly doubted. 

Under these circumstances it was of 
the greatest importance that in Ger- 
many Drift Man was discovered in two 
places, where not only was the geologi- 
cal stratification just as clear as at 
Abbeville and Amiens, but where also 
the relics of Drift Man were found, not 
in a secondary situs, as they were then, 
but in a primary one. In addition to 
this the two German relic-beds may be 
safely assigned to the last two great 
divisions of the Drift Period, to the 
warmer Interglacial Period, and to the 
cold Glacial Period proper, with its Post- 
glacial Period ; and their climatic condi- 
tions were made clear from the remains 
of i^lants and animals found in them. 

From the occurrence, in the deposits of 
the Somme, of reindeer that contain the 
stone implements of Drift Man, we can 
not, as we saw, exactly settle in what 
part of the Drift Era man lived there, 
whether in the Interglacial Period, to 
which numerous animal remains found 
there doubtless belong, or not until the 
" Reindeer" Period, as the last Glacial 
and early Postglacial Periods were called, 
when the reindeer was most largely 
distributed over France and Central 
Europe. One is inclined to date man's 
habitation of the Somme valley back to 
the Interglacial Period ; but it is certain 



that the relic-bed near Taubachis the first, 
and, as far as I can see, the only one 
hitherto, that has given sure proof of Inter- 
glacial Man in Europe. There the oldest 
vestiges of man in Europe were found that 
have yet been absolutely proved. We have 
not hitherto succeeded in Europe in 
tracing man farther back than the Inter- 
glacial Period. Relics of him are hitherto 
as absent in the 
older Drift as 
they are in the 

The Taubach 
r e 1 i c-b e d also 
furnished n o 
bones of Drift 
Man among all 
the parts of 
skeletons of Drift 
animals that we 
have mentioned. 
Here, too, as in 
the Somme val- 
ley, the proof of 
the presence of 
man is based on 
the works of his 
hand and mind. 
Here, too, stone 
implements and 
stone weapons 
are the chief 
things 1 o be 
mentioned. But 
whereas, in the 
chalk district of 
France, flints of 
every size were 
to be had in the 
greatest abun- 
dance for the 
preparation of 
weapons and 
tools, corre- 
sponding stones 
are not exactly 
wanting at the 
two standard ^ workman's tool 

German places, p,i„t implement found in Gray's Ini 

though they oc- 
cur in limited number and size. It is due 
to this that the larger forms of flint imple- 
ments, which are most in evidence in the 
Somme valley, are absent at Taubach. On 
the other hand, smaller "knives and 
flakes "— Lyell's third form of Drift flint 
implements — occur here with comparative 
frequency and variety of form. Next to 

the usual lancet-shaped knife, worked 
flint flakes, of triangular prismatic form, 
with sharp corners, are most numerous at 
Taubach, and scrapers, chisels, awls, and 
the chipping-stones with which the stone 
implements were produced may also be 
distinguished among other things. The 
material for the implements was supplied 
by the older Drift debris of the valley — 

namely, flint. 


flinty slate, and 
quartz porphyry. 
Besides the 
stone imple- 
ments which 
alone were ob- 
served in the 
Somme valley, 
still further im- 
portant relics 
were found here 
in their primary 
s i t u s. Above 
all, numerous 
finds of charcoal 
and burnt bones 
prove that the 
Drift Men of 
Taubach not 
only knew how 
to kindle fire, but 
were also accus- 
tomed to roast 
the flesh of the 
animals they 
killed in the 
chase. Stones 
and pieces of 
shell limestone 
also occur which 
have become 
reddish and hard 
from the action 
of heat. These 
are to be re- 
garded . as the 
floors and side- 
walls of the fire- 
places on which 
the food was 
then and there 
prepared. The animal bones, especially 
those that were taken up from around 
the fireplace, appear in most cases 
to be remains of meals. This is shown 
at once by the fact that bones of young 
representatives of the large beasts of 
the chase — such as the rhinoceros, ele- 
phant, and bear — are very frequent as 


London ; now in British Museum, 


compared with the rare occurrence of 
full-grown animals. 

It appears that in the hunting and 
capture of animals the young ones were 
most easily killed, and therefore served 
chiefly as food. Whenever a large animal 
was killed, it was probably cut up on the 
spot by the fortunate hunters, who 
consumed at once part of its 
flesh ; the trunk was then left 
g . at the scene of the killing, 
while the head, neck, and fore 
and hind legs, on which was the most 
muscular flesh, and which were at the 
same time easier to carry away, were 
taken to the settlement. This may explain 
why, among the many large bones of the 
rhinoceros that have hitherto been found, 
the ribs and the dorsal and lumbar 
vertebrae are almost entirely absent. 
Some of the bones of the beasts of the 
chase bear the unmistakable traces of 
man. They are broken in the manner 
characteristic of " savages " of all ages 
and climes — for the sake of the marrow, 
one of the greatest dainties of men living 
chiefly on animal fare. The broken-oft" 
heads of the metatarsal bones of the 
bison still show particularly clearly the 
method of breaking. They are broken 
off transversely exactly where the marrow 
canal ends, and on all these bones there 
is a roundish depression, or hole, at the 
same place — namely, in the middle of their 
front or back surface, and just where 
the end of the marrow canal is, therefore 
about in the centre of the break of the 
broken-off i^ece. The hole is a " blow- 
mark " of one inch in diameter, evidently 
driven in by force from without, as several 
well-preserved specimens still show the 
edges and splinters of bone j^ressed 
inward. These sj)linters and all the 
breaks are old, and have on the surface 
the same greasy coating, full of the sand 
in which tlu-y lay, as the bones themselves. 
The instrument used for breaking the 

•J «,.,»* bones in this way might very 
How Drift Man ,, , , .11 

. .,, . .. well nave been the lower 

Killed the , , V.1 i 1 

/- . A • 1 jaw of a bear with its large 

Great Animals ■"•,,, <--. ,- " 

canine tooth, as Oscar I^raas 
has ascertained to have been the case in 
other places where Drift Man has been 
found. Such lower jaws were found at 
Taubach, and the nature and size of 
the hole and its edges agree with this 
assumj)tion. The long bones of the 
elephant and rhinoceros were whole. 
Drift Man did not succeed in breaking 

these huge pieces, and where such bones 
are found broken they are accidental 
fractures. On the other hand, almost 
all bones of the bear and bison are inten- 
tionally split — in almost all cases trans- 
versely, and seldom lengthways. 

In the Somme valley we have only the 
flint implements — which, although rude, 
are very regularly and uniformly made 
for different recognisable purposes — to 
tell us of the life and state of Drift Man ; 
but the finds at Taubach afford us a rather 
closer insight into the conditions of his 
life and culture. What we had suspected 
from the first finds is confirmed here. 
During the Interglacial Period we see 
near Taubach, on the old watercourse 
of the Ilm, which had there at that time 
become dammed up into a kind of pond, 
a human settlement. This was occupied 
for a long period, as is proved by the 
large number of bones, evidently remains 
of meals, and by the quantity of charcoal. 
Immediately on the bank were the fire- 
places — rude hearths built of the stones 
obtained without trouble in the neigh- 
bourhood. Here the flesh of the beasts 
of the chase, the bison and 
the bear, and also the elephant 
and rhinoceros, was broiled in a 
crude manner in the hot ashes, 
as is still done by savages on the level 
of the Fuegians and primitive tribes of 
Central Brazil at the present day. For 
this no utensils are required, a sharjiened 
rod or thin pointed stick being sufficient 
for turning and taking out the pieces of 
meat. The ashes that the gravy causes 
to adhere su})ply the place of salt and 
other seasoning. The meat was cut up 
with the stone knives, and many traces 
of cuts on the bones may also be attri- 
butable to these instruments. For cutting 
out larger ]iortions a powerful and very 
suitable instrument was at hand, in the 
lower jaw of the bear, with its strong 
canine tooth, which also serv^ed for break- 
ing bones to obtain the marrow. In 
spite of the apparent meanness of the 
weapons, remains of which we have found, 
the Drift Men of Taubach were yet able, 
as their kitchen refuse })roves, not only 
to kill the bison and bear, but also the 
gigantic ele|)hant and rhinoceros, both 
young and full grown. 

This shows man to have been then, as 
he is to-day, master even of the gigantic 
animal forms which so far surpass him 
in mechanical strength. It is the mind 

Drift Man 


his Meals 

A collection of neolithic lance and arrow heads found in Ireland, now to be seen in the British Museum. 

of man that shows itself superior to the 
most powerful brute force, even where 
we meet him for the first time. From 
the finds in the Somme valley it appears 
that Drift Man already possessed spear, 
dagger, and axe, besides the knife, as 
weapons. There the blades were of stone. 
The relatively small blades of the Taubach 
stone implements are, it is true, of the 
same character as the stone implements 
of Abbeville and Amiens, but they are 
chiefly, as we have said, merely knife- 
like articles, very suitable as blades for 
knives, scrapers, and daggers, and as 
arrow-heads, but not strong enough as 

T» -rx m. hunting-weapons for such big 
Drift Man ° -ru i. j. j. ±v. 

game. Ihe hunt must, there- 

*!. u * fore, have been more a matter 
the Hunt r , ., , , 

of capture m pits and traps, as 

practised at the present day where similar 

large types of animals are hunted by 

tribes armed only with defective weapons. 

The kitchen refuse also proves that the 

settlement by the Ilm pond, near Taubach, 

was a permanent one, to which the hunters 

returned after their expeditions, bringing 

their game and trophies so far as they 

were easily transj)ortable. But there is 

no trace of domestic animals. They could 

not have completely disappeared, any 

more than remains of clay vessels, which 

are still less destructible than bones, and 

in this respect may be compared to stone 


implements. There was no trace of pot- 
sherds either. 

The finds in the Somme valley and near 
Taubach are of incalculable importance 
as sure, indisputable proofs of Drift Man 
in Europe ; but as regards the wealth 
of information to be derived from them 
respecting man's psychical condition in 
that first period in which we can prove 
his existence, they are far and away 
surpassed by the find at the source of 
the Schussen, which Oscar Fraas, the 
celebrated geologist, has personally in- 
ventoried and described. Fraas has 
rightly given to his description of this find 
of Glacial Man — the most 

The Best , , J 1 - 

"Find" fth i™Po^tant and best exam 

Ice Age 

ined hitherto — the title "Con- 
tributions to the History of 
Civilisation During the Glacial Period." . 
The geognostic stratification of the 
relic-bed on one of the farthest advanced 
moraines of the Upper Swabian plateau 
proves that it belongs to the Glacial Period, 
and that this had already pushed its 
glacier-moraines to the farthest limit ever 
reached. In point of time the finds 
are, therefore, to be placed at the end 
of the Glacial Period, as it was passing 
into the Postglacial Period ; everything 
still points to Far Northern conditions 
of life. The finds at the source of the 
Schussen are thus decidedly more recent, 

The methods of holding a hammer-stone and of making a flint by pressure are illustrated at the top, those of usine 
a chopping: tool at the bottom, of this plate. The other objects are spear-heads, axes, and hammers of stone 
and Hmt, and javehn-heads of horn, the latter being smooth and barbed. The method of tying a flint chisel 
to a wooden handle is shown at the right (x). Most of these objects are to be seen in the British Museum. 


geologically, than those made at Taubach. 
They are a typical, or, better, the typical 
example of the so-called " Reindeer Period" 
of the end of the Drift. 

From Fraas's description there seems 
to be no doubt whatever that the relic- 
bed, with its remains of civilisation, was 
perfectly undisturbed, and its palseonto- 
logical contents plainly show 
its great geological age. It was 
perfectly protected by Nature. 
On the top lies peat, the same 
that covers the lowlands of the 
whole neighbourhood for miles, 
and forms the extensive moor- 
lands of Upper Swabia, on which 
)io other formations are to be 
seen than the gravel drift-walls 

hundred square yards in extent, and only 
four to five feet deep in the purest glacier 
drift, clearly showing that the excellent 
preservation of the bones and bone imple- 
ments was solely due to the water having 
remained in the moss and sand. The bank 
of moss was like a saturated sponge ; it 
closed up its contents hermetically from 
the air, and preserved in its 
ever-damp bosom what had 
been entrusted to it thousands 
of years before. 

Under the peat and tufa at 
the source of the Schussen we 
find only the type of a 
purely Northern climate, with 
Northern flora and Northern 
fauna. There are no remains 
of domestic animals — not 

throwri up by glaciers of the ^^^^^ drinking vessel , , 

Drift Period. Under the peat Reindeers skuii used as drink- even of the dog, nor any 

lies a laver of calc-tufa, four '"^^ ^^ssei by men of the stone bones of the stag, roe, chamois, 

- - - ' Age. British Museum collection. c?' ' ' 

' Everything corre- 

to five feet thick, a fresh-water 
formation from the water-courses that 
now unite with the source of the Schus- 
sen. Under this protecting cover of tufa 
were the remains of the Glacial Period 
and Glacial Man. The tufa covered a 
bed of moss of a dark brown colour, 
inclining to green, the moss still splen- 
didly preserved. Under this bed of moss 
was the glacier drift. The moss was 
dripping full of water and intermingled 
with moist sand. In it were the relics 
of Glacial Man — all lying in heaps as 
fresh and firm as if they had been only 
recently collected. A stirkv. dark-brown 
mud filled the 
moss and sand 
and the smallest 
hollow spaces of 
antlers and bones, 
and emitted a 
musty smell. 

Glacial Man had 
used the place as 
a refuse -pit. 
Among the bones 
and splinters of 
bone of animals 
that had been 
slaughtered and 
consumed by man, among ashes and 
charred remans, among smoke-stained 
hearthstones and the traces of fire, there 
lay here, one upon the other, numerous 
knives, arrow - heads, and lance - heads 
of flint, and the most varied kinds 
of hand-made articles of reindeer horn. 
All this was in a shallow pit about seven 


Such to-day are the mounds of prehistoric rubbish accumulated 
bjr the people of the Stone Age. These Danish "kitchen 
_: jj — ' i^a,ve vastly enriched our knowledge of the remote past. 

middens ' 

or ibex, 
sponds to a Northern climate, such as 
begins to-day at 70° north latitude. We 
see Upper Swabia traversed by moraines 
and melting glaciers, whose waters wash 
the glacier-sand into moss-grown pools. 
We find a Greenland moss covering the 
wet sands in thick banks ; between the 
moraines of the glaciers we have to 
imagine wide green pastures, rich enough 
to support herds of reindeer, which roved 
about there as they do in Greenland, or 
on the forest borders of Norway and 
Siberia, at the present day. Here, also, 
are the regions of tlie rarnivora dangerous 

to the reindeer — 

the glutton and 
the wolf, and, in 
the second rank, 
the bear and Arc- 
tic fox. 

According to 
Fraas, it is on this 
scene that man of 
the Glacial Period 
appears; in all pro- 
bability, a hunter, 
invited by the pre- 
sence of the rein- 
deer to spend some 
time — probably only the better portion of 
the year — on the borders of ice and snow. 
It is true that the relic-bed that tells of 
his life and doings is only a refuse-pit, 
which contains nothing good in the way of 
art productions, but only broken or spoiled 
articles and refuse from the manufacture 
of implements. The bulk of the material 



consists of kitchen refuse, such as, besides 

charcoal and ashes, opened marrow-bones 

and broken skulls of game. Not one of 

the bones found here shows a trace of 

any other instrument than a stone. It 

was on a stone that the bone was laid, 

and it was with a stone that the blow was 

struck. Such breaking-stones came to light 

in large numbers. They were 

History merely field stones collected on 

If * . ^ „ the spot, particular preference 

Rubbish Heap , . ^ . ^ ^ i ii„j 

bemg given to finely rolled 

quartz boulders of about the size of a 
man's fist. Others were rather rudely 
formed into the shape of a club, with a 
kind of handle, such as is produced half 
accidentally and half intentionally in split- 
ting large pieces. Larger stones were also 
found — gneiss slabs, from one to two feet 
square, slaty Alpine limes, and rough 
blocks of one stone or another, which had 
probably represented slaughtering-blocks, 
or done duty as hearthstones, as on many 
of them traces of fire were visible. Where 
these stones had stood near the fire they 
were scaled, and all were more or less 
blackened by charcoal. Smaller pieces of 
slate and slabs of sandstone blackened by 
fire may have supplied the place of clay 
pottery in many respects ; for, with all 
the blackened stones, not a fragment of a 
clay vessel was found in the layers of char- 
coal and ashes of the relic-bed. 

The flint implements are of the form 
familiar to us from Taubach and the 
Somme valley, being simply chipped, not 
ground or polished. At the source of the 
Schussen, also, only comparatively small 
pieces of the precious raw material were 
found for the manufacture of stone imple- 
ments. So that here, too, as at Taubach, 
Lyell's third form, the knife or flake, was 
practically the only one represented. They 
fall into two groups — pointed lancet- 
shaped knives and blunt saw-shaped stones. 
The former served as knife-blades and 
dagger-blades, and lance-heads and arrow- 
heads ; the latter represented 

«*-Jw . the blades of the tools required 
Drift Man s r , • • j i ^ t-i. 

~, . tor workmg remdeer horn. 1 he 

larger implements are between 
one and a quarter and one and a half 
inches broad and three to three and a half 
inches long ; but the majority of them 
are far smaller, being about one and a half 
inches long and only three-eighths of an 
inch broad. The various flint blades ap- 
pear to have been used in handles and 
hafts of reindeer horn. Numerous pieces 

occur which can only be explained as 
such handles, either ready or in course of 

Moreover, owing to the want of larger 
flints, numerous weapons, instruments, 
and implements were carved from rein- 
deer horn and bone for use in the chase 
and in daily life. Fraas has ascertained 
exactly the technical process employed in 
producing articles of reindeer horn, and 
we see with wonder how the Glacial men 
of Swabia handled their defective carving- 
knives and saws on the very principle 
of modern technics. They are principally 
weapons — for example, long pointed bone 
daggers, otherwise mostly punchers, awls, 
plaiting-needles (of wood), and arrow- 
heads with notched grooves. These may 
possibly be poison-grooves ; other trans- 
verse grooves may have served partly for 
fastening the arrow-head by means of 
some thread-like binding material, prob- 
ably twisted from reindeer sinews, as is 
done by the Reindeer Lapps at the present 
day ; other scratches occur as ornaments. 

The forms of the bone implements show 
generally a decided sense of symmetry 
TL CI -11 J ^^^ ^ certain taste. For in- 
The Skilled g^^^^g^ ^ dagger, with a perfor- 

f th ^^ft ^^^^ knob for suspension, and a 
large carefully-carved fish-hook. 
Groove-like or hollow spoon-shaped pieces 
of horn were explained by Fraas to be 
cooking and eating utensils ; probably 
they also served for certain technical 
purposes — as for dressing skins for clothing 
and tents, like the stone scrapers found in 
the Somme valley. A doubly perforated 
piece of a young reindeer's antler appears 
to be an arrow-stretching apparatus, like 
those generally finely ornamented, used 
by the Esquimaux for the same pur- 
pose. A branch of a reindeer's antlers, 
with deep notches filed in, is declared by 
the discoverer to be a " tally." The 
notches are partly simple strokes filed in 
to the depth of a twelfth of an inch, and 
partly two main strokes connected by 
finer ones. "The strokes," says Fraas, " are 
plainly numerical signs — a kind of note, 
probably, of reindeer or bears killed, or 
some other memento." Among the objects 
found were also pieces of red paint of the 
size of a nut — clearly fabrications of clayey 
ironstone, ground and washed, and pro- 
bably mixed with reindeer fat and kneaded 
into a paste. The paint crumbled between 
the fingers, felt greasy, and coloured the 
skin an intense red. It may have been 

From the painting by Ferdinand Cormon 


used in the first instance for painting the 
body. The Glacial men at the source of the 
Schussen were, according to the results of 
these finds, fishermen and hunters, with- 
out dogs or domestic animals and without 
any knowledge of agriculture and pottery. 
But they understood how to kindle fire, 
which they used for cooking their food. 
They knew how to kill the wild reindeer, 
bear, and other animals of the district they 
hunted over ; their arrows hit the swan, 
and their fish-hooks drew fish from the 
deep. They were artists in the chipping 

of flint into tools and weapons ; with the 
former they worked reindeer horn in the 
most skilful manner. Traces of binding 
material indicate the use of threads, 
probably prepared from reindeer sinews ; 
the plaiting-needle may have been em- 
ployed for making fishing-lines. Threads 
and finely-pointed pricking instruments 
indicate the art of sewing ; clothing 
probably consisted of the skins of the 
animals killed. 

To this material concerning Drift Man, 
scientificaUy vouched for, coming from 



The upper illustrations show handles of celt or stone- 
cutting instruments and method of hafting ; the 
lower picture is that of a handmill of sandstone. 

Drift strata that have certainly never 
been disturbed, other countries have 
hitherto made no equal contributions 
really enlarging our view. Yet the numer- 
ous places where palaeolithic — that is, 
only rudely chipped — implements of flint, 
such as were doubtless used by Drift Man, 
have been found must not remain un- 
mentioned here. We know of them in 
Northern, Central, and Southern France, 
in the South of England, in the loess at 
Thiede, near Brunswick, and in Lower 
Austria, Moravia, Hungary, Italy, Greece, 
Spain, Portugal, North Africa, and Russia. 


One of the earliest forms of habitation in Britain. From 

the British Museum "Guide to the Bronze Age." 

It is of special importance to note that 
similar flint tools have also been found 
along with extinct land mammalia in the 
stratified drift of the Nerbudda valley, in 
South India, as the supposition more than 
suggests itself that Drift Man came to our 
continent with the Drift fauna that immi- 
grated from Asia. The possibility that 
man also got from North Asia to North 
America with the mammoth during the 
Drift Period can no longer be dismissed 

after the results of pala;ontological re- 
search. It explains at once the close con- 
nection between the build of the American 
and the great Asiatic (Mongolian) races. 

Stone implements of palaeolithic form 
have been found in Drift strata in North 
America, and the same applies also, as 
we have seen, to South America. The 
best finds there were those made by 
Ameghino in the pampas formation of 
Argentina. Here marrow-bones, split, 
worked, and burnt, and jaws of the stag, 
glyptodon, mastodon, and toxodon have 
been repeatedly found along with flint 


These remains of a large pile hut discovered in Germany 
show that Stone Age Man had made good progress in 
building. The lower diagram shows a transverse section. 

tools of palaeolithic stamp ; and Santiago 
Roth, who took part in these researches, 
supposes that fossil man in South America 
occasionally used the coats of mail of 
the gigantic armadillos as dwellings. 
But the civilisation of South American 
man is doubtless identical with that of 
European fossil man — tools and weapons 
of the stone types familiar in Europe, the 

The dug-out canoe, hollowed from a single trunk, was 
the far-off parent of the ocean-going ship. The upper 
picture represents a prehistoric canoe found in Sussex 
and the lower example is taken from a German specimen. 

working of bones, the use of fire for cooking, 
and animal food, with the consequent 
special fondness for fat and marrow. 








TO the picture of Drift Man that has been 
drawn for us by the discoveries of 
human activity in deposits of uniform 
character and sharply defined age, the 
much richer but far less reliable finds in 
the bone caves add scarcely any entirely 
new touches. Von Zittel says : 

The evidence of the caves is unfortunately 
shaken by the uncertainty that, as a rule, 
prevails with regard to the manner in which 
their contents were washed into them or 
otherwise introduced, and also with regard 
to the beginning and duration of their 
occupation ; moreover, later inhabitants 
have frequently mixed up their relics with 
the heritage of previous occupants. 

This doubt strikes us particularly for- 
cibly as regards man's co-existence with 
the extinct animals of the earlier periods 
of the Drift, the Preglacial and Interglacial 
Periods. On the other hand, the habitation 
of the caves by man during the Reindeer 
Period appears in many cases to be per- 
fectly established, and, according to Von 
Zittel, the oldest human dwellings in caves, 
rock-niches, and river-plains in Europe 
belong for the most part to 
the Reindeer Period — that is, 
the second Glacial and, in par- 
ticular, the Postglacial Period. 
In the caves there is also no domestic 
animal, and no pottery or trace of pot- 
sherds, in the best-defined strata where 
Drift Man has been found. In the 
Hohlefels cave, in the Ach valley in 
Swabia, a new utensil was found in the 
form of a cup for drinking purposes or for 
drawing water, made out of the back part 
of a reindeer's skuU. Also a new tool in the 
form of a fine sewing-needle with eye, from 
the long bone of a swan, such as have also 
been found in the caves of the Perigord. 
Teeth of the wild horse and lower jaws 
of the wildcat, which are found in the 
caves, perforated for suspending either 
as ornaments or amulets, are also hitherto 
unknown, it appears, in the stratified Drift. 
As both animals are at a later period 
connected with the deity and with witch- 
craft, one could imagine that similar 
primitive religious ideas existed among the 
old cave-dwellers. In the stratum of the 

Dwellers in 

Reindeer Period at the Schweizerbild, near 
Schaffhausen, Niiesch found a musical 
instrument, " a reindeer whistle," and 
shells pierced for use as ornaments. 

The finds in the French cave districts 
prove that man was able to develop 
certain higher refinements of life, even 
during the Drift in the real flint districts-- 
, where a very suitable material 
Drift Man s ^^^ ^^ ^^^.^ disposal in the 
Working ^.j^^ ^j^^^ j^y ^^^^^ everywhere 
Materia s ^^ ^^^ easily dug up ; which 
was worked with comparative ease into 
much more perfect and efficient weapons 
and implements than those supplied by 
the wilder stretches of moor and fen of 
Germany, with their scarcity of flint. 

If we compare the small, often tiny, 
knives and flint flakes from the German 
places with the powerful axes and lance- 
heads of those regions, it is self-evident 
how much more laborious life must have 
been for the man who used the former.. 
What labour he must have expended in 
carving weapons and implements out of 
bone and horn, while flint supplied the 
others with much better and more lasting 
ones with less expenditure of time and 
trouble ! In this light a wealth of flint 
was a civilising factor of that period which 
is not to be under-estimated. In the flint 
districts not only are the stone implements 
better worked, answering in a higher 
degree the purpose of the weapon and the 
tool, but dehght in ornament and decora- 
tion is also more prominent. 

Life in the caves and grottos and under 

the rock shelters in the neighbourhood 

of rivers was by no means quite wretched. 

The remains left in the caves 

The Life ^^ ^j^^-^ former inhabitants 

P ' * give almost as clear an idea 
*^** of the life of man in those 
primeval times as the buried cities of 
Herculaneum and Pompeii do of the 
manners and customs of the Italians in 
the first century of the Christian era. 
The floors of these caves in which men 
formerly lived appear to consist entirely 
of broken bones of animals killed in the 
chase intermixed with rude implements 




Man as 

and weapons of bone and unpolished 
stone, and also charcoal and large burnt 
stones, indicating the position of fire- 
places. Flints and chips without number, 
rough masses of stone, awls, lance-heads, 
hammers, and saws of flint and chert lie 
in motley confusion beside bone needles, 
carved reindeer antlers, arrow-heads and 
harpoons, and pointed pieces 
of horn and bone ; in addition 
to which are also the broken 
bones of the animals that served 
as food, such as reindeer, bison, horse, 
ibex, saiga antelope, and musk-ox. The 
reindeer supplied by far the greater part 
of the food, and must at that time have 
lived in Central France in large herds and 
in a wild state, all trace of the dog being 

Among these abundant remains of 
culture archaeologists were surprised to 
find real objects of art from the hand of 
Drift Man, proving that thinking about 
his surroundings had developed into the 
ability to reproduce what he saw in 
drawing and modelling. The first objects 
of this kind were found in the caves of the 
Perigord. They are, on the one hand, 
drawings scratched on stones, reindeer 
bones, or pieces of horn, mostly very 
naive, but sometimes really lifelike, 
chiefly representing animals, but also 
men ; on the other hand imitations plasti- 
cally carved out of pieces of reindeer horn, 
bones, or teeth. Such engravings also 
occurred on pieces of ivory, and plastic 
representations in this material have been 
preserved. On a cylindrical piece of 
reindeer horn from the cave excavations 
in the Dordogne is the representation of a 
fish, and on the shovel-piece of a rein- 
deer's horn are the head and breast of an 
animal resembling the ibex. Illustrations of 
horses give faithful reproductions of the 
flowing mane, unkempt tail, and dispro- 
portionately large head of the large- 
headed wild horse of the Drift. The 
most important among these 
ic urcs representations are such as 
from the ', , J 

r» c^ \xr ..endeavour to reproduce an 
Drift World ,. , . , i. a n 

historical event. An illus- 
tration of this kind represents a group 
consisting of two horses' heads and an 
apparently naked male figure ; the latter 
bears a long staff or spear in his right 
hand, and stands beside a tree, which is 
bent down almost in coils in order to ac- 
commodate itself to the limited space, and 
whose boughs, indicated by parallel lines, 


show it to be a pine or fir. Connected 
with the tree is a system of vertical and 
horizontal lines, apparently representing 
a kind of hurdlework. On the other side 
of the same cylindrical piece are two 
bisons' heads. Doubtless this picture tells 
a tale ; it is picture-writing in exactly 
the same sense as that of the North 
American Indians. Our picture already 
shows the transition to abbreviated 
picture-writing, as, instead of the whole 
animals — horses and bisons — only the 
heads are given. The message-sticks of 
the Australians bear certain resemblances ; 
Bastian has rightly described them as the 
beginnings of writing. 

If we have interpreted them aright, the 
finds that have been made, with the 
tally from the source of the Schussen 
and the message-stick from the caves of 
the Dordogne, place the art of counting, 
the beginnings of writing, the first artistic 
impulses, and other elements of primitive 
culture right back in the Drift period. 

" None of the animals whose remains 
lie in the Drift strata," says Oscar Fraas, 
" were tamed for the service of man." 

The Emcrg- 

On the contrary, man stood 
in hostile relation to all of 
u^ ° XM- J them, and only knew how to 

Human Mind , ,, /, • -^ , , 

kill them, in order to support 
himself with their flesh and blood and the 
marrow of their bones. It was not so 
much his physical strength which helped 
man in his fight for existence, for with 
few exceptions the animals he killed were 
infinitely superior to him in strength ; 
indeed it is not easy, even with the help 
of powder and lead, to kill the elephant, 
rhinoceros, grizzly bear, and bison, or to 
hunt down the swift horse and reindeer. 
It was a question of finding out, with his 
mental superiority, the beast's unguarded 
moments, and of surprising it or bringing 
it down in pits and snares. All the more 
wonderful does the savage of the European 
Drift Period appear to us, "for we see 
that he belongs to the first who exercised 
the human mind in the hard battle of life, 
and thereby laid the foundation of all 
later developments in the sense of progress 
in culture." And yet, in the midst of 
this poor life, a sense of the little pleasures 
and refinements of existence already began 
to develop, as proved by the elegantly 
carved and decorated weapons and imple- 
ments, and there were even growing a sense 
of the beauty of Nature and the power of 
copying it. The bone needles with eyes and 

From the painting by Ferdinand Cormon. 

the fine awls are evidences of the art of sew- 
ing, and the numerous scrapers of flint and 
bone teach us that Drift Man knew how 
to dress skins for clothing purposes, and 
did it according to the method still used 
among the Esquimaux and most northern 
Indians at the present day. Spinning 
does not seem to have been known. On 
the other hand Drift Man knew how to 
twist cords, impressions and indentations 
of which are conspicuous on the bone and 
horn implements ; on which also thread- 
marks were imitated as a primitive 

ornament. Pottery was unknown to 
Drift Man. Indeed, even to-day the 
production of pottery is not a commonly 
felt want of mankind. The leather bottle, 
made of the skin of some small animal 
stripped off whole without a seam, turned 
inside out as it were, takes the place of 
the majority of the larger vessels ; on the 
other hand, liquids can also be kept for 
some time in a tightly-made wicker basket. 
The art of plaiting was known to Drift 
Man. This is shown by the ornaments on 
weapons and implements, the plaiting- 



needle from the find at the source of the 
Schussen, and the hurdlework represented 
on the message-stick mentioned above, 
which may be either a hurdle made of 
boughs and branches or a summer dwell- 
ing house. To these acquirements, based 
chiefly on an acquaintance with serviceable 
weapons and implements, is added the 
art of representing natural objects by 
drawing and carving. This results in the 
attempt to retain historical momenta in 
the form of abridged illustrations for the 
purpose of communicating them to others 
— incipient picture-writing. The tally 

shows the method of representing numbers 
— generally only one stroke each, but also 
two strokes connected by a line to form 
a higher unit. Of the art of building not 
a trace is left to us apart from the laying 
together of rough stones for fireplaces ; 
nor have tombs of that period of ancient 
times been discovered. 

The civihsation of Drift Man and his 
whole manner of life do not confront the 
present human race as something strange, 
but fit perfectly into the picture exhibited 
by mankind at the present day. Drift 
Man nowhere steps out of this frame. If 



From the painting by Ferdinand Cormon. 


From the painting by Ferdinand Cormon. 


a European traveller were nowadays to 
come upon a body of Drift men on the 
borders of eternal ice, towards the north 
or south pole of our globe, nothing would 
appear extraordinary and without analogy 
to him ; indeed it would be possible for him 
to come to an understanding with them by 
means of picture-writing, and to do busi- 
ness with them by means of the tally. 

The manner of life led by man beyond 
the borders of higher civilisation, especi- 
ally under extreme climatic conditions, 
depends almost exclusively on his out- 
ward surroundings and the possibility 

of obtaining food. The Esquimaux, who, 
like Drift Man of Central Europe in former 
times, live on the borders of eternal ice 
with the Drift animals that emigrated 
thither, — the reindeer, musk-ox, bear, 
Arctic fox, etc. — are restricted, like him, 
to hunting and fishing, and to a diet 
consisting almost entirely of flesh and 
fat ; corn-growing and the keeping of 
herds of domestic animals being self- 
prohibitive. Their kitchen refuse exactly 
resembles that from the Drift. Before 
their acquaintance with the civilisation 
of modern Europe they used stone and 



bone besides driftwood for making their 
weapons and implements, as they still do 
to a certain extent at the present day, 
either from preference or from super- 
stitious ideas. Their binding material 
consisted of threads twisted from reindeer 
sinews, with which they sewed their 
clothes and fastened their harpoons and 
arrows, the latter resembling in form those 
of Drift Man. They knew no more than 
he the arts of spinning and weaving, their 
clothes being made from the skins of the 
animals they hunted ; pots were unknown 
and unnecessary to 

It has often been 
thought that we 
should have a definite 
criterion of the period 
if it could be proved 
that fresh mammoth 
ivory was employed 
at the particular time 
for making imple- 
ments and weapons, 
or ornaments, carv- 
ings, and drawings. 
There can be no 
doubt that when 
Drift Man succeeded 
in killing a mammoth 
he used the tusks for 
his purposes. But on 
the borders of eter- 
nal ice, where alone 
we could now expect 
to find a frozen Drift 
Man, no conclusion 
could be drawn from 
objects of mammoth 
ivory being in the 
jwssession of a corpse 
to determine the 
great age of the 
latter. For the many 
mammoth tusks 
which have been found 


The picture-writing of the American Indians in our own 
day offers an interesting parallel to that of the primitive 
peoples of the remotest past. The Pawnees decorate their 
buffalo robes with such drawings as these, representing 
a procession of medicine men, the foremost giving freedom 
to his favourite horse as a sacrifice to the Great Spirit. 

and used from 
time immemorial in North Siberia, on the 
New Siberian Islands, and in other places, 
are absolutely fresh, and are even employed 
in the arts of civilised countries in exactly 
the same way as fresh ivory. Under the 
name of " mammoth ivory " the fossil tusks 
dug up by ivory-seekers, or mammoth- 
hunters, form an important article of com- 

The same conditions as many parts of 
Northern Siberia still exhibit at the {)resent 
day prevailed over the whole of Central 


Europe at the end of the Glacial Period and 
the beginning of the Postglacial Period. 
Here man lived on frozen ground on the 
borders of ice-fields with the reindeer and 
its companions, as he does to-day in 
Northern Asia, and here, too — as he does 
there to-day — he must have found the 
woolly-haired mammoth preserved by the 
cold in the ice and frozen ground. The 
Drift reindeer-men of Central Europe pre- 
sumably searched for mammoth tusks just 
as much as the present reindeer-men in 
North Asia. The great field of mammoth 
carrion at Predmost 
was, therefore, a very 
powerful attraction, 
not only for the beasts 
of prey — chief among 
them wolves — but 
also for man. 

In France especially 
many primitive works 
of art of the " Ivory 
Epoch " have been 
found, and even the 
nude figure of woman 
is not wanting ; but 
no proof is given that 
these carvings belong 
to the time when the 
mammoth still lived. 
Much sensation has 
been caused by an 
engraving on a piece 
of mammoth ivory 
representing a hairy 
mammoth with its 
mane and strongly- 
curved tusks. This 
illustration has been 
taken as unexception- 
able proof that the 
artist of the Drift 
Period who did it saw 
and portrayed the 
mammoth alive. But 
could the mammoth hunter Schumachow 
— the Tunguse who, in 1709, discovered, in 
the ice of the peninsula of Tumys Bykow at 
the mouth of the Lena, the mammoth now 
erected in the collection at the St. Peters- 
burg Academy [see page 123] — have 
pictured the animal otherwise when 
it was freshly melted out of the ice ? 
And the Madelaine cave in the Peri- 
gord, where the piece of ivory with 
the picture of the mammoth was found, 
certainly belongs to the Reindeer Period. 
Had we not independent proofs that 


These illustrations are of engravings on stone and bone and scratchings on rocks made by prehistoric man, 
chiefly in France. The figures of the reindeer and those of the mammoth and the bison, the two latter found at 
Dordogne, are astonishingly good, and indicate genuine power of draughtsmanship at a remote period of human life. 



Drift Man lived in Central Europe — for 
instance, at Taubach — with the great 
extinct pachydermata, neither the finds 
in the "loess" near Predmost, nor the 
articles of ivory, nor the illustration of the 
mammoth itself, could prove it. They 

furnish absolute proof of the 
c*^ *d th 6-^'stence of Drift Man only 
omparc wi \j^^]^ ^q ^j^g Reindeer Period. 
Modern Man ^^ i • i ■, ,^ 

io decide whether a corpse 

frozen in the stone-ice belonged to a 
Drift Man, the examination of the corpse 
itself, its skull, bones, and soft parts, 
would no more suffice than clothing, 
implements, and ornament. For at least 
so much is con- 
fidently asserted 
by many palaeonto- 
logists, that all the 
skulls and bones 
hitherto known to 
have been ascribed 
to Drift Man by 
the most eminent 
geologists, and 
cannot be dis- 
tinguished from 
those of men of the 
l)resent day. Von 
Zittel, the foremost 
scholar in the field 
of palaeontology in 
Germany, says : 

The only remains 
of Drift Man of re- 
liable age are a skull 
from Olmo, near 
Chiana, in Tuscany ; 
a skull from Egis- 
heim, in Alsace: a 
lower jaw from the 
Naulette cave near 
I'urfooz, in Belgium ; and a fragment of 
jaw from the Schipka cave in Moravia. This 
material is not sufficient for determining race, 
but all human remains of reliable age from 
the drift of Europe, and all the skulls found 
in caves, agree in size, form, and capacity 
with Homo sapiens, and are well formed 
throughout. In no way do they fill the gap 
between man and ape. 

" On the other hand," writes Dr. 
Chalmers Mitchell, " a large majority of 
modern anatomists and palaeontologists 
accept the antiquity of such skulls as 
the Neanderthal specimen, and agree 
that these pomt to the existence of a 
liuman race inferior to any now existing. 
This race comprised powerfully-built indi- 



Until they came in touch with European travellers the 
Esquimaux were in precisely the same condition as Drift Man : 
they were living in the Ice Age. They are but little more 
advanced now, and the difference between them and prehistoric 
men is slight. This is a group of young Esquimau women. 

viduals, with low foreheads, prominent, 
bony ridges above the eyes, and retreating 
chins. The radius and ulna were unusually 
divergent, so that the forearms must have 
been heavy and clumsy. The thigh-bones 
were bent and the shin-bones short, so 
that the race must have been bow-legged 
and clumsy in gait. 

" The intermediate position of 
primitive types has received extraordinary 
confirmation by the discovery of what 
may truly be called the link, no longer 
missing, between man and the apes. In 
1894, Dr. Eugene Dubois discovered in the 
Island of Java in a bed of volcanic ashes 
containing the re- 
mains of Pliocene 
animals the roof of 
a small skull, two 
grinding-teeth, and 
a diseased femur. 
These remains in- 
dicate an animal 
which, when erect, 
stood not less than 
5 ft. 6 in. high. 
The teeth and 
thigh-bones were 
very human, and 
the skull, although 
very human, had 
prominent eyebrow 
ridges like those 
of theNennderthal 
type, and a capa- 
city of about 1,000 
cubic centimetres 
— that is to say, 
much greater than 
that of the largest 
living apes, and 
falling short by 
about 100 cubic 
centimetres of the largest skull capacities 
of existing normal human beings. This 
creature, regarded at first by some 
anatomists as a degenerate man, by 
others as a high ape, has now been 
definitely accepted as a new type of being, 
. -, intermediate between man 

D . ^^^ m< and the apes and designated 
Between Man tim; .; j. - >> 

. . y as Ftthecanthropus erectus. 

There is no doubt that Asia, 

Europe, North Africa, and North America, 

so far as their ice-covering allowed of their 

being inhabited, form one continuous 

region for the distribution of Paleolithic 

Man, in which all discoveries give similar 

results. In this vast region the lowest 




IMC HOMES wi XXX.. - , <■ c ■ 4. 

There are people still living in dwelling-places of prehistoric type. This photograph of Esquimau stone 
Ind turf huts, mGreenllnd!^ shows exactly the kind of dwellings used by prehistoric men m the Ice Age. 





and oldest prehistoric stratum that serves 
as the basis of historical civilisation is the 
homogeneous PaL-eoIithic stratum. In the 
Drift Period, Palaeolithic Man penetrated 
into South America, as into a new region, 
with northern Drift animals. In Central 
and South Africa and Australia, Palaeo- 
lithic Man does not yet seem to be known. 
All the more important is it that in Tas- 
mania Palaeolithic conditions of civilisation 
existed until the 
middle of the last 

The palaeontology 
of man has hitherto 
obtained good geo- 
logical information of 
the oldest Palaeolithic 
culture-stratum of 
the Drift in only a 
few parts of the earth, 
and only in Tasmania 
does this oldest stra- 
tum appear to have 
cropped out free, and 
still uncovered by 
other culture strata, 
down to our own times. Otherwise 
it is everywhere overlaid by a second, 
later culture-stratum of much greater 
thickness, which, although opened up 
in almost innumerable places, is not 
spread over the whole earth as is the 
Palaeolithic stratum. As oppo- 
sed to the earliest Stone Age 
of the Drift, which we have 
come to know as the Palaeolithic 
Period, this has been called the Later 
Stone Age or Neolithic Period. 

The Neolithic Period is also ignorant of 
the working of metals ; for weapons and 
implements, stone is the exclusive hard 
material of which the blades are made. 
But geologically and palaeontologically the 
two culture-strata are widely and sharply 

As regards Europe, and a large part of 
the other continents, the second stratum 
of the culture of the human race still lies 
at prehistoric depth. But in other exten- 
sive parts of the earth the stratum of 
Neolithic culture was not covered by other 
culture-strata until far into the period of 
written history. Even a large part of 
Europe was still inhabited by history-less 
tribes of the later Stone Age at the time 
when the old civilised lands of Asia and of 
Africa, and the coasts of the Mediter- 
ranean, had everywhere — on the basis of 


The skull of the Fossil Ape-man found in 1894, ir 
the island of Java ; restored by Dr. Eugene Dubois. 

Races of 

the same Neolithic elements, with the 
increasing use of metals — already risen to 
that higher stage of civilisation which, 
with the historical written records of 
Egypt and Babylonia, forms the basis of 
our present chronology. 

When these civilised nations came into 
direct contact with the more remote 
nations of the Old World, they found them, 
as we have said, still, to a certain extent, 
at the Neolithic stage 
of civilisation, just 
as, when Europeans 
settled in America, 
the great majority of 
the aborigines had 
not yet passed the 
Neolithic stage, at 
which, indeed, the 
lowest' primitive 
tribes of Central 
Brazil still remain. 
Australia, and a large 
part of the island 
world of the South 
Sea, had not yet 
risen above the Neo- 
lithic stage (Tasmania, probably, not 
even above the Palaeolithic) when they 
were discovered. There the Stone Age, 
to a certain extent, comes down to modern 
times ; likewise in the far north of Asia, 
in Greenland, in the most northern parts 
of America, and at the south point of the 
New Continent among the Fuegians. 

The men of the later Stone Age are the 
ancestors of the civilised men of to-day. 
Classical antiquity among Greeks and 
Romans had still a consciousness of this, 
at least partly ; it was not entirely for- 
gotten that the oldest weapons of men 
did not consist of metal, but of stone, and 
even inferior material. The worked stones 
which the people then, as now, designated 
as weapons of the deity, as lightning- 
stones or thunderbolts, were recognised by 
keener-sighted men as weapons of primeval 
inhabitants of the land. 

The " kitchen middens " on the Danish 
coasts mark places of more or less permanent 
y.. . settlement, consisting of 

J,.. . more or less numerous in- 

nlddcns Tell Us (dividual dwellings. From 
these middens a rich in- 
ventory of finds 'has been made, afford- 
ing a glimpse of the life and doings of 
those ancient times. The heaps consist 
principally of thousands upon thousands 
of opened shells of oysters, cockles, and 


other shellfish still eaten at the present 
day, mingled with the bones of the roe, 
stag, aurochs, wild boar, beaver, seal, etc. 
Bones of fishes and birds were also 
made out, among the latter being the 
bones of the wild swan and of the now 
extinct great auk, and, what is specially 
important in determining the geological 
age of these remains, large numbers of 
the bones of the capercailzie. Domestic 
animals are absent with the exception 
of the dog, whose bones, however, are 
broken, burnt, gnawed in the same way 
as those of the beasts of the chase. 
Everything proves that on the sites of 
these middens there formerly lived a race 
of fishers and hunters, whose chief food 
consisted of shellfish, the shells of which 
accumulated in mounds around their 
dwellings. Proofs of agriculture and 
cattle-rearing there are none ; the dog alone 
was frequently bred not only as a com- 
panion in the chase, but also for its flesh. 

The state of civilisation of the old Danish 
shellfish-eaters was not quite a low one 
in spite of its primitive colouring, and in 
essential points was superior to that of 
Palaeolithic Man. Not only had they 
tamed a really domestic animal, the dog, 
but they made and used clay vessels 
for cooking and storing purposes. The 
cooking was done on fireplaces. They 
could work deer-horn and bone well. 
Of the former hammer-axes with round 
holes were made, and of animal bones 
arrow-heads, awls, and needles, with 
the points carefully smoothed. Small 
bone combs appeared to have served 
not so much for toilet purposes as 
for dividing animal sinews for making 
threads, or for dressing the threads in 

In the way of ornaments there were 
perforated animal teeth. The fish re- 
mains found in the middens belong to the 
plaice, cod, herring, and eel. To catch these 

-^ .f S-j^^r^ NORTH l^^;^' (STOCKH^ '^'lif^ '^' 

CD ^< ^3ig"*™ / hC"^^^^ '^ A JTJ Y 

Scdiyls., >-t:— t^y,_A, ^V^^^^-Ji'^ BrunswKS, ^„^ 


The map illustrates the extent of the Ice Age in Europe. It will be noticed that in England the ice-cap did not 
extend south of the position of London though it occurred much further south in the mountain regions of the Pyrenees, 
the Alps, Tyrol, the Carpathians and the Caucasus. The dark portions of the map represent the extent of the ice 


Drift Man 
and His 

deep-sea fish the fishermen must have gone 
out to sea, which imphes the possession of 
boats of some kind. Nor was only small 
game hunted, but also large game. Ninety 
per cent, of the animal bones occurring 
in the shell-mounds consist of those of 
large animals, especially the deer, roe, and 
wild boar. Even such dangerous adver- 
saries as the aurochs, bear, 
wolf, and lynx were killed, 
likewise the beaver, wildcat, 
seal, otter, marten, and fox. 
The very numerous fragments of clay 
vessels belong partly to large pot-like 
vessels without handles and with pointed 
or flat bottoms, and partly to small oval 
bowls with round bottoms. All vessels 
were made with the free hand of coarse 
clay, into which small fragments of 
granitic stone were kneaded ; as ornament 
they have in a few cases incisions or 
im{;)ressions, mostly made with the finger 
itself on the upper edge. 

The great importance of the Danish 
middens in the general history of mankind 
is due to the fact that their age is geologi- 
cally established, so that they can serve 
as a starting-point for chronology. It is 
to Japetus Steenstrup that the early 
history of our race owes this chronological 
fixing of an initial date. 

The earliest inhabitants of the North of 
Europe during the Stone Age, as recorded 
by these kitchen-middens of the Danish 
jieriod, were scarcely superior to Palaeo- 
lithic Man in civilisation, judging from 
outward appearances. But a closer investi- 
gation taught us that, in spite of the 
poverty of their remains, a higher develop- 
ment of civilisation is unmistakable. And 
this superiority of the Neolithic over the 
PaLneolithic Epoch becomes far more 
evident if we take as our standard of com- 
parison, not the poor fisher population, who 
probably first reached the Danish shores 
as pioneers, but the Neolithic civilisation 
that had been fully developed in sunnier 

^^ ^. ^ lands and followed closely upon 
The First ,i ^ "^ , ,' 

„, . , these trappers or squatters. 
Elements of ^^ j. ^ i i- ^ r ^ ■ 

„. ... ,. Next to huntmg and fishmg, 

Civilisation ,,1 , 11 1. 

cattle-breedmg and agriculture 
are noticeable as the first elements of Neo- 
lithic civilisation, and in connection with 
them the preparation of flour and cooking ; 
and as technical arts, chiefly carving and 
the fine working of stone, of which wea- 
pons and the most various kinds of tools 
were made ; with the latter wood, bone, 
deer-horn, etc., could be worked. The 


blades are no longer sharpened merely by 
chipping, but by grinding, and are made in 
various technically perfect forms. Special 
importance was attached to providing 
them with suitable handles, for fixing which 
the stone implement or weapon was either 
provided with a hole, or, as in America 
especially, with notches or grooves. 

In addition to these, there are the primi- 
tive arts of man — the ceramic art, spinning, 
and weaving. In the former, especially, 
an appreciation of artistic form and decora- 
tion by ornament is developed. The orna- 
ment becomes a kind of symbolical 
written language, the eventual deciphering 
of which appears possible in view of the 
latest discoveries concerning the orna- 
mental symbolism of the primitive races 
of the present day. Discoveries of dwell- 
ings prove an advanced knowledge of 
primitive architecture ; entrenchments and 
tumuli acquaint us with the principles 
of their earthworks ; and the giant 
chambers, built of colossal blocks of stone 
piled upon one another, prove that the 
builders of those times were not far behind 
the much-admired Egyptian builders in 

^^ ., , transporting and piling masses 
The Mental r , '?r, 1 • 1 1 

. . of stone. Ihe burials, whose 

.* . ^ _ ceremonies are revealed by 
opened graves, afford a glimpse 
of the mental life of that period. From 
the skulls and skeletons that have been 
taken from the Neolithic graves, science 
has been able to reconstruct the physical 
frame of Neolithic Man, which has in no 
way to fear comparison with that of 
modern man. Of the ornaments of the 
Stone Age the most important and charac- 
teristic are perforated teeth of dogs, 
wolves, horses, oxen, bears, boars, and 
smaller beasts of prey. How much in 
favour such ornaments were is proved by 
the fact that even imitations or counter- 
feits of them were worn. Numerous articles 
of ornament, carved from bone and deer- 
horn, were universal : ornamental plates 
and spherical, basket - shaj)ed, square, 
shuttle-like, or chisel-shaped beads were 
made of these materials and formed into 

In the Swiss lake-dwellings of the Stone 
Age have been found skilfully carved 
ear-drojxs, needles with eyes, neat little 
combs of boxwood, and hairpins, some 
with heads and others with ])ierced side 
protuberances. Remains of textile fabrics, 
even finely twilled tissue, and also leather, 
were yielded by the excavations of the 


lake-dwellings of that period, so that we 
have to imagine the inhabitants adorned 
with clothes of various kinds. 

What raises man of the later Stone Age 
so far above Palaeolithic Man is the 
posression of domestic animals and the 
knowledge of agriculture. As domestic 
animals of the later Stone Age we have 
, _ proof of the dog, cow, horse, 

^/^ . , " . . Among the animals that 
Animal Friend , ^^ i j .i_ i ^ 

have attached themselves to 

man as domestic, the first and oldest is 
undoubtedly the dog. It is found dis- 
tributed over the whole earth, being absent 
from only a few small islands. Among 
many races the dog was, and is still, the 
i nly domestic animal in the proper sense 
of the word. This applies to all Esquimau 
tribes, to the majority of the Indians of 
North and South America, and to the 
continent of Australia. 

We have no certain proofs that Palaeo- 
lithic Man possessed the dog as a domestic 
animal. In the Somme valley, at Tau- 
bach, and at the source of the Schussen, 
bones of the domestic dog are absent. 
And yet, among Drift fauna in caves 
remains of dogs have been repeatedly 
met with, which have been claimed to be 
the direct ancestors of the domestic dog. 
The dog's attachment to man may have 
taken place at different times in different 
parts. Man and dog immigrate to South 
America with the foreign Northern fauna 
simultaneously — in a geological sense — 
during the Drift. In Australia, man and 
dog (dingo), as the most intimate animal 
beings, are opposed to an animal world 
that is otherwise anomalous and, to the 
Old World, quite antiquated ; probably 
man and dog also came to Australia 
together. We know of fossil remains of 
the dingo from the Drift, but no reliable 
finds have yet proved the presence of 
man during that period. 

In the later Stone Age the dog already 

occurs as the companion of man wherever 

_. _ it occurs in historic times. 

The Dog 

in the 

Stone Age 

In Europe its remains have 
been found in the Danish 

kitchen-middens, in the nor- 
thern Neolithic finds, in the lake-dwellings 
of Switzerland, in innumerable caves of 
the Neolithic Period, in the terramare of 
Upper Italy, etc. It was partly a com- 
paratively small breed, according to 
Kiitimeyer similar to the " wachtelhund " 
(setter) in size and build. Kiitimeyer 


calls this breed the lake-dwelling dog, 
after the lake-dwellings, one of the 
chief places where it has been found. 
Like all breeds of animals of primi- 
tive domestication, the dog at this 
period, according to Nehring, is small — 
stunted, as it were. With the progress of 
civihsation the dog also grows larger. 

In the later prehistoric epochs, beginning 
with the so-called " Bronze " Period, we 
find throughout almost the whole of 
Europe a rather larger and more powerful 
breed with a more pointed snout — the 
Bronze dog — whose nearest relative seems 
to be the sheep-dog. At the present day 
the domestic dog is mostly employed for 
guarding settlements and herds and for 
hunting. In the Arctic regions the Es- 
quimaux also use their dogs, which are 
like the sheep-dog, for personal protection 
and hunting ; they do particularly good 
service against the musk-ox, while the 
wild reindeer is too fast for them. But 
the Esquimau dog is chiefly used for 
drawmg the sledge, and, where the sledge 
cannot be used, as a beast of burden, since 
it is unable to carry fairly heavy loads. In 
China and elsewhere, as for- 
merly in the old civilised 
countries of South America, 
the dog is still fattened and 
killed for meat. So that the domestic 
dog serves every possible purpose to which 
domestic animals can be put, except, it 
seems, for milking, although this would 
not be out of the question either. The 
dog was also eaten by man in the later 
Stone Age, as is proved by the finds in 
his kitchen refuse. The reindeer is now 
restricted to the Polar regions of the Nor- 
thern Hemisphere — Scandinavia, North 
Asia, and North America, whereas in the 
Paheolithic Period it was very numerous 
throughout Russia, Siberia, and temperate 
Europe down to the Alps and Pyrenees. 
It does not seem ever to have been 
definitely proved that the reindeer existed 
in the Neolithic Period of Central and 
Northern Europe, although according to 
Von Zittel it lived in Scotland down to the 
eleventh century and in the Hercynian 
forest until the time of Caesar. The 
earliest definite information we appear 
to have of the tamed reindeer, which at 
the present day is a herd animal with the 
Lapps in Europe, and with the Samoyedes 
and Reindeer Tunguses in Asia, is found 
in /Elian, who speaks of the Scythians 
having tame deer. 

Great Value 

of the 

Dog to Man 


Oxen at present exist nowhere in the 
wild state, while the tame ox is distributed 
as a domestic animal over the whole earth, 
and has formed the most various breeds. 
In the European Drift a wild ox, the 
urus, distinguished by its size and the 
size of its horns, was widely distributed, 
and it still lived during the later Stone 
Age with the domestic ox. In the later 
prehistoric ages, and even in historic 
times, the urus still occurs as a beast of 
the forest. 

In the later Stone Age the horse, too, 
is no longer merely a beast of the chase, 
but occurs also in the tame state. During 
the Drift the horse lived in herds all over 
Europe, North Asia, and North Africa. 
From this Drift horse comes the domestic 
horse now found all over the earth. Even 
the wild horses of the Drift exhibit such 
considerable differences from one another 
that, according to Nehring's studies, these 
are to be regarded as the beginning of 
the formation of local breeds. The taming 
and domestication of the wild horse of 
the Drift, which began in the Stone Age, 
led to the domestic horse being split up 
. later into numerous breeds. 

c aming ^^^^ ^^^^ ^-j^ horse was com- 

Wii/hofsc Paratively small, with a large 
head ; a similar form is still 
found here and there on the extensive 
barren moors of South Germany in the 
moss-horse, or, as the common people call 
it, the moss-cat. At the present day the 
genus of the domestic horse falls, like the 
ox, into two chief breeds — a smaller and 
more graceful Oriental breed, and a more 
powerful and somewhat larger Western 
breed with the facial bones more strongly 
developed. The horse of the later Stone 
Age of Europe exhibits only comparatively 
slight differences from the wild horse ; 
it is generally a small, half-pony-like form 
with a large head, evidently also a stunted 
product of primitive breeding under 
comparatively unfavourable conditions. 
Two species extant in the Stone Age 
still live wild on the steppes of Central 
Asia at the present day ; one of them 
also occurs as a fossil in the European 
Drift, although only rarely. That the 
ass occurred in the European Drift is 
probable, but not proved. It has not 
yet been found in the Neolithic Period of 

A survey of the palaeontology of the 
domestic animals shows that they come 
from wild Drift species which — at any rate, 

as regards the ox, horse, and dog — are now 
extinct, so that these most important do- 
mestic animals now exist only in the tame 
state. Some of the domestic animals came 
from Asia, and, according to Von Zittel, 
were imported into Europe from there ; 
this applies to the peat-ox and the domestic 
goat and pig. The Asiatic origin of the 
domestic horse and sheep is 

* ^ probable, but not proved ; the 

Horse come ^, • r i i j o ^i 

, A • 9 sheep IS found wild m South 
from Asia? t- ^ ,, . . . „, 

Europe as well as m Asia. Ihe 

tarpan, a breed of horse very similar to the 
wild horse, lives in herds independent of 
man on the steppes of Central Asia. This 
has been indicated as being probably the 
parent breed of the domestic horse, and 
the origin of the latter has accordingly also 
been traced to Asia. 

One thing is certain : a considerable 
number of animal forms that co-exist 
with man in Europe at the present day — 
for instance, almost all the forms of our 
poultry and the fine kinds of pigs and 
sheep — have originally come from Asia. 
Our investigations show a similar state ol 
things even in the Neolithic Period. 

In the North of Europe, which has 
furnished us with our standard information 
regarding the Neolithic culture-stratum, 
the certain proofs that have hitherto been 
found of agriculture and the cultivation 
of useful plants having been practised at 
that time (to which civilisation owes no 
less than to the breeding of useful tame 
animals) consist not so much of plant 
remains themselves as of stone hand-mills 
and spinning and weaving implements, 
which indicate the cultivation of corn and 

Our chief knowledge of Neolithic agri- 
culture and plant culture has been fur- 
nished by the lake-dwellings, especially 
those of Switzerland, which have pre- 
served the picture of the Neolithic civilisa- 
tion of Central Europe, sketched for us, cis 
it were, in the North, in its finest lines. 
„. So far we can prove the cultiva- 

• 'th'T k ^^°^ ^^ ^^® following useful 
T, „• plants in the later Stone Age; 

Dwellings f, . i • a 

their remains were chiefly 

found, as we have said, well preserved in 
the Stone Age lake-dwellings of Switzer- 
land, which have been described in 
classical manner by Oswald Heer. Of 
cereal grasses Heer determined, in the 
rich Stone Age lake-dwellings of Wangen, 
on Lake Constance, and Robenhausen, in 
Lake Pfalfikon, three sorts of wheat and 



The horse which was common in the Stone Age was a wild ancestor of our own domestic horse, but not 
quite so large or so strong as the average well-bred creature familiar in our modern life. Its remotest ancestor 
was the Hyracotherium, or Orohippus, while an intermediary stage was that of the Hypparion, or Protohippus, 
in which, as shown in the diagram, the change from the foot to the hoof had advanced to a very great extent. 



two varieties of barley — the six-rowed and 
two-rowed. Flax was also grown by 
Neolithic Man. This was, it seems, a 
rather different variety from our present 
flax, being narrow-leaved, and still occurs 
wild, or probably merely uncultivated, 
in Macedonia and Thracia. Flax has also 
been found growing wild in Northern India, 
on the Altai Mountains, and at the foot 
of the Caucasus. 

The common wheat occurring in the lake- 
dwellings of the Stone Age is a small- 
grained but mealy variety ; but the so- 
called Egyptian wheat with large grains 
also occurs. 

Traces of regular gardening and vege- 
table culture are altogether wanting. Some 
finds, however, seem to indicate primitive 
arboriculture, apples and pears having been 
found dried in slices in the lake-dwellings 
of the Stone Age ; there even appears to 
be an improved kind of apple besides the 
wild-growing crab. But although they are 
chiefly wild unimproved fruit-trees of 
whose fruit remains have been found, we 
can imagine that these fruit-trees were 
planted near the settlements, and the great 
P . nutritious and health-giving 

• *fK ^"^"^^ properties of the fruit, as a 
St A supplement to a meat fare, 
must have been all the more 
appreciated owing to the lack of green 
vegetables. The various wild cherries, 
plums, and sloes were eaten, as also 
raspberries, blackberries, and straw- 
berries. Beechnut and hazelnut appear 
as wild food-plants. 

The original home of the most important 
cereals — wheat, spelt, and barley — is not 
known with absolute certainty ; probably 
they came from Central Asia, where they 
are said to be found wild in the region of 
the Euphrates. The real millet came from 
India ; peas and the other primeval legu- 
minous plants of Europe, such as lentils 
and beans, came likewise from the East, 
partly from India. So that, apart from 
flax, which probably has a more northern 
home, the regular cultivated plants of the 
Stone Age of Central Europe — cereal 
grasses, millet, and lentils — indicate Asia 
as their original home. We have therefore a 
state of things similar to that observed in 
the case of the domestic animals. 

The potter's art was probably entirely 
unknown to Palaeolithic Man, for in none of 
the pure Drift finds have fragments of clay 
vessels been found. So where clay vessels 
or fragments of them occur, they appear as 

the proof of a pwst-Drift period. On the 
other hand, pottery was quite general in 
the Neolithic Age of Europe. Still, the 
need of clay vessels is not general among 
all races of the earth even at the present 
day ; up to modern times there were, 
and still are, races and tribes without 
pots. From their practices it is evident 
. . that the European Stone men 

f^fh'*'*"^^ of the Drift could also manage 
p • A t **^ prepare their food, chiefly 
meat, by fire without cooking 
vessels. The Fuegians lay the piece of 
meat to be roasted on the glowing embers 
of a dying wood fire, and turn it with a 
pointed forked branch so as to keep it 
from burning. Meat thus prepared is very 
tasty, as it retains aU the juice and only 
gets a rind on the top, and the ashes that 
adhere to it serve as seasoning in lieu of 
salt. On a coal fire not only can fish be 
grilled, stuck on wooden rods, but whole 
sheep can be roasted cm wooden spits, 
precisely as people have the dainty of 
roast mutton in the East. To these maj^ be 
added a large number of other methods of 
roasting, and even boiling, without earthen 
or metal vessels, which are partly vouched 
for by ethnography and partly by archae- 
ology, and some of which, like the so-called 
" stone-boiling," are stiU practised at the 
present day. 

Although, according to this, pottery is 
not an absolute necessary of life for man, 
yet it is certain that even those poorly 
equipped pioneers who first settled in 
Denmark in the Pine Period, in spite of 
their having an almost or quite exclusive 
meat fare, had clay pottery in general use 
for preparing their food, and probably also 
for storing their provisions. As we have 
already shown, the remains that have been 
preserved in the kitchen-middens are the 
oldest that have been found in Denmark. 
Simple and rude as the numerous pot- 
sherds that occur may appear, they are 
of the highest importance on account 

No Perfect °^ *^^ ^^°°^ °^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^6- 

Pottery in the 

Unfortunately, as we have 

jj. . already seen, not a smgle 

Stone Age . f i i '^^ 

perfect vessel has come to 

light. The fragments are very thick, of 

rough clay with bits of granite worked 

in, and are all made by hand without the 

use of the potter's wheel. The pieces 

partly indicate large vessels, some with 

flat bottoms, and others with the special 

characteristic of pointed bottoms, so that 

the vessel could not be stood up as it was. 



Smaller bowls, frequently of an oval 
form, also occurred with rounded bot- 
toms, so that they also could not stand 
by themselves. It is very important to 
note that on these fragments of jiottery 
we find only extraordinarily scanty and 
exceedingly simple ornamental decora- 
tions, consisting merely of incisions, or 
impressions made with the fingers, on the 
upper edge. 

We shall see how far this oldest pottery 
of the Stone Age is distinguished by its 
want of decoration from that of the fully- 
developed Stone Age. But it is very im- 
portant to notice that this rudest mode of 
making clay vessels, which we here see 
forming the beginning of a whole series that 
rises to the highest pitch of artistic perfec- 
tion, remained in vogue not only during 
the whole Stone Age, but even in much 
later times. 

It is true that in the fully developed 
neolithic Stone Age of Europe the clay 
pottery is also all made by hand, without 
the potter's wheel, the oldest and rudest 
forms still occurring everywhere, as we 
have said ; but besides these a great 
variety is exhibited in the size, 
tone ^ gc j^j-j^^ g^j^fj mode of production 

„° " * , of the pottery. The clay is 

Handwork r, r -^ ■, -^ •■ 

often finer, and even quite 
finely worked and smoothed, and the vessels 
have thin sides and are burnt right through. 
The thick fragments are generally only 
burnt outside, frequently only on one side, 
and so much that the clay has acquired a 
bright red colour, whereas the inside, 
although hard, has remained only a greyish 
black. We have numerous perfectly pre- 
served vessels of the later Neolithic Age. 
They are frequently distinguished by an 
artistic finish and beauty of form, and on 
their surfaces we find ornaments incised 
or imprinted, but rarely moulded on them, 
which, although the style is only geometri- 
cal, cannot be denied a keen sense of beauty 
and symmetry. The clay vessels also 
show the beginning of coloured decoration. 
The incised strokes, dots, etc., are often 
filled out with white substance (chalk 
or plaster), which brings the patterns out 
into bold ornamental relief from the black 
or red ground of the surface. 

After that it is no wonder that pottery 
advanced to the real coloured painting 
of the vessels during the Neolithic Period, 
at least in some places. 

On these vessels the handle now appears, 

in its simplest form as a wart-like or flatter 

projection from the side of the vessel, 

pierced either vertically or horizontally 

with a narrow opening just large enough 

to admit of a cord being passed through. 

Other handles, just like those in use at the 

present day, are bowed out broad, wide, 

and high for holding with the 

/a^.- .■ hand. These generally begin 
of Artistic -, . ii i i iu ( 

_ quite at the top, at the rim ot 

the vessel, and are continued 
from there down to its belly, whereas the 
first -mentioned are placed lower, fre- 
quently around the greatest circumference 
of the vessel. 

There is no doubt whatever that in the 
main these clay vessels were made on 
the spot where we find their remains at 
the present day. This easily explains the 
local peculiarity that we recognise in 
various finds, by which certain groups may 
be defined as more or less connected with 
one another. Different styles may be 
clearly distinguished by place and groujx 
But, this notwithstanding, wherever we 
meet with neolithic ceramics, they cannot 
conceal their homogeneous character. In 
spite of all peculiarities this general 
uniform style of the ceramics of the Stone 
Age, which we can easily distinguish and 
determine even under its various dis- 
guises, goes over the whole of Europe. 

In finds that lie nearer to the old Asiatic 
centres of civilisation and to the coasts of 
the Mediterranean— as, for instance, at 
Butmir — the vessels are in part better 
worked, and the ornaments are richer 
and more elegant, and the spirals more 
frequent and more regular, and are some- 
times moulded on, and sometimes, as we 
have mentioned, even painted in colour. 
But the general character remains un- 
mistakably Neolithic, and may be found 
not only on the Euro]:)ean coasts of the 
Mediterranean and the islands 
of the yEgean Sea, but in cer- 

The Proofs of 
Man's Mental 

tain respects also in Mesopo- 
tamia and Egypt. The eldest 
Trojan pottery also exhibits unmistak- 
able points of agreement with it. 

Not only the stone weapons and im])!e- 
ments, but, as far as we can see, even the- 
remains of the oldest ceramics, show that 
uniform development of the culture of the 
Neolithic Period which proves a like course 
of mental develoi)ment in mankind. 








What the 
L&ke Dwell 
ings Tell 

A PICTURE, of unequalled clearness of 
■**■ delineation, of the general conditions 
of the life and culture of Central European 
Man during the Neolithic Period, was 
given, according to the results of the cele- 
brated researches of Ferdinand Keller and 
his school of Swiss archaeologists, by the 
lake-dwellings in the Alj)ine lowlands. 
Whereas in cave districts 
the caves and grottos often 
served the men of the later 
Stone Age as temporary and 
even as piermanent winter dwellings, in the 
watery valleys of Switzerland the Neolithic 
population built its huts on foundations of 
piles in lakes and bogs. In that period we 
have to imagine the Alpine lowlands still 
extensively covered with woods and full of 
wild beasts ; at that time the huts 
standing on piles in the water must have 
afforded their inhabitants a security such 
as scarcely any other place could have 
given. The first founders and inhabitants 
of settlements of pile-dwellings in Switzer- 
land belong to the pure Stone Period. 
In spite of their lake-dwellings the old 
Neolithic men of Switzerland appear to 
have possessed almost all the important 
domestic animals, but they also knew and 
practised agriculture. They lived by cattle- 
rearing, agriculture, hunting, and fishing, 
and on wild fruit and all that the plant 
world freely offered in the way of eataliles. 
Their clothing consisted ])artly of skins, 
but partly also of stuffs, the majority of 
which .seem to have been prepared from 

The endeavour of the .settlers to live 

together in lasting homes protected from 

. . surjirises, and in large num- 

Beginnings ^^^.^.^^ -^ ^^ unmistakable proof 

s *■ lO A ^^^'^^ they were aware of the 
advantages of a settled mode of 
life, and that we have not to imagine the 
inhabitants of the pile-dwellings as nomadic 
herdsmen, and still as a regular race 
of hunters and fishermen. The permanent 
concentration of a large number of 
individuals at the same ]X)int, and of 
hundreds of families in neighbouring inlets 
of the lakes, could not have taken jilace if 


there had not been through all the seasons 
a regular supply of provisions derived 
principally from cattle-rearing and agri- 
culture, and if there had not existed the 
elements of social order. Even the establish- 
ment of the lake-settlement itself is not 
possible for the individual man ; a large 
commvmity must have here worked with a 
common plan and purpose. Herodotus 
describes a pile-village in Lake Prosias, in 
Thracia, which was inhal)ited by Pieones, 
who defended it successfully against the 
Persian general Megabazos. The scaffold 
on which the huts were built stood on high 
piles in the middle of the lake ; it was 
connected with the bank only by a single, 
easily removable bridge. Herodotus says : 

The piles on which the scaffolds rest were 
erected in olden times by the citizens in a 
body ; the enlargement of the lake-settle- 
ment took place later, acconling as it was 
necessitated by the formation of new 

According to the large numl er of lake- 
dwellings of the Stone Age in the Alpine 
lowlands, and according to the 

^ * ^ large quantity of j)roducts of 
aTh ^^ primitive industry that have 
" been found there, centuries 
must have elapsed between the moment 
when the first settlers rammed in the piles 
on which to build their dwellings and the 
end of the Stone Period. 

The huts of the settlements of the Stone 
Age were j^artly rovmd and partly quad- 
rangular, and, like the pile-hut discovered 
by Frank near Schussenried, were divided 
into two compartments — one for the cattle, 
and the other, with a hearth built of 
stones, for the dwelling of man. The floor 
of the hut was made of round timber 
with a mud foundation, and perhaps 
also with a mud flooring ; in Frank's 
hut the walls were formed of split tree- 
trunks, standing vertically with the split 
sides turned inward, firmly put together 
between corner jwsts. The round huts 
had walls of roughly intertwined branches, 
covered with clay inside and out ; of this 
clay-plaster numerous pieces have been 
})reserved, hardened by fire, with the marks 


of the branches. The pile huts of the lakes 
were connected with the waTer by block 
or rung ladders. Victor Cross found such 
a ladder in one of the oldest stations ; 
it consisted of a long oak pole provided 
at fairly regular intervals with holes 
in which the rungs were inserted. 

Of special importance in estimating the 
degree of civilisation attained by the 
lake-dwellers of the Stone Age are the 
remains of spinning and weaving imple- 
ments and of webs and textile fabrics, 
plaited work, etc. Flax has been found 
wound on the implements made of ribs, 
that we mentioned above as flax combs ; 
we have also mentioned the fixing of blades 
with liax, or threads made of it, and 
the numerous wide and narrow nets made 
of threads. For spinning the thread, 
spindles were used just like those of the 
present day, a spindle-stick of wood 
being fastened into a spinning-whorl 
made of stone, deer-horn, or 
clay. The distaff was probably 
not yet known ; a loom has 
not yet been found, either ; but 
numerous weaver's weights, which served 
for spinning the threads, have been. Excel- 
lent webs, some of them twilled, were 
produced, of which we have many frag- 
ments. Remains of mats and baskets prove 
that those were manufactured from the 

In a 

Stone Age 


Traces of 

materials still employed at the present 
day. Corn was baked into a kind of bread 
consisting of coarsely ground grains. The 
millstones that were used for grinding the 
corn are found in large numbers. They 
are rather worn, hollowed slabs of stone, 
and smaller flat stones rounded 
on the top, with which the 
grains of corn were crushed on 
the larger slabs. Some of the 
kitchen utensils we find already much 
improved. Large and small pots for stor- 
ing purposes, earthen cooking pots, and 
dishes, and large wooden spoons and twirl- 
ing-sticks — the latter probably for churn- 
ing — have been preserved. Vessels like 
strainers served for making cheese ; they 
are pots in whose sides and bottoms a 
number of small holes were made for 
pouring off the whey from the cheese. 

Here, in the fully developed Neolithic 
Period we find the early inhabitants of 
Switzerland to be a settled agricultural and 
farming population. Although hunting 
and fishing still furnished an important 
part of their food, so that in some places 
even more deer bones have been found 
among the cooking remains than bones of 
the ox, yet the milk, cheese, and butter of 
the cows, sheep, and goats, the tiesh of these 
and of the hog, and bread and fruit, already 
formed the basis of their subsistence. 


The lakedweUings still in use in New Guinea, illustrated in this reproduction from an old work, 

D'Urville's "Voyage of the Astrolabe," are exactly like the lake dwelhngs of prehistoric Europe. 



The results of cave research are almost as 
rich and varied as the results- yielded by 
the study of the lake-dwellings in their bear- 
ing on the Neohthic stratum. Where there 
is a Drift stratum in the cave-earth the con- 
fusion of Palaeolithic and Neolithic objects 
can, as we have said, scarcely be avoided. 
But there are numerous grottos and small 
caves in which the Neolithic 
Man Learmng g^j-atum is the oldest, SO that 

* ^ r I • • mistakes are out of the ques- 
Art of Living ^.^^ j^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^f 

such places in the cave district of the Fran- 
conian-Bavarian Jura the conditions under 
which finds have been made in the Neo- 
lithic stratum have proved almost as pure 
and unmixed as in the lake-dwellings. 

The cave-dweller'^ of the later Stone Age 
in the Franconian Jura were, like the 
Swiss lake-dwellers of the Stone Age, 
mainly a pastoral race. They possessed 
all the important domestic animals that 
the latter possessed — dog, cow, horse, 
sheep, goat, pig — and likewise practised 
agriculture, or, at any rate, ffax-growing ; 
at the same time hunting and fishing formed 
a considerable part of their means of sub- 
sistence. So that, not only on artificial 
pile-works on the shores of lakes, but 
also on the banks of South German rivers, 
there formerly lived a race which, al- 
though still mainly restricted to hunting 
and fishing, and using no metal, but 
exclusively stone and bone tools, already 
practised cattle-breeding and primitive 
agriculture, and was able to increase the 
means of existence afforded it by Nature 
by the first technical arts — by the chipping 
and grinding of stone instruments, bone 
carving, and, above all., pottery-making, 
tanning, and the arts of sowing, weav- 
ing and plaiting. 

Of most importance, as showing the 
state of civilisation of the Neolithic rock- 
dwellers, are the numerous articles carved 
from bone that must be looked upon as 
instruments for weaving and net-knitting. 
For the latter purpose there 
were large, finely-smoothed 
bone crochet-needles, some of 
them carved from the rib of a 
large ruminant. The handle-end is 
smoothed by use, and the end with the 
hook is rounded from the same cause. 
The end is frequently perforated, so that 
it might be hung up. Still more numerous 
were shuttles of various forms. 

According to the numerous finds of 
perforated clay weaver's weights, the 


of Weaving 
and Knitting 

loom, like that of the lake-dwellers, must 
have been like the ancient implement 
that, according to Montelius, was in use 
on the Faroe Islands a comparatively 
short time ago. Spinning-whorls are very 
numerous, being partly fiat, round discs 
of bone pierced in the centre, and partly 
thick bone rings or large beads of bone 
and deer-horn and flat burr-pieces of deer- 

It was formerly thought that the Neo- 
lithic Europeans did not possess the arts 
of engraving and carving animals and 
human figures which the Palaeolithic Men 
had understood in such conspicuous 
manner. The progress of research has 
now produced more and more proof that 
in the later Stone Age the arts, of carving 
and engraving had not died out. We have 
the celebrated amber carvings of the 
later Stone Age from the Kurisches Haff, 
near Schwarzort, some of which probably 
served a religious purpose ; those of ivory, 
bone, stalactite, etc., from the caves of 
France and the Polish Jura ; the figures 
from Butmir, and other evidences. 

In Italy, in Lombardy, and Emilia, 
another group of settlements of the Stone 
Age has been found, which 
again exhibit the civilisation 
and all other signs of the 
later Stone Age, and in many 
respects more closely resemble the lake- 
dwellings than do the cave-dwellings. 
These aie the " terramare," whose inhabi- 
tants, however, had already to some extent 
advanced to the use of bronze. A sharp 
division of strata into habitation of the 
pure Stone Age and habitation of the Metal 
Age has not yet been made. The huts stood 
on pile-work on dry land, the piles being 
six to ten feet high ; the whole settlement 
was fortified with trench and rampart, 
generally with palisades, and was of an 
oblong or oval plan. Besides many 
natural and artificial caves in Italy the 
dwelling-pits, which may formerly have 
borne the superstructure of a hut, also 
belong to the pure Stone Age. 

Such dwelling-pits of the Stone Age 
seem to have been distributed all over 
Europe. Burnt wall-plaster with impres- 
sions of interwoven twigs, has frequently 
been found near or in the pits, doul^tless 
indicating hut-building. In Mecklenburg, 
where the dwelling-pits were first carefully 
examined by Liesch, they have a circular 
outline of ten to fifteen yards, and are five 
to six and a half feet deep. At the bottom 

Settlements in 
Stone Age 

From a painting by Hippolyte Coutau, in the Geneva Museum. 



of the pit lie burnt and blackened stones, 
hearthstones, charcoal, potsherds, broken 
bones of animals, and a few stone imple- 
ments, the latter being mostly found in 
larger numbers in the vicinity of the 
dwellings. The same circular dwelling- 
pits of the Stone Age are found in France. 
Smaller hearth-pits were recently found in 
very large numbers in the 
range Spessart, in Bavaria, with hun- 

Homes of '^ 

Early Man 

dreds of stone hatchets and 

perforated axe-hammers, some 
ot the former being very finely made of 

During the Neolithic Period dwellings 
were frequently made on heights, and it 
.seems that even at that time they were to 
a certain extent walled round and fortified. 
Such settlements are numerous all over 
Southern and Central Germany, in Austria- 
Hungary, especially in the coast-country, 
and in Italy and France. Many of these 
stations belong purely to the Stone Age ; 
indeed, the majority were inhabited 
already during the Stone Age, and furnish 
the typical Neolithic relics familiar from 
the foregoing. On the other hand, they con- 
tinue to be inhabited even in the later metal 
periods, and in some cases right down 
to modern times. The rock near Clausen, 
in the Eisack valley, in the Tyrol, on which 
the large Siiben monastery now stands, was 
a mediaeval castle, and during the times of 
the Romans a fortified settlement called 
Sobona stood there ; and when excava- 
tions were made in 1895, for adding new 
buildings to the monastery, a well-ground 
stone hatchet of the later Stone Age came 
to light. On many hills in Central 
Germany are found traces of the ancient 
presence of men who lived on them or 
assem])]ed on them for sacrificial feasts ; 
the earth is coloured black by charred 
remains and organic influences, and this 
" black earth on heights and hills " 
contains frequently, as we have said, the 
traces of Neolithic men. In Italy, many 
finds on such heights — for in- 
stance, those made on the small 
castle-hill near Imola — seem to 
exhibit that stage of the Stone 
Age that is missing in the terramare, and 
that precedes the beginning of the Metal 
Age of the terramare, but corresponds to 
it in every essential except in the possession 
of metal. 

But the view that is opened up is still 
wider. The prehistoric times of the New 
World also exhibit a Neolithic stage, 





corresponding to that of Europe, as the 
basis of the further development of the 
ancient civilised lands of America. And 
where a higher civilisation did not develop 
autochthonously in America, European 
discoverers found the Neolithic civilisation 
still in active existence, as they did in the 
whole Australian world. Accordingly in 
these vast regions, which have never risen 
above the Stone Age of themselves, the 
same stage of civilisation which in the old 
civilised lands belongs to a grey, im- 
memorial, prehistoric period, here stands 
in the broad light of historic times. The 
study of modern tribes in an age of stone 
throws many a ray of light on the con- 
ditions of the prehistoric Stone Age ; 
and this study, on the other hand, shows 
us that the primitive conditions of civil- 
isation of those tribes stand for a general 
stage of transition in the development 
of all mankind. 

The lake-dwelling stations, and the 
land settlements resembling them, prove 
of themselves how far the culture of the 
early inhabitants of Europe was advanced 
even in that ancient period which was for- 
merly imagined to be scarcely 
raised above half-animal con- 
. „ . ditions. Such structures could 

not be erected unless men 
combined into large social communi- 
ties, which is indeed indicated by the 
very fact of the number of dwellings that 
were crowded into a comparatively small 
space. For the first ramming-in of the 
pile-works a large number of men working 
together on a common plan was absolutely 
necessary. The same ai')]ilies to the con- 
struction of the artificial islands, protected 
by pile-works and partly resting on piles, 
termed "crannoges" by Irish archaeologists, 
and to the Italian villages called " terra- 
mare," which likewise once rested on 
piles and were protected by ditches. 
From the extent of the pile-works we are 
able to estimate the number of the former 
inhabitants of the settlements supported 
by them. Quite as clear an idea of the 
number of the former inhabitants is also 
given by the early circumvallations on 
the tops of hills and shoulders of rock, 
which were likewise made and inhabited 
during the Stone Age. 

The co-operation of a large number of 
men for a common j)urj)ose is also shown 
in the often huge stone structures to which, 
on account of the size of the stones 
employed in their construction, the name 

"That the men of the later Stone Age had developed a considerable degree of culture is proved by s'lch 
remains as these. The erection of these giant chambers must have called for a vast amount of co-operation, 
skill, and ingenuity. The means whereby the massive stones were placed into position, and so fixed to 
withstand the shocks of thousands of years, have not yet been satisfactorily explained by archaeology. 

" megalithic " structures, or gigantic stone 
structures, has been given. In Northern 
Europe they, too, belong to the Stone Age 
proper. The majority of these gigantic 
structures were originally tombs ; the 
principle on which they are built is often 
repeated even in far less imposing tombs. 

The stone blocks of which these gigantic 
structures are piled now often lie bare. 
Large stones placed crosswise, which 
represent, as it were, the side-walls of a 
room, supj)ort a roof of one or several 
" covering-stones " of occasionally colossal 
size. For the erection of these in their 
present position without the technical 
resources at the disposal of modern 
builders, human strength appears inade- 
quate ; in popular opinion only giants 
could have made such structures. Some 
of the stones are really so large, and the 
covering-stones especially so enormous, 
that these buildings have defied destruc- 
tion, for thousands of years, by their very 

In the time of their construction these 
giants' graves were mostly buried under 

mounds. They were the inner structures 
of large tumuli, in which the reverence 
of the men of the Stone Age once buried 
its heroes. One of the finest " giant's 
chambers " is probably that near Om, 
in the neighbourhood of Roskilde, in 
Denmark. The building material consists 
merely of erratic stone blocks of enormous 
size. The rough blocks were mostly set 
up by the side of one another, without 
any further working, so as to support one 
another as far as possible ; at the same 
time all of them, as Sophus IMliller observes, 
are slightly inclined inward, so that they 
are kept more firmly in position by their 
own weight. The stones thus erected, 
forming the parallel side-walls of the 
whole structure, stand so far apart that 
a huge erratic block, reaching from one 
wall to the other, could be placed on 
them as a roof. The distance between 
the side-walls of the giant's chambers 
attains a maximum of eight to nine feet ; 
the covering-stones placed on them are 
some ten to eleven feet long. The pressure 
of the covering-stones from above helps 



considerably to hold the whole struc- 
ture together. In order to distribute 
the pressure of the covering-stones 
regularly, smaller stones were carefully 
inserted under the wall-stones where 
they had to stand on the ground. How 
exactly these proportions of weight 
were judged is proved by the fact 
that these structures of heavy and 
irregular stones, resting on their 
natural, differently shaped sides and 
edges, have held together until the 
present day. The inner walls of 
the chambers were made as care- 
fully as possible. Where, as on the 
outside, the rough and irregular 
form of the stone block projects, 
either the naturally smooth side was 
turned inward or the roughness was 
chipped off. 

These are the beginnings of a real 
architecture, seen also in the regu- 
lar wedging with small stones of the 
spaces left between the wall-stones and 
covering-stones and between the wall- 
stones themselves. These small stones 
were frequently built in, in regular 
wall-like layers. Sandstone was often 
used for the purpose, being more easily 
split into regular pieces, which gave 
this masonry a still more pleasing ap- 
pearance. The number of stone blocks 
used for the wall-sides varies according 
to the size of the giant's chambers, as 
does also the number of covering- 
stones. For smaller chambers, with six 
to nine wall-stones, two or three cover- 
ing-stones were required. But far 
larger stone chambers occur, as many 
as seventeen wall-stones having been 
counted. Such large chambers require 
a whole row of covering-stones be- 
side one another. The door-opening 
often shows a special regard for 
architectonics. The two door-post 
stones are rather lower than the other 
wall-stones ; on them a stone was 
laid horizontally, which kept them 
apart and distributed the pressure 
of the covering-stone equally on both 

Very often there was also a stone as 
a threshold. Leading to the door is a 
low passage, made in similar manner 
to the chamber, but of far smaller 
stones. The passage is only high 
enough to allow one to creep through, 
whereas the chamber itself is about as 
high as a man, so that one could stand 



Archaeologists are not entirely agreed as to the purpose of these dolmens. They were more likely graves, or 
chambers associated with religious rites, than residences. This example is at Locmariaquer, near Carnac, in Brittany. 

upright in most of them. Larger stone 
chambers are rarely without this pas- 
sage, and from it such grave-structures 
have been named " passage-graves." 
Besides the building-in of small stones, 
the holes still re- 
maining between the 
stones were also 
coated over on the 
outside with mud to 
keep the rain-water 
from soaking in ; 
mud was also fre- 
quently used for 
making a rough 
plaster floor for the 
chamber if the 
natural floor could 
not be made level 
enough. On the floor 
is frequently found a 
compact layer of 
small flints, or a 
regular pavement of 
fiat stones, often 
rough-hewn, or 
roundish stones fit- 
ting one another as 
nearly as possible, 
which were then 
probably also 
covered with a thick 
layer of mud. 

So that in these 

giant's chambers we This is the interior of the above dolmen. It will be seen that 
bavp rpal bnilrlinp''; the earth has slowly risen a great height since it was erected, 
lldvc lCd,l UUlIUlIlgb, nearly covering the dolmen, thus indicating immense age. 
which imply high The principal supporting stone is covered with sculpture. 

technical accomplishments and have pre- 
served for us the usual form of the 
dwellings of those early times. In what 
manner the huge covering-stones were 
placed on the side-walls of the giant's 
chambers is a pro- 
blem still unsolved. 
Doubtless many 
hands were occu- 
pied on such struc- 
tures ; and the 
history of building 
teaches us that with 
the proper use of 
human strength — as, 
for instance, in 
ancient Egypt — 
great weights can be 
raised and placed in 
position with very 
simple tools — round 
pieces of wood as 
rollers, ropes, and 

Some of these 
giant's chambers, 
which were origin- 
ally enclosed in 
mounds or barrows, 
are still preserved at 
the present day, and 
splendidly too. Very 
often the chamber 
was quite covered 
with earth outside ; 
it then formed the 
centre of what was 



generally a circular barrow, often regular 
small hills ten to fifteen feet high and fre- 
quently over ninety feet in circumference. 

The corpses were buried, not cremated. 
They were frequently in a crouching 
attitude, or that of a sleeper lying side- 
ways with the legs drawn up to the body. 
The smaller graves often represent single 
interments ; .the larger or largest ones are 
mostly family tombs, in which numerous 
corpses were interred one after the other 
at different times. But this repeated use 
of the graves is found also with smaller 
ones, and even with stone cists. Only 
the last corpse then lies in a normal 
position, while, through the repeated 
opening of the grave and the later inter- 
ments, the skeletons belonging to pre- 
viously interred corpses appear more or 
less disturbed or intentionally put aside. 
The skulls of the corpses interred in the Neo- 
lithic graves are well formed, their size indi- 
cating a very considerable brain develop- 
ment. The corpses were no bigger than the 
present inhabitants of the same districts, 
and the form of the head corresponds partly 
with that of the present population of those 
countries. Nor do the skeletons otherwise 
differ from those of modern men. 

In America, also, gigantic structures were 
erected by the aborigines who lived in the 
Stone Age, to commemorate and to protect 
their dead. They consist partly of large 
mounds of stones and earth, which are like- 
wise often regular small hills, and partly of 
stone structures reminding one of the giants' 
chambers. The majority of the mounds 
were doubtless mainly sepulchral ; others 
may have been temple-hills or sacrificial 
mounds, defensive works or observatories. 
The objects buried with the occupants 
belong mostly to the Neolithic Period, 
and consist chiefly of stone weapons and 
tools, some rude, but others finely worked 
and polished. Some are of pure natural 
copper, which was beaten into shape cold 
with stone hammers. Besides these, and 
ornaments and pottery, an American 
specialty is found in the form of tobacco- 
pipes carved from stone, some of which 
give interesting representations of men 
and animals ; this seems to prove that 
tobacco also played a part in the American 
funeral rites of those times. 

The graves of the Neolithic Period not 
only indicate that mankind generally was 
endowed with the same gifts as regards the 
first principles of the art of building, but 
they also afford us a glimpse of the mental 

life of that period of civihsation which 
at a more or less distant period was spread 
over the whole earth. What is so charac- 
teristic is the affectionate care for the 
corpse, for whose protection no amount of 
labour and trouble appeared too great. We 
can have no doubt that this reverence was 
based on a belief in the immortality of the 
soul — a belief which we find also" at the 
present day among the most backward and 
abandoned "savages." That the pre- 


Photogrraph of an actual skeleton, in position of burial, 
taken from a prehistoric mound grave in North America. 

historic men of the Stone Age held this 
belief is proved by the ornaments, weapons, 
implements, and food placed with the dead 
for use in the next world. Their burial cus- 
toms certainly express a kind of worship 
of departed souls which has played and 
still plays so important a part in the 
religious ideas of all primitive peoples, and 
is one of the oldest fundamental notions 
common to mankind. 










THE discovery of Drift Man, his distinc- 
tion from man of the later Stone Age, 
the investigation of the Palaeohthic and 
Neohthic strata of culture of Europe and of 
the whole earth, and the scientific recon- 
struction of the earliest forms of civilisa- 
tion based on these, are due solely to 
the natural-science method of research. 

It was only when the exact methods of 
palaeontology and geology had been brought 
to bear with all their rigour on the study 
of ancient man by savants schooled in 
natural science that solid results were 
obtained. On this sure foundation the 
science of history now continues building, 
and uses, even for the later periods, so far 
as recorded information is not available, 
and to supplement it, the same methods of 
palaeontology and natural science which 
were applied so successfully to the earliest 
stages of the evolution of mankind. 

The first point is to collect the rehcs 
of the periods of the evolution of culture 
which follow on the later 
Time-Table _ g^^^^ j^ ^^^ ^^ separate 
of Prehistoric ^^^^ according to geological 
Periods strata, uninfluenced by those 

older pseudo-historic fancies by which the 
deepening of our historical knowledge has so 
long been hindered. By carefully separat- 
ing and tracing the earth's strata till we 
come to those that furnish remains of times 
recorded in history, it has been possible 
to establish first a relative chronology of 
the so-called later prehistoric periods of 
Central Europe, whose offshoots pass 
immediately into recorded history. 

By digging, after the same method of 
palaeontological science, through stratum 
after stratum in the oldest centres of culture, 
especially in the Mediterranean countries, 
and by arranging the products by strata — 
uninfluenced by historical hypotheses — 
after the same natural-science method of 
research which has produced such remark- 
able results in Central Europe, the most 
surprising conformity in the evolution of 
culture in widely remote regions has been 
shown. It was found that in the Medi- 
terranean countries, and also in Egypt and 
Babylonia, forms of culture already belong 

to the time of real history which were first 
recognised in Central Europe as pre- 
liminary prehistoric stages of historical 
strata ; so that it was possible also to 
establish an absolute historical chronology 
for those instead of the relative prehistoric 

Thus times which, as regards Central 
Europe, were hitherto wrapped in pre- 
historic night are enlightened by 
Europe s ^ history. Although, as regards 
Prehistoric ^g^^ral and Northern Europe, 
^^ we cannot name the peoples who 

were the bearers of those forms of culture, 
and although we disdain to give them a 
premature nomenclature of hypothetical 
names, yet their conditions of life and 
culture and the progressive development 
of these, in manifold contact and inter- 
course with neighbouring and even far 
remote historic peoples and periods, have 
risen from the darkness of thousands of 
years ; and their relation in time to the 
latter has been recognised. 

Thus prehistoric times have themselves 
become history. The historical account 
of every single region has henceforth to 
begin with the description of the oldest 
antiquities of the soil that tell of man's 
habitation, in order thereby to obtain the 
chronological connection with the evolu- 
tion of the history of mankind generally. 
That is the palaeontological method of 
historical research. 

The palaeontology of man has proved the 
Stone Age to be a general primary stage 
of culture for the whole human race. 
All further general progress in culture 
was affected by the discovery of the art of 
metal-working — the extraction 
Landmarks ^j ^^^ metals from their ores 

° ^'^"^ and the casting and forging of 
Culture ^^^^^ jy^^ ^^^^^ ^j^^ ^^^gg^ 

eras of culture are the Metal Ages, as 
opposed to the Stone Ages. It is not the 
use of metal in itself, but the above- 
mentioned metallurgical arts, that form 
the criterion of the advance of culture 
beyond the bounds of the Stone Age. 
Where, as in some parts of America, native 
copper was found in abundance, this red 



malleable mineral could probably be 
worked in the same way as stone, without 
any further progress necessarily develop- 
ing therefrom. The same may apply to 
m e t eor-iron, 
which is said to 
have been used 
for arrows, to- 
gether with 
stone points, by 
American tribes 
who were other- 
wise in the age 
of stone and but 
poorly civilised. 

In civilised 
lands it is chieHy 
metal casting 
and the forging 
of the heated 
metal which 
have made it 
possible to pro- 
duce better wea- 
pons and tools 
and more valu- 
able ornaments. 
The worked 
metals are first 
copper, then the 
alloy of copper 
and tin that 
bears the name 
of classical 
bronze, and to these are soon added gold 
and — especially in districts rich in the 
metal, as in Spain — silver. Later on the 
extraction of iron from its ores and the 
forging of that metal are discovered. 

According to this course of metallurgical 
progress the first metal period is distin- 
guished as the Bronze Period, which is 
begun by a Copper Period lasting more 
or less long in different places. The second 
or later metal period is the Iron Period, in 
which we are living at the present day. 
In the course of time, by gradually dis- 
placing bronze and copper from the rank 
of metals worked for weapons and tools, 
this Iron Age has developed to its present 

In Central Europe the pile-dwellings in 
the lakes of Western Switzerland again 
present us with specially clear and unin- 
terrupted series of illustrations of the 
progress of culture from the Stone Age to 
the Iron Age. Ending the Stone Age, we 
find first a period of transition, in which, 
while stone continued to be principally 


Growth of ihe wings 
This series of diagrams, reproduced from specimens in the British 
Museum, by permission of the Trustees, shows how the stone axe- 
head was used as the model for the metal axe or celt, and how that in 
turn was modified as workers gained experience in the use of the metal 

employed, a few ornaments, weapons, and 
tools of metal began to be used. This 
metal is at first almost exclusively copper, 
with only very little bronze ; iron is quite 

absent. Copper 
objects have 
been found in 
Western Switzer- 
land by Victor 
Gross, most 
extensively in 
Fenel's lake- 
dwelling station, 
which otherwise 
still belongs to 
the Stone Age. 
The majority of 
these are smaU 
daggers, formed 
after the pattern 
of the flint dag- 
gers ; some 
already possess 
rive tings for 
fastening the 
blade to a 
handle. There 
are also chisels 
and small awls 
in bone handles, 
beads, and small 
leaves, and 
hatchets of the 
form of the simplest stone hatchets, with 
the edge hammered out and broadened. 
Much has proved the existence of a Copper 
Period corresponding to this description 
in the lake-dwelling in the Mond See in 
Austria, and in Hungary the remains of a 
Copper Period are particularly frequent. 
Parallel cases also occur in many other 
parts of Europe, particularly, as Virchow 
has proved, in the Spanish Peninsula, and 
in the Stone Age graves of Cujavia in 
Prussian Poland. These are the more 
im]X)rtant as they are most closely related 
to the conditions of culture discovered in 
the ancient strata of Hissarlik-Troy. 
Further unmistakable analogies occur with 
very ancient finds in Cyprus, and probably 
even with the oldest remains of Baby- 
lonian culture hitherto known. Here, too, 
we may include the finds of copper in the 
Stone Age of America. 

So that in the normal and comj^lete 
evolution of culture there seems to be first 
a stratum of copper as the connecting link 
between the Stone and Metal Ages ; and 


this must be missing in those regions in 
which progress from the stone to the 
metal culture was only brought about at a 
relatively later period by external influ- 
ences. This applies not only to all modern 
races in an age of stone, who obtained 
metal in recent times only 
The Passing ^j^j-o^gh contact with European 

l^^^^ . nations who had been living 
Stone Age .^ ^^^ j^.^^ p^^.-^^ f^^ ^^10X1- 

sands of years, but, curiously enough, also 
to the greater part of Africa, where the use 
of iron was prevalent at a prehistoric period. 
Just as the modern Stone races passed 
straight from the Stone Age into the most 
highly-developed Iron Age of the most 
advanced culture, so also the stone stratum 
of Central and South Africa is immediately 
overlaid by a stratum of iron culture,which 
was brought there in ancient times, prob- 
ably direct from Egypt. As there is in 
Egypt and throughout North Africa a 
regular development from the Copper- 
bronze Period to the complete iron culture, 
corresponding to the progress of the 
metal cultures of Europe and Asia, the 
point of time is thus chronologically 
fixed at which this important element 
of culture was transmitted from Europe 
to the blacks of Central and South Africa. 

In Western Switzerland the transition 
period of copper is followed without a 
gap in the development by the Bronze 
Period proper. With the introduction of 
bronze all the conditions of life were more 
highly developed in the sense of increased 
culture. With better tools the stations of 
the Bronze Age could be erected at a 
greater distance from the bank, often two 
hundred to three hundred yards ; the 
space they take up is also much greater. 
The piles are not only better preserved, 
according as the time of their being driven 
in more nearly approaches our own, but 
they are also better worked, are often 
square, and the points that are rammed into 
the lake-bottom are better cut. The settle- 
ments of the Bronze Age often cover an 
area of several hundred square yards, 
and are no longer comparatively mean 
villages, as in the Stone 
Advancing . ^ . ^^^ p-^g settlements 

Civilisation in ^^ ^^^ Bronze Age are well- 
Bronze Age organised market towns 
and even flourishing small cities, where 
a certain luxury already prevails. The 
products of their industry are graced by 
that beauty and elegance of form that 
only an advanced civilisation can create. 
As in the Stone Age, so also in the Bronze 

Reproduced chiefly from specimens in the British Museum. 




Age of Central and Northern Europe, 
the most important working-implement, 
which was, however, also used as a 
weapon, was the axe, or celt. The most 
primitive forms of axes, like the above- 
mentioned copper axes, still resemble the 
simple stone axes : like these, they have 
no special contrivance for fastening the 
handle. In more developed forms of 
axes such contrivances for fastening the 
handle appear first in the form of slight 
flanges, which become wider and wider ; 
finally they develop into regular wings, 
which, by curving towards one another, 
develop into two almost closed lateral 
semi-canals on the upper side of the celt. 

used for making their weapons and 
tools in the periods of transition, they 
still imitate the old forms received from 
their forefathers. Just as the first metal 
axes of copper are copies of the stone 
axes, so also, when iron first became 
known, were weapons made of this metal 
which corresponded i-n form to the bronze 
weapons that had hitherto been used. 

The Bronze Period was first proved 
to have been a complete form of culture 
in the North of Europe — in North Germany 
and Scandinavia. We have now suc- 
ceeded in establishing the fact that it 
was a preliminary stage of the Iron Age, in 
locally original development, in all ancient 

Seven towns of Troy were built upon this hill, one above the ruins of the other, the earliest dating from 3000 B.C. ; 
and the brilliant excavations of Dr. Henry Schliemann, which have won him immortal fame, have contributed 
more to our knowledge of the history of mankind than any other excavations in our time, as on this site is 
concentrated a continuous record of man's progress from the late Stone Age to the height of Greek civilisation. 

In the hollow celts a simple socket for 
the handle was cast in the making ; an 
additional means of fastening the handle 
was provided in a loop, which also occurs 
on winged celts. Besides the celt, or 
axe-blade, broad and narrow chisels of 
bronze occur in various forms for working 
wood. A second chief type of instrument 
is the one-edged bronze knife with elegantly 
curved back and a handle tongue. 

The manner in which iron was found in 
the lake-dwellings, as mentioned above, 
shows the gradual development of a period 
of transition between a Bronze and an 
Iron Age. In spite of the difference 
in the material which the lake-dwellers 


centres of culture. It is very remarkable 
that the civihsed states of the New World 
also employed only copper and bronze 
as working metals. Thus the Peruvians 
did not know iron any more than the 
other American peoples until they came 
in contact with European influences. 
Besides copper and bronze they had tin 
and lead, gold and silver. The Peruvian 
bronzes contain silver to the extent of 
five to ten per cent. There are axes or 
celts of bronze similar to the rudest of the 
first European beginnings in metal cor- 
responding in form to the simple stone axe. 
Many of the other forms of weapons 
and implements famiUar in the Bronze 



Age of the Old 
World were also 
made of bronze 
or copper in 
America ; semi- 
lunar knives with 
a handle in the 
middle, lance- 
heads and arrow- 
heads, swords, 
war-clubs like 
morning stars, 
etc. At the same 
time weapons 
and implements 
of stone still 
remained in use. 

In the Old 
World progress 
beyond bronze is 
everywhere due 
to iron. 

One place has 
been found and 

most completely investigated after the 
method of palaeontological research, with 
all the help afforded by archaeological and 
historical science, where, in overlying geo- 
logical strata, the evidences have been 
found of a progressive development of cul- 
ture from the end of the Stone Age down to 
the brilliant days of Graeco-Roman history. 

Nine colossal earthen jars were discovered by Dr. Schliemann in the depths of the Temple rf 
Athena. They had evidently belonged to some wine merchant's cellar in the pre-Hellenic period. 

There the chronological connection has 
been obtained, not only for the metal 
periods, but also for the end of the Neolithic 
Period. This most important place is Troy, 
the citadel-hih of Hissarlik, by the excava- 
tion of which Henry Schliemann has won 
immortal fame. Schliemann's excavations, 
supplemented and completed in deci- 
sive manner by 
D o r p f e 1 d , have 
brought about the 
most important 
advancement of the 
history of mankind 
that our age can 

Virchow's name 
is inseparably 
associated with 
Furtwangler, in his 
account, based on 
jiersonal observa- 
tion, of the results 
of the excavations 
at Troy, has accom- 
plished the great 
service of exactly 
determining the 
chronological con- 
nections of the pre- 
historic with the 
historic eras, and 
thereby linking the 
former to history. 



Dr. Schliemann's discoveries in the ruins of this temple and the ruins of older buildings 
beneath it were among the richest in the entire annals of archaeological research. 


On the spot on which tradition placed 
Homeric Troy (says Furtwiingler) there really 
has stood a stately citadel, which was con- 
temporaneous with the goklenage of Mycenae, 
the epoch of the Agamemnon of legend, was 
intimately related to Mycenaean culture, and 
at the same time corresponds most exactly to 
the idea of Troy underlying the old epic. 

The citadel-hill of Troy terminates a 
ridge of heights stretching westward from 
Mount Ida, almost parallel to 
^^"'^'^ the Hellespont, and slopes 

Oeum steeply into the Trojan plain 
^^ ' or the valley of the Scamander. 
The natural hill itself is not very high, but 
it was overlaid by enormous layers of ruins 
of buildings and walls, whereby it has been 
consideralily increased not only in height, 
but also in breadth. Stratum after stratum 
lies one u})on the other like the leaves of 
a bud, so that the history of the habitation 
of this venerable place from the most 
ancient times can be read from these strata 
which have been o})ened up by Schliemann 
and Dorpfeld, as from the leaves of a book. 
The original ground of the hill-plateau now 
lies some sixty feet above the plain, but the 
latter may have been raised something like 
sixteen to twenty feet by alluvial deposits 
since the Trojan War. The whole stratum 
of ruins lying on the original ground of the 
hill, which Schliemann opened up, amounts 
to about fifty-two and a half feet. Schlie- 
mann distinguished seven or eight different 
layers or strata, corresponding to as many 
towns which were successively built on 
this hill, one on the ruins of the other. 

The lowest stratum, lying immediately 
on the original ground, belongs accordingly 
to the oldest, or first town, on the citadel- 
hill of Troy. Furtwangler says : 

By moderate computation this settle- 
ment must belong to the first half of the 
third millennium before Christ, bul? it may 
very well date back even to the fourth 
millennium. The inhabitants already used 
copper implements in addition to stone ones. 
Their whole culture is most closely connected 
with that which prevailed in Central Europe 
during the Copper Period. Clay 
The First vessels of the Copper Period from 
Town Lake Mond, in Austria, agree 

of Troy completely with those of the first 

Trojan town. Troy represents 
only an offshoot of Central European cul- 
ture, and its inhabitants were in all prob- 
ability of European origin. 

We have already learned that the Copper 
Period is the end of the Neolithic Period 
and the beginning of the Metal Age. 
In the first Trojan town there is still 
extraordinarily little metal used, the axes, 


hatchets, knives, and saws still being 
of stone, of the familiar Central European 
types, and of the same materials, among 
which nephrite is particularly frequent. 
Other materials are serpentine, diorite, 
porphyry, hematite, flint, etc. 

The forms of these implements corre- 
spond entirely to those of the later Stone 
Age of Europe. The character of the 
ceramics also conforms in many respects, 
according to Virchow, to that of the Euro- 
pean Stone Age ; and the Stone Age finds 
at Butmir, in Bosnia, and similar ones in 
Transylvania seem especially to offer close 
analogies. It would be a highly important 
step toward connecting history with the 
Neolithic Period if the first town could be 
even more closely investigated, and perhaps 
more sharply divided from that second 
stratum which lies between it and the 
stratum described by Schliemann as the 
second or burnt city, and which Schlie- 
mann afterward separated into two strata, 
corresponding to two towns. Perhaps the 
metal comes only from the second or 
higher stratum under the burnt city. In 
that case the oldest would belong purely 
to the Stone Age. The ceramics 

^ "? would seem to contradict 

„ *"* , °, this. Furtwangler continues : 
Troy s ulory " 

High above the first town, a 
deep layer of debris, is the level surface of 
the second town, which must at least be 
dated back to the second half of the third 
millennium before Christ. It was the first 
period of Troy's glory. Mighty walls protected 
the citadel. Three different building periods 
may be distinguished. The walls were brought 
out a long way and strengthened, and 
magnificent new gates were built. During the 
third period of this second city a prince, 
fond of splendour, had the old narrow gate- 
way replaced by magnificent propylaea and 
a large hall-erection with a vestibule. A 
great conflagration destroyed his citadel. 
A treasure was found by Schliemann — he 
called it Priam's treasure — in the upper part 
of the citadel wall, which was made of straw 
bricks. The tools of the second city are still 
partly of stone, but also partly of bronze, so 
that they already belong to the Bronze Age. 

The general character of culture is, 
according to Furtwangler, still essentially 
Central European. And yet many an indi- 
viduality has developed, and the influence 
of Babylonian culture is everywhere 
apparent, although it does not go very deep. 
To this influence our authority chiefly 
attributes the occurrence of a few pots 
turned on the wheel, especially flat dishes ; 
for the potter's wheel was still quite 

THE EXCAVATIONS AT T.OV : --^-^'-^ -"^T-^. Z.'"::,:^^:^"!. 



unknown at that time in Europe, and even 
at a post so far advanced toward the East 
as Cyprus, while in Egypt and Babylonia 
it had been in use from the earliest times. 
In this period also Troy inclines more to 
Central Europe as its centre of gravity, 
but remains far behind the peculiar 
development that bronze work attained 
there ; in the metal tools no advance is 
made on the forms of the Copper 
Period. Into any close relation 
with Cyprus it does not come ; 
only the basis of their culture 
is common to both. But this basis had a 
wide range, relics from German districts 
being often more closely related to the 
Trojan ones than are those from Cyprus. 

The brilliant period of the second city- 
is followed by a long period of decline for 
Troy. Ruins are piled upon ruins, walls 
rise upon walls, but each poorer than the 
others ; no new citadel walls, no gates, no 
palaces belong to this period, in which three 

The Early 
of Troy 


The top of the tower is z6 ft 
foundation is on the rock 46 ft. 



below the surface of the hill. The 
deep ; the height of the tower is 20 ft. 

strata — the third, fourth, and fifth towns — 
are distinguished. The first half of the second 
millennium before Christ must at least be 
regarded as the time of this deposit. The in- 
habitants evidently remained the same, and 
their culture is that of the second city. But 
no progress was made ; nothing but stagna- 
tion ; the same forms of vessels continue to 
be made, the same decorated whorls. 
Naturally, no active intercourse with abroad 
could develop in this period. And yet this 
was the time when an active civilised life 
began to develop on the islands of the ^gean 
Sea and on the east coast of Greece, which 
was to bloom in all its splendour in the 
following period. To this time the finds at 
Thera belong, where the pottery, all turned 
on the wheel, is already painted with a so- 
called varnish colour which shines like metal, 
and in which plants, flowers, and animals are 
treated in quite a new and promising natural- 
istic style hitherto unheard of in Europe. 
In Cyprus, too, the decoration of pottery 
developed exceedingly in wealth and variety 
in this period of the Bronze Age. Troy, on 
the other hand, is poor and degenerate. 

But a new period of prospe- 
rity arrived for Troy, too ; 
this is the sixth town. Rich 
and powerful princes again 
ruled in this citadel. They en- 
larged it far beyond its former 
compass. They built strong 
new walls — the old ones had 
long since sunk in ruins — 
not of small stones and straw 
bricks as before, but of large, 
smooth blocks, and gates and 
turrets. They did not have 
the sloping mound of ruins 
levelled, as the lords .of the 
second city had done ; they 
let the new buildings rise in 
terraces, on the ruins of the 
old ; stately mansions with 
wide, deep halls, covered the 
acropolis. Constant inter- 
course existed with the princes 
of Greece, who at that time — 
the second half of the second 
millennium before Christ — 
built their citadels with 
Cyclopean walls. The Trojans 
employed the same peculiar, 
constantly-recurring small 
projections in their walls that 
we find in a Mycenaean town 
on Lake Copais in Boeotia. 
And, above all, the Trojans 
now provided themselves with 
those beautiful vessels pain- 
ted with shining colour that Mycenaean cul- 
ture in Greece, and whose 
natural style had so wonder- 
fully developed there on the 
basis of the attempts that we 
found at Thera. In Troy these 


This remarkable collection of regal treasure comprises the key of ^^f, treasure-housejat top of pj^^^ 
bronze are displayed beneath, and on the floor are a vessel, a cauldron and a shield, all maae oi copper 

things caused some imitation, but the results 
remained far behind the originals. The living, 
imaginative conception of the natural was 
closed to the Trojan ; the home-made pottery 
kept, on the whole, to its unpainted vessels, 
although these were now almost entirely- 
made on the wheel. 

Yet what chiefly interests us is. the his- 
torical. The sixth town, too, was suddenly 
given up, destroyed, and burnt. What follows 
it are again only poor settlements. Its 

destruction must have taken place about 
the end of the Mvcena^an epoch of culture. 
The seventh town,' which is built immediately 
on the ruins of the sixth, ' shows, already, 
other and later culture. It had long been 
suspected that a historical kernel was con- 
cealed in the legend of Troy— now _ we 
have the monumental confirmation. There 
really was a Troy, which was strong and 
great at the same time as the rulers of 
Mycenae, rich in gold and treasure, held 



sway in Greece. And that Troy was des- 
troyed — we may now safely affirm, from 
this a?;rcement between reUcs and legend — by 
Greek princes of the Mycenaean epoch, whom 
the legend calls Agamemnon and his men. 

The seventh and eighth towns, built 
soon after the destruction of the sixth, 
show an interruption in the intercourse 
with Greece. There the Mycenaean period 
was broken by the displacement of peoples 
known as the Doric migration, and that 
rich civilised life was replaced by a relapse 
into the semi-barbaric conditions of the 
North. In Troy, too, we perceive a period 
of decline, " a relapse into a stage long 
since past ; black hand-made vessels, 
which in their form and decoration are 
strikingly like the home-made pots usual 
in Italy, especially Etruria and Latium, 
in the first part of the first millennium 
before Christ." Finally, the seventh town 
also furnishes inferiorimported Greek vases 
with painting, though coming not from 
Grace itself, but from the coast of Asia 

Minor, where Greeks had settled in connec- 
tion with the Doric migration. " The 
JEolic colonisation of Troas brought 
Ilium no fresh prosperity. Other places 
rose, Troy remained a miserable village. 
In the Hellenistic period the sky clears 
over Troy. What Alexander intended, 
Lysimachus carried out ; he restores 
Ilium to the place of a real city with 
new walls, and erects a magnificent 
temple to Athene on the top of the acro- 
polis. . . . Yet artistic creation came 
to no real perfection. It was only when the 
great men of Rome, mindful of their 
Trojan ancestors, began to interest them- 
selves in the place, that new life bloomed 
on Troy's ruins." 

Thus the geological - archaeological 
method relates history, merely relying 
upon the monuments of the soil, without 
requiring written evidences. Pre-history 
has here attained its end ; it has become 
history. Johannes Ranke 

S'ome idea of the enormous work involved in unearthing ancient Troy will be gathered from the fact, made 
rlcar in this view, that the groiuid-level before excavating was above the height of these buildings. A 
deep trench was cut, as shown in the illustration, through the whole hill of Hissarlik, the citadel town. 






HTHE opinion that our own circumstances 
•'• and affairs are the only standard for 
judging universal history has long been 
obsolete. Our day, with its conceptions, 
beliefs, hopes, and endeavours, is but a 
tiny portion of the past ; for thousands of 
years ])eoples have existed who have lived 
in other intellectual spheres than ours, 
who have pursued other ideals. 

The study of history does not consist in 
an examination of the past projected, as it 
were, into the present ; it is the study of the 
j)ast considered as a i)art of the constant 
coming and going of men. And in order to 
become qualified as historians we must first 
of all attain a point of view from which we 
may, independently of time, behold history 
with all its great events file by ; as though 
we were men who had ascended to some 
elevation in the universe from which they 
could look down upon the whole earth 
lying as a unity ... 

before them. This 
is rendered possible 
through the power 
of abstraction gained 
from a study of his- 
tory ; it enables us, 
on the one hand, to 
ada]it ourselves to 
strange times and 
beliefs, and, on the 
other, to look upon 
our own day — all 
time to its contem- 
porary men — olijct - 
tivelv, as a mere houi 
of the ages of human 
development. We 
must learn to escap(» 
from the present, to 
withdraw oursehc > 
from that which \\i 
may call the tj'rannx 
of our own time. 

From universal 
history we obtain a 

picture of the development of humanity — 
that is, the development of the various 
active germs or principles inherent in 
man. By these are meant the active 
principles innate in mankind in the 
aggregate, in contradistinction to those 
which may exist in single individuals 
or in single races. 

The result of development is called 
" civilisation " — the state of intellectual 
being, and of outward, material life, 
attained by a people through evolution. 
Although spiritual and material culture 
flow into each other, they may be separated 
to this extent : as a physical being 
endowed with senses, man endeavours td 
obtain satisfaction of his needs, and strives 
for a position in relation to his environ- 
ment corresponding with the efforts he has 
made to obtain welfare ; as a feeling, 

inquiring, spiritual 1 


The art of weaving arose from plaiting, and soon 
developed to perfection, the American Indians and most 
primitive peoples of our own day being skilled weavers. 

leing he contains 
within him an ever- 
present desire to fuse 
the multitude of 
sejiarate impressions 
he receives into unity, 
and to struggle for- 
ward until he arrives 
at a conception of the 
world and of life. 

" Material civilisa- 
tion " is the mode of 
life through which 
the obstacles opposed 
to humanity may 
l)e overcome. By 
the surmounting of 
obstacles is meant 
the conqu ering of 
enemies, particularly 
of hostile animals, 
the obtaining ol 
means for the preser- 
vation of existence, 
and the employing of 
these means for the 
increase of bodily 



, -^ 1 

B.C.5000 _ 



_ IJuildingof the Pyramids. 

_ Karliest monuments to 

B.C 4500 I 

_ kings in Habylonia. 


_ of Semitic Baljy- 



Ionian kingdoms. 







B.C.3500 __ 

■ . a 


( li;dda;an Astronomy. 



Kj "^ 



■r ^ ■ 



^^> lu 




00 ^ •- 





^m- ' ^ 






■' ^ 2 '^ 

Assyrian records. 


^ <: 



> I 






_ Hebraic Monotheism. 




^^"Igean Cuhure. 


_ Hellenic Culture. 


g < 



Z "^ 



< ^ 

' Thales. 

B.C 000_ 

_ r.uddha. Confucius. 


_ -Socrates. 


° < . 

. Plato. Aristotle. 


. Stoics and Epicureans. 

AD. I 





. ChristiaiMty. 


111 < 



QC -i 

. .\eo-platonists. 

AD. 500 _ 


_St. .Augustine. 


_ Mohammed. 


Johannes Scotus. 

AD 1000 J 

_ Avicenna. 

. Scholasticism 

. .\nselm. .\belard. 





. Aquinas. R. Bacon. 
. Wiclif. 



-Copernicus. Luther. 



. !■ lancis liacon. Newton. 



. Kant. Steam. 



_l>arwin. 1' leclricity 


Our day, with its conceptions, beliefs, hopes, and endea- 
vours, is but a tiny portion of the past ; for thousands of 
years peoples have existed who have lived in other intel- 
lectual spheres than ours, who have pursued other ideals. 


welfare. In respect of material civilisa- 
tion man passes through stages that 
differ widely from one another, that vary 
according to the manner in which the 
necessities for existence are obtained, 
and according to the way in which enemies 
are withstood for the safeguarding of life, 
welfare, and acquisitions already gained. 
Races are spoken of as supporting them- 
selves by the chase and fishing, or by cattle- 
breeding and farming, according to 
whether they are accustomed to derive 
subsistence directly from " nature un- 
adorned," or by means of the cultivation 
and utilisation of natural products. 

No sharp line of distinction, however, 
may be drawn. It is inadmissible to 
speak of races as supporting themselves 
solely by hunting and fishing, for the 
very same peoples feed on products of the 
soil wherever they are found and recog- 
nised as means of subsistence. They 
live, it is true, upon flesh and fish, but also 
upon roots and the fruit of wild trees. 
While in this state of civilisation, man 
avails himself only of that which Nature 
places before him ; he neither adapts 
Nature to his desire, to his needs, or to his 
manner of living, nor understands how to 
do it. He can make no further use of 
Nature than to acquire a knowledge of the 
sources of supply, of how to seize time and 
opportunity, and to overcome the obstacles 
of life in his own territory. He ascertains 
the haunts of game, discovers how to 
obtain fish, explores for wild honey or 
edible roots, learns to climb the tallest 
trees and to let himself down into the 
deepest caves ; but he lacks the ability to 
cultivate Nature, to cause her to produce 
according to his will. 

Gradually the one phase amalgamates 
with the other. It is not seldom that 
hunting tribes have small tracts of land 
on which they raise a few edible plants. 
Observation of Nature teaches them that 
germs develop from fallen seeds, and 
leads of itself to the idea that it is not best 
to allow plants to grow up wild, and that 
it would be expedient to clear the surround- 
ing ground for their better growth. And 
when this stage is reached, the next step — 
not to allow seeds to spring up by chance, 
but to place them in the soil one's self — 
is not very far off ; and thus the mere 
. acquisition of Nature's raw vegetable pro- 
ducts gives place to agriculture. Often 
enough we observe instances of the men of 
a group carrying on hunting operations, 



ing of weapons and of contri- 
vances used for the capture 
of animals lay within the 
province of the men. 

The discovery of how to 
produce fire by artificial 
mean?, independently 
effected in all parts of the 
world — as was also the 
discovery of the art of 
navigation — was of the 
greatest importance for 
the entire future. Fire was 
first a result of chance. 

When lightning set a por- 
tion of the forest in flames, 
and caused a multitude of 

while the women 
are not only occu- 
pied with their 
domestic employ- 
ments, but also till 
the soil ; thus the 
men are hunters 
and fishers, and 
the women are 
agriculturists. Do- 
mestic work led 
the latter to take 
up the cultivation 
of plants, even as 
it led them to the 
other light femi- 
nine handicrafts ; 
while the repair- 

animals or fruits to be 
roasted, men put it to 
practical use. They re- 
cognised the advantage 
that fire gave them and 
sought to preserve it. 
The retention of the fire 
which had been sent 
down from heaven be- 
came one of the most 
weighty and significant 
of functions. Man 
learned how to keep 
wood - fibres smoulder- 
ing, and how to blow 
them into flame at will ; 
he also learned that it 


This series of typical pictures is intended roughly to illustrate the upward progress of "^ .i j. j.- r + 

man from the almost nude savage to the neatly and conveniently dressed gentleman nrC, Or the pOtentiaJlty 

ofto-day. The Elizabethan dandy is, of course, as fully dressed as man can be, and is r r alnnp- with 

introduced only as indicating the great change of sartorial ideas in modern times. ^'- Uic, aii.;ii5 wini 



him in his wanderings. But even then 
success was uncertain until a hicky 
chance led him to discover how to pro- 
duce flames at will, by rubbing two 
sticks together or by twirling one against 
the other. These actions were originally 
performed for other purposes — to bore 
holes in a piece of wood, or to rub it into 
fibres ; finally, one or the other was carried 
out with such vigour that a filament began 
to burn, and the discovery was made. 
Sparks from flint must have suggested a 
second method of kindling a fire ; certainly 
the art of igniting soft filaments of wood 
by means of a spark — thus enabling the 
very smallest source of combustion to be 
■ used for human purposes — was known to 
man in the earliest times. The obvious 


results of the use of fire are means of 
obtaining warmth and of cooking food. 

Self-defence had already led to the use 
of weapons, and, at the same time, the 
contrivances for hunting and fishing must 
have become more and more perfect. 
A very low degree of civilisation is 
that of races unacquainted with the bow 
and arrow, and familiar with club or 
boomerang only — who know how to make 
use merely of the weight of a substance, 
or, as in the case of the boomerang, of a 
peculiar means of imparting motion. 

The time previous to the discovery of 
the art of working in metal was the Age 
of Stone. It was a natural transition 
period during which men began to learn 
to make use of the malleable metals, which 
could be hammered and beaten into 
various shapes, and finally discovered 



how to work in iron. Iron, by being 
placed in the fire, brought to a white 
heat, and smelted, was rendered capable 
of being put to such uses as were impos- 
sible in the case of brittle materials — 
bone or stone, for example. Many races 
never acquired the art of working even in 
the softer metals, and procured metallic 
implements from other peoples. The 
great importance of metal-working is 
borne out by the fact that the position 
of the smith, even in legendary times, 
has been of the utmost significance. The 
Ages of Stone and of Metal belong to the 
most important stages of civilisation. 



Having made himself weapons, man did 
not employ them in fights with animals 
only ; he also used them on his fellow-men, 
and at the same time arose the necessity 
for protective coverings — that is, the need 
for a means of neutralising the effect of 
weapons on the body. Thus followed the 
invention of the shield as a portable 
shelter, of the coat of mail and of the 
helmet, and of armour in general in all its 
different forms and varieties. 

Together with weapons, utensils are 
characteristic of material culture. Utensils 
are implements used in the arts of peace, 
domestic and industrial ; they are instru- 
ments which enable us to increase our 
power over Nature. Some utensils have 
undergone the same transformations as 
have weapons ; others have their own 
independent history. Just as the edges 
of shells served as patterns for knife- 
blades, so did hollow stones, 
the shells of crustaceans or 

„ _ rnderwood & Underwood 

These pictures present a striking contrast : the sullen clod with his primitive 


From the painting by Millet 

of tortoises, become models for 
dishes and basins. From the 
discovery of the impervious- 
ness of dried earth, the 
potter's art developed ; it be- 
came possible to mould clay 
into desired shapes while 
moist, and then, when dry, to 
employ it in its new form as a 
vessel for holding liquids ; for 
that which has always been 
of the greatest importance in 
the making of utensils has 
been the taking advantage of 
two opposite characteristics 
displayed by a material dur- 
ing the different stages of 
its manufacture — plasticity, 
which admits of its first being 
moulded into various forms, 
and another qualit}', which 
causes it afterward to stiffen 
into solidity and strength. 

A further acqu sition was 
the art of braiding and plait- 
ing, the joining together of 
flexible materials in such a 
way that they held together 
by force of friction alone. 
Thus coherent, durable fabrics 
may be produced, and by 
joining together small parts 
into an aggregate it is also 

hoe, and the great Canadian reaper drawn by thirty horses, both in use to-day. pOSSible tO give a definite 


The way in which man has protected him- 
self against his foes in battle, and the 
gradual progress and decline of such 
methods, is shown in these pictures. The 
first is from the monuments of Nineveh, and 

shows the earliest form of chain mail. In 
the second we see the armour of the Roman 
legionary, while the third shows the heavy 
accoutrement of a mediaeval warrior. A 
helmet of the same period is also shown. 

Growth of 
the Textile 


from injury the idea of sledges develops. 
Things that are round enough are rolled 
to their destinations ; this leads to the 
invention of rollers and wheels, materials 
of required form being brought into 
combination with rudimentary agents of 
circular motion, and thus, through a 
rotary, a horizontal movement is obtained ; 
and so the force of gravity is made use of, 
consistency of motion procured, and the 
hindering effect of friction overcome to 
the greatest possible degree. 

Means for carrying inanimate objects 
once invented, it is not long before they 
are put to use for the conveyance of man 
himself ; thus methods for the trans- 
portation of human beings are discovered 
in the same manner as the means for the 
carriage of goods. 

In primitive times transportation by 

water is employed to a far greater extent 

than by land. Man learns how to swim 

in the same way as other animals do, by 

discovering how to repress his struggles, 

transforming them into definite, regular 

movements. The sight of 

objects afloat must, through un- 

con.scious analysis — experience 

— have taught men to make 

water-tight structures for the 

conveyance of goods upon water, and, 

later, for the use of man himself. The pole 

by which the first raft was pushed along 

developed into the rudder. Kayaks and 

canoes were built of wood, of bark, and 

form to the whole and to adapt it to 
various uses. The quality of adaptability 
is especially developed in the products of 
plaiting, but the quality of imperviousness 
is lacking. Wickerwork was used not only 
in the form of baskets, but also in other 
shapes, as means for protection 
and .shelter, as material for 
sails, as well as for tying and 
binding. The art of weaving 
arises from plaiting, and along with it come 
methods for spinning thread. It thus 
becomes possible to make an immense 
number of different useful articles out of 
shapeless vegetable material. Fibres are 
rendered more durable by being bound 
together, and textures formed from 
threads are adapted to the most various 
uses of life. This has an influence on the 
development of weapons also : bow- 
strings, slings, and lassos presuppose a 
rudimentary knowledge, at least, of the 
textile arts ; and as knowledge increases, 
so are the products improved in turn. 

Means for conveyance arc also invented, 
that difficulties arising from distance may 
be overcome. At first men carry burdens 
upon their backs, heads, or shoulders, or 
in the hand, placing whatever they wish 
to transport in a utensil — a basket or a 
piece of cloth — thus producing a coherent 
whole ; later, in order to render convey- 
ance still more convenient, handles are 
invented. Objects are dragged along the 
ground, and from an effort to save them 
I go 





The invention of gunpowder and fire- 
arms rendered the protection of armour 
useless, and by the sixteenth century it 
had been greatly modified. The first of 
these pictures shows the slight armour 

worn by James II. The second is a suit 
of Japanese armour, discarded in our 
own time ; while the last is a portrait 
of a present day Life-guardsman, whose 
cuirass is more ornamental than useful. 


of hides. In this connection, moreover, 
an epoch-marking invention was that of 
cloths in which to catch the wind — sails ; 
and this, too, was a result of observation 
and experience. Man had known the 
effect of the wind upon fluttering cloth, 
to his loss, long enough before he hit 
upon the idea of employing it to his 
advantage. Finally he learned that by 
adjusting the sails he might make use of 
winds blowing from any direction. 

Habitations are structures built in order 
to facilitate and assure the existence of 
man and the preservation of his goods. 
Indeed, the presence of caverns caused 
men to recognise the protective virtue of 
roof and wall, and the knowledge thus 
acquired gave rise in turn to the making 
of artificial caves. Holes beneath over- 
hanging banks and precipices led to the 
building of houses with roofs extending 
beyond the rambling walls. Perhaps the 
protection afforded by leafy roofs, and 
the walls formed by the trunks of trees in 
primeval forests, may also have turned 
men's thoughts to the con- 
struction of dwellings. Houses 
of various forms were built, cir- 
cular and rectangular ; some 
with store-rooms and hearths. The use 
of dwellings presupposes a certain amount 
of consistency in the mode of living, the 
presence of local ties, and a general spirit 
favouring fixed and permanent residence. 







Nomadic races use movable or temporary 
shelters only — waggons, tents, or huts. 

The houses of stationary peoples become 
more and more firm and stable. At first 
they are built of earth and wickerwork, 
later of stone, and finally of bricks, as 
among the Babylonians. Foun- 
dations are invented, dwellings 
are accurately designed as to 
line and angle ; the curved line 
is introduced, bringing with it arches 
both round and pointed, as may be seen 
in the remains of Roman and Etruscan 
buildings. The structure is adorned, and 
it becomes a work of art. 

But man also dwelt over the water, 
sometimes erecting his habitations upon 
rafts and floats, often upon structures 
that rose from beneath the surface. 
Thus was he, dwelling in communities of 
various sizes, secure from the attacks of 
land enemies. Even to-day there are 
uncivilised peoples who live over water, 
constructing their homes upon piles. 

Clothing, however, was invented partly 
that in cold climates men might survive 
the winter, partly for the sake of ornament. 
In tropical regions man originally had no 
knowledge of the necessity for clothing : 
garments are masks, disguises ; they bear 
with them a charm ; they are the peculiar 
property of the medicine-men or of those 
who in the religious dance invoke the 
higher powers. Modesty is a derived 



of the 

feeling ; it cannot exist until a high state 
of individualisation has been attained, 
until each man desires exclusive possession 
of his wife, and therefore wishes to shield 
her from the covetousness of other men. 
With the knowledge of dress, a desire 
for adornment, the effort to 
assist Nature in producing cer- 
tain definite aesthetic effects, 
arises. Less uniformity in the 
appearance of the body is wanted, and 
this brings tattooing and the use of orna- 
ment into vogue. Later there is a fusing 
of these several aims ; clothing becomes 
protection, veil, and ornament in one, ful- 
filling all three functions at the same time. 
Another epoch-marking discovery, often 
arrived at while races are still in the 
state of subsistence by hunting, is the 
domestication of animals. This may have 
originated in the practice of provoking 
one beast to attack another in order to 
vanquish them both the more easily. 
Further development, bringing with it the 
idea of totemism and the notion that the 
soul of an animal dwells in man, drew 
him nearer to his animal neighbours ; 
and he sought them out as comrades and 
attendants. The taming of 
wild creatures arose from two 
sources — human egoism, and 
the innate feeling of unity and 
identification with Nature 
common to all savages ; hence 
on the one hand, the subjuga- 
tion of animals, and, on the 
other, their domestication. 
Neither employment rendered 
it by any means less possible 
for men to hold animals in 
reverence, or to attribute to 
them virtue as ancestral spirits. 
Such acquisitions of exter- 
nal culture accompany man 
during the transition from his 
subsistence by the pure pro- 
ducts of Nature to the culti- 
vation of natural resources, 
cattle-breeding and agriculture 
— occupations necessitating 
the greatest unrest and mo- 
bility. The simple life in 
Nature incites men to wander 
forth that they may discover 
land adapted for their sup- 
port ; they rove about in 
search of roots as well as of 
living prey. The breeding of 
domestic animals also causes 


them to travel in the hope of finding 
ground for pasture ; nor does agriculture 
in its primitive form tend to establish 
permanence of residence, although it 
contains within itself latent possibilities 
of developing a settled life, one of the 
most important factors in the progress of 

Only fixed, domestic peoples are able to 
create great and lasting institutions, to 
store up the results of civilisation for 
distant later races, and to establish a 
developed, well-organised commercial and 
civil life. The transition from nomadism 
to life in permanent residences has, 
therefore, been one of the greatest steps 
in the development of humanity. At the 
time of the beginnings of agriculture, how- 
ever, man was still a periodic 
wanderer. According to the 
field-grass system of cultiva- 
tion, seed is sown in hastily- 
cleared ground, which soon becomes 
exhausted and is then abandoned. A 
migration follows and new land is cleared. 
This system continues until men learn to 
cultivate part of the land in a district, 
allowing the remainder to lie fallow for 

" Settling 
Down " 



Not only are there lake-dwellers to-day, as we have seen, but 

even large communities, as at Canton, in China, live in boats, 



1 1 




a time in order that the soil may recover ; 
thus they remain fixed in their chosen 
district. Various circumstances — for ex- 
ample, the danger of enemies from without, 
and the difficulties attending migration — 
must have led to this change, the transition 
to the system of alternation of crops. 
The wanderings are confined to less ex- 
tensive regions, the same fields are 
returned to after a few years, until finally 
tJie relation of patches under culti- 
vation to fallow land is reduced to a 
system, and the time of wandering is past. 
With fixed residence the forms of 
communities alter. The group settles in 
a certain district, homes are built close 
to one another, and the patriarchal 
organisation gives place to the village, 
which, with its definite boundaries, is 
thenceforth the nucleus of the social 
aggregate. Often several village com- 
munities have fields and forests in com- 
mon, and a common ownership of dams 
and canals ; Nature takes care that 
they do not become isolated, but unite 
together in close contact for common 
defence and protection. With agricul- 
ture is associated the working 
up of raw products. These 
are fashioned into materials 
for the support of life and for 
enjoyment ; furniture for dwellings, 
clothing, tools, utensils, and weapons 
are made. For, however much agricul- 
ture favours a life of peace, so rarely 
does man live in friendship with his 
fellows that agricultural peoples also find 
it necessary to arm themselves for war. 
At first manufacture is not separated 
from farming ; the agriculturist himself 
prepares the natural products, assisted by 
the members of his family. Later, it is 
easily seen that some individuals are 
more skilled than others ; it is also recog- 
nised that skill may be developed by 
practice and that employments must be 
learned. Therefore it is requisite that 
special individuals of the community 
should prepare themselves for particular 
activities in the working up of raw pro- 
ducts and pursue these activities in con- 
sistency with the needs of the society — 
trade or craft. The craftsman at first 
labours for the community ; in every 
village the tailor, cobbler, smith, barber, 
and schoolmaster is supported by society 
at large. The craftsman receives his 
appointed income — that is, his portion 
of the common supply of food ; and, in 


The coming 
of the 

addition, every one for whom he expends 
his labour gives him something in compen- 
sation, or finds him food while employed 
about his house, until, finally, a syste- 
matic method of exchange is established ; 
and with this another advance— an 
epoch for civilisation — is arrived at. 

This is the division of labour. It is 
found advantageous not only that the 
_ p. craftsman be employed as 

, f "^^ he is needed, but also that he 
Labour , i r i , 

Pr bl produce a supply of products 

peculiar to his trade ; for 
the times of labour do not in the least 
harmonise with the times of demand. 
Although during the first periods of in- 
dustrial life men sought more or less to 
adjust these factors, in later times they 
become wholly separate from one another. 
There is always, in addition, labour ready 
to be expended on casual needs ; in more 
advanced phases of civilisation this con- 
dition of affairs is not avoided ; but 
wherever labour can be disassociated 
from fortuitous necessity, the capacity 
for production is greatly increased. Com- 
modities are manufactured during the 
best seasons for production and are 
preserved until the times of need ; thus 
men become independent of the moment. 
Here also, as in other problems of 
civilisation, it is necessary to surmount 
the incongruities of chance, and to ren- 
der all circumstances serviceable to our 

Exchange and division of labour are 
the great factors of the progress of a 
civilisation based upon industrialism. 
Crafts and trades develop and improve ; 
greater and greater skill is demanded, 
and consequently the time of preparation 
necessary for the master craftsman be- 
comes longer and longer. The worker 
limits himself to a definite sphere of 
production and carries his trade forward 
to a certain perfection. His wares will 
then be more eagerly sought for than 
those made by another hand ; 
-, they are better, yet cheaper, 

r» , . for his labour is lightened by 

Developing , • , , .,, f^ . . -^ 

his greater skill. His various 

fellow craftsmen, and the agriculturist 
also, must exchange their goods for his ; 
for the more specialised the work of an 
individual, the more necessary the com- 
munity is to him, in order that he may 
satisfy all his various requirements. Ex- 
change is at first natural ; that is, 
commodities are traded outright, each 


These illustrations show a palanquin borne by horses ; the Chinese single-wheel cart and the same 
assisted by a donkey and a sail ; pack mules and camels ; and a sledge drawn by Esquimau dogs, 





In this plate are illustrated a caravan of yaks ; the elephant with a howdah ; the African litter ; reindeers as pack 
animals ; and the familiar bullock waggon of France — a few of the many methods of carrying used by man. 



individual giving goods directly in return 
for the goods he receives. The production 
of the community as a whole has become 
far richer, far more perfect. The labour 
of the organised society produces more 
than the activity of separate individuals. 

Here, again, is shown the impulse of 
man to free himself from the exigencies 
of the moment, to lift himself above the 
fortuitous differences that arise between 

Mediums of exchange, particularly 
necessary for the carrying on of traffic 
between different communities, which exist 
in large quantities and can be divided up 
into parts, make their appearance in very 
early times. At first their values are more 
or less empirical, dependent upon the con- 
ditions of individual cases, until gradu- 
ally a medium obtains general recognition 
and thus becomes money. The same need 
for surmounting the lack of 
uniformity in individual 
requirements has led the 
most different peoples in 
the world to the inven- 
tion of money. Naturally, 
many different things have 
been employed as mediums 
of exchange ; these vary 
according to geographical 
situations, conditions of 
civilisation, and the cus- 
toms of races. Pastoral 
tribes at first employed 
cattle ; but tobacco, cow- 
ries, strings of flat shells, 
bits of mother - of - pearl, 
rings, and hides are also 
used. At last it is found 
that metal is stable, dur- 
able, divisible, and of 
generally recognised value ; 
and finally the precious 
metals take precedence of 
all others. Finally this 
form of money is adopted 
by all civilised races. 

Division of labour origin- 
ates in the development 
of the handicrafts, in the 
distinction made between 
the labour of working up 
the raw material and that 
(^f its production. With 
the help of a currency it 


Cowries, which are small shells, are a very primitive form of money, still used in leads tO a Complete traUS- 

parts of Africa and in Siam. They were formerly so used in India, where -150,000 f^,-„,of i^ri nnt r>nl\7 ni 

worth used to be imported annually. In Africa 5,000 shells are equivalent to Si. lOinidllOIl, IIOL Oiuy Ol 

economic relations, but 

supply and demand. The more varied 
the production, the more difficult it be- 
comes to find men who are able to offer 
the required commodity in exchange for 
what has been brought to them. An 
escape from this embarrassment lies in 
the discovery of a universal measure of 
exchange value and medium of exchange 
— money. Money is the means of adjust- 
ment which renders traffic between men 
independent of individual requirements. 

also of the social conditions of men. 

Country becomes city ; centres of popu- 
lation which rest upon an industrial 
basis arise ; in many cases growth of the 
various manufacturing industries is fur- 
thered by unfavourable agricultural con- 
ditions. Such industrial centres require 
markets and market-places ; it is neces- 
sary for the producers of raw materials to 
come to market from the country with 
their goods, in order that they may meet 

Early Roman bar money of the 4th century B C. 


Ofthese coins, chiefly from the British Museum, the South England iron currency bars are perhaps most interesting:. 

Our reproduction of these is one-tenth actual size. It will be noticed that the handles and the sues vary. 


From a very rare engraving in the British Museum 


How great has been the progress in the art oi printing is seen from these two pictures. The modern Hoe print- 
ing press is a marvel 01' mechanism. The first editions of this History were printed on a similar machine. 



together with the craftsmen of the city, and 
with other producers from the country who 
offer their wares in turn. The market 
town is the point of departure for further 
culture. Here, too, the endeavour to 
harmonise individual incongruities exists. 
Fruit is sent to market ; each man has his 
choice ; an exchange value is determined 
by means of .comparison, 

Y ^ ^ through analysis of the indi- 
J^. vidual prices which themselves 

do not furnish any rational 
determination of worth, and therefore 
expose both buyer and seller to chance. 
Thus a market-price develops. The city is 
the living agency promoting industry and 
exchange ; it brings its population into con- 
tact with the population of the country by 
means of the market, and prevents men 
from separating into isolated, unsym- 
pathetic, or even hostile groups. 

Here industry flourishes — arts, crafts, 
and large manufactures. In the latter, 
division of labour is developed to a maxi- 
mum degree, and production in factories 
derives a further impulse through the 
introduction of machinery. Machines, in 
contrast to implements and utensils, are 
inanimate but organised instruments for 
labour, requiring subordinate human 
activity only (attendance) so that they 
may impart force and motion in a manner 
corresponding with the designs of the 
inventor. Machinery is originally of simple 
form, dependent on water or wind for 
motive power — rude mills, and contriv- 
ances for the guiding of water in canals or 
conduits belong to its primitive varieties. 

But man's power of invention increases, 
and in the higher stage of industrial evolu- 
tion the facilities for labour are enor- 
mous. We have but to think of steam and 
of electricity with all their tremendous 
developments of power. Finally the dis- 
covery of the unity of force leads men to 
look upon Nature as a storehouse of energy 
and to devise means by which natural 
_, ,, forces may be guided, one 

The Use r e i J • i 

f M ( form of energy converted mto 

P _ another and transferred from 

place to place ; and thus man 
becomes almost all-powerful. He is not 
able to create, it is true, but he 
may at least mould and shape to his 
desire that which Nature has already 
formed. Thus the discovery how to 
direct the forces of Nature enables 
us again, according to the principle 
already cited, to escape the disabilities of 

human differentiation with its attendant 

As already stated, division of labour 
leads to exchange ; exchange leads to com- 
merce. Commerce is exchange on a large 
scale, organised into a system with special 
regard to the production of a store, or 
supply. The latter requires a certain 
knowledge of trade ; the centres of demand 
must be sought out, and the goods trans- 
ported to these centres. In this way a 
fruitful reciprocal action develops ; and 
as production influences trade, so may 
trade influence production, governing it 
according to the fluctuations of demand, 
and leading to the creation of stores of 
commodities for which a future market 
is to be expected. Thus commerce pre- 
supposes special knowledge and special 
skill ; it develops a special technique 
through which it is enabled to execute its 
complicated tasks. Men who live by 
trade become distinct from craftsmen ; 
and the mercantile class results. Mer- 
chants are men whose task is to effect an 
organised exchange of natural and manu- 
factured products. Commerce always 
displays an impulse to extend 
Boundless -^^^j^ beyond the borders of 

Growth of • 1 "i ■ , , 

^ smgle nations — not to remam 

Commerce • i j i u - j. u 

mland only, but to become a 

foreign trade also ; for the products of 
foreign countries and climates, however 
valuable they may be, would be inacces- 
sible except for commerce. Thus trade 
becomes both import and export. The 
first step is for the tradesman or his repre- 
sentative to travel about peddling goods, 
or for an owner of wares or money to offer 
capital to an itinerant merchant with the 
object that the latter may divide the 
profits with him later on. This leads to 
the sending of merchandise to a middle- 
man, who places it on the market in a 
distant region — commission business. The 
establishment of a branch or agency in a 
foreign country, in order to trade there 
while in immediate connection with the 
main business house, follows ; and, finally, 
merchants deal directly with foreign houses 
without the intervention of middlemen, 
thus entering into direct export trade. 
This, of course, presupposes a great 
familiarity with foreign affairs and con- 
fidence in their soundness ; consequently 
it is possible only in a highly developed 
state of civilisation. 

Foreign trade is carried on overland by 
means of caravans, and, in later, times, 




by railways ; over sea, through a merchant 
marine^saihng vessels and steamships. 
The magnitude of commerce, its peculiar 
methods, and its manifold, varying phases 
combine to produce new and surprising 
phenomena : traffic by sea leads to insur- 
ance and to different forms of commercial 
associations ; intercourse by caravan gives 
rise to the construction of halt- 
ing-stations, establishments for 

Birth of New 
Trades and 

refreshment and repair, that 
finally develop into taverns 
and inns. And that which first arose from 
necessity is subsequently turned to use for 
other purposes : insurance is one of the 
most fruitful ideas of the present day ; 
hotels are an absolute necessity. 

Commerce is able to bring further con- 
trivances and institutions into being, here, 
again, overcoming individual incongruity 
by means of combination. Trade cannot 
always be carried on directly between the 
places of production and of consumption ; 
one district requires more, another less ; 
it would be difficult to supply all from 
one centre of distribution. Thus an 
intermediate carrying trade is developed, 
rendering the surmounting of obstacles less 
difficult and increasing the stability of the 
market. The demands of the middleman 
are compensated for by these advantages. 
Thus the world's commerce develops, and 
that which is accomplished by market 
traffic in lesser districts is brought about 
by the concentrative influence of bourses, 
or exchanges, in the broadest spheres. 
Here, as in the smaller markets, the ten- 
dency is for all prices to seek a level, to 
become as independent as possible of 
individual conditions ; and so commerce 
between nations, and the possibility of 
ordering goods from the most distant 
lands, bring with them an adjustment : 
world prices are formed ; and to establish 
these is the business of the exchanges. 
The exchange is a meeting together of 
merchants for the trans- 
action of business by pur- 
chase or sale. It has 
acquired still more the 
character of a world' institution since men 
have been able to interchange advices by 
means of telegraph and telephone ; it is 
possible for the bourses of different countries 
to transact business with one another from 
moment to moment, so that the ruling prices 
of the world can be immediately known. 
It has already been stated that com- 
merce leads to a taking up of residence in 

Brings the 
World Together 

of Human 

foreign countries ; it also leads to colonisa- 
tion, and it is chiefly due to commerce that 
civilisation is introduced into foreign lands. 
In earlier centuries the labour question 
was settled by means of the legal sub- 
jection of certain classes of men, until com- 
plete in justice was reached in slavery. The 
system was rendered still more efficient 
by making slave-ownership hereditary. 
Slavery originated in wars and man- 
hunting, in times when there were but 
few domesticated animals and no ma- 
chines, when utensils were very imperfect 
and a more or less developed mode of life 
could only be conducted by means of the 
manual labour of individuals. Therefore, 
in order to obtain labourers, men resorted 
to force, introducing a slave population of 
which the individuals were either divided 
among households or kept in special slave 
habitations. The industry of the slave 
was often increased by the promise of 
definite privileges or private possessions. 
He was often granted a home and family 
life, and thus he became a bondman — 
burdened and taxed and bound 
to the soil, it is true, but other- 
wise looked upon as a man 
possessed of ordinary rights 
and privileges. Even during the days of 
slavery there were instances of emancipa- 
tion, and the possibility was opened up of 
rising to the social position of a slave-owner. 
The evolution of a free working class, 
with recompense for labour, is one of the 
most important chapters in the history of 
modern civilisation. The chief sphere of 
development is that of the crafts and 
trades. The power of guilds often induces 
legislation in their favour ; thus they 
become monopolies, and only such indi- 
viduals as are members of an association 
may adopt its particular trade or craft 
as a profession. Sometimes the unity 
of a guild is broken, and the individual 
right to form judgments enters in place 
of the rules laid down by the corporation. 
From this results competition, which 
finally leads up to free competition. 
Through free competition, the encumbering 
rigidity of the guilds is avoided ; it leads 
to a high development of the individual, 
and is therefore a great source of progress ; 
it discloses the secrets of the craft, freeing 
men from deeply-rooted prejudices in 
regard to different vocations ; and it in- 
creases man's inventive capacity, producing 
new methods for carrying on trades and 
new combinations and connections. 



■v-lwt-l^-A-IW HfrHHHHHWt-JWMMUHW WWtilMWV iHMt-O-lHi 





--n..i^.^yJi-i\~r \~nJMi~ji-.ii-j\-i\,^n.j\,ji~ ^^ 






CPIRITUAL culture may develop in the 
*^ directions of knowing and of feeling. 
These two forms of the manifestation of 
consciousness are originally not to be 
separated from each other ; but as time 
goes on, a preponderance of one or the 
other becomes noticeable. Language is 
the first result of spiritual culture : the 
communication of thoughts by means of 
words (sound pictures of ideas). Language 
arises from the necessities of life, from 
the need for communication among the 
members of a social aggregate. 

A much later acquisition, the art of 
writing, or the fixation of language in a 
definite, permanent form, stands in close 
connection with speech. Writing develops 
according to two systems : the one based 
on the symbollising or picturing of ideas — 
picture-writing, hieroglyphics ; and the 
other on the breaking up of the speech- 
sounds of a language into a notation of 
syllables or letters — syllabic or letter writ- 
ing. According to the first method thoughts 
are directly pictured ; according to the 
second, sounds, not 
ideas, are represented 
by symbols — that 
is, the sounds which 
stand for the ideas 
are transformed into 
signs. The transition 
from sign to syllabic 
writing comes about 
in this manner : if, 
during its develop- 
ment, a language uses 
the same sovmd to 
express various con- 
ceptions, men repre- 
sent this sound by one 
sign ; and whenever 
a foreign word is 
reproduced in writing; 
it is first separated 
into syllables, and 
the syllables are then 
pictured by the same 
signs as are employed 
to represent similar 
sounds — but different 

Nothing has eclipsed the printing: press as an agency 
of man's intellectual and spiritual advancement. 

ideas — in the native speech. Thus sym- 
bols are employed more and more phoneti- 
cally, and less and less meaning comes to 
be attached to them. This process must 
continue its development if the pronuncia- 
tion changes as lime goes on ; the old 
writing, with its national symbol-method, 
may be retained ; but with the changing 
of speech-sounds the new writing is altered ; 
s^dlables are now represented by signs, 
and combinations of syllables are repro- 
duced by means of a combination of their 
corresponding symbols. Thus phonetic 
writing was not an invention, but a gradual 
development. Together with the phonetic 
symbols, ideograms or hieroglyphs also 
exist, as in Babylonian. It is especially 
interesting, and indicative of the unity of 
the human mind, that the transition to 
syllabic writing has been arrived at inde- 
pendently by different races ; the Aztecs, 
for example, exhibit a wholly independent 

Communication by writing ma}' be 
either single or private, or general and 
pubhc ; in the latter 
case plurality is at- 
tained through such 
methods as the 
affixing of bills and 
placards, or by means 
of transcripts or re- 
productions of the 
original copy. At 
first the latter are 
made in accordance 
with the ordinary 
methods of writing ; 
and in slave-holding 
communities — Rome, 
for example — slaves 
who wrote to dicta- 
tion were employed 
as scribes. The dis- 
covery of a method 
by which to obtain 
a plurality of copies 
through a single 
mechanical process 
was epoch-making. 
The printing-press 



has performed a 
far greater service 
to humanity than 
have most inven- 
tions ; for, with the 
possibihty of pro- 
ducing thousands 
of copies of a com- 
munication, thr 
thoughts em- 
bodied in it be- 
come forces ; they 
may enter the 
minds of many 
individuals who 
are either con- 
vinced or actualh 
guided by tliem. 
Ideas beconn 
active through 
their suggestion 
on the masses ol 
the population . 
This may lead to 
a one-sided ruli' 
of p.ublic opinion : 
but a healthy race 
will travel intel- examples of aztec hieroglyphic sculpture and writing 

lectually in many The hieroglyphics and script of the Aztecs were independently developed. The first illustration 
f'lirp>r^+ir»nc a n ~r\ '^ from a sculpture in Mexico, and the other is a small reproduction of a page of the Maya 

(UreCTlOnS, a n O manuscript at Dresden. In both cases the symbolism is only imperfectly understood at present. 

various beliefs 


of Ideas 

supplement one another, struggle together, 
conquer, and are conquered. In this 
manner thoughts awaken popular move- 
ments, rousing a people to a 
hitherto unknown degree, and 
forcing men to think and to 
join issues. Thus the Press be- 
comes a factor in civilisation of the ver^^ 
first importance. The necessity for periodic 
communication, together with curiosity 
that refuses to wait long for information, 
leads to the establishment of regularly 
recurrent publications ; and thus, in 
addition to the book-press, the newspaper- 
press, that has learned how to hold great 
centres of population under its control, 
appears. Naturally this method of aiding 
the progress of civilisation has its dis- 
advantages, as have all other methods ; 
the conception of the world becomes 
superficial ; individuality loses in charac- 
ter ; not only a certain levelling of educa- 
tion, but also a levelling of views of life 
and ot modes of thought, results. But, on 
the whole, knowledge is sj^read abroad as 
it never was before. 

Man, as a thinking being, craves for a 
conception of life ; and in his inmost 


thoughts he seeks for an explanation of the 
double relationship of I\Ian to Nature and 
of Nature to Man, striving to bring all into 
harmony. This he finds in religion. 

Religion is belief in God ; that is, 
belief in spiritual forces inseparable from 
and interwoven through the universe — 
forces that render all things distinct 
and separate, yet make all coalescent 
and firm, permeating all, and giving to 
every object its individuality. Man is 
impelled by Nature to conceive of the 
universe as divine. This idea exhibits 
itself universally among primitive folk 
in the form of animism — a belief that 
the entire internal and external world is 
animated, filled with supernatural beings 
that have originally no determinate nature, 
but which may appear in the 
most \aried of forms, may 
vanish and may create them- 
selves anew, as clouds arise 
from unseen vapour in the air. Spirits 
are supposed to be not far removed from 
man ; families as well as individuals 
consider themselves to stand more or 
less in connection with them ; and men, 
too, have a share in the invisible world 

Craving for 


of Nature 

when they have cast aside the garment 
of the body in dream or in death. Thus, 
every man is thought to have his pro- 
tecting spirit, his manitou, that reveals 
itself to him through signs and dreams. 
Special incarnations, objects in which 
supernatural beings are in- 
herent or with which they are 
in some way connected, are 
called " fetiches " ; hence arises 
fetichism, in regard to which the strangest 
ideas were held in previous centuries 
when the science of anthropology was 
unknown. Trees, rocks, rivers, bits of 
wood, images of one's own making— any 
of these are thought capable of containing 
beings of divine nature. Naturally, the 
tree or the fragment of wood or of stone 
is not worshipped, as men formerly 
thought, but the spirit that is believed to 

The Realm 



Professor Kohler points out that in the history of the world's religions, 
although the belief in the omnipotence of God has become so wide- 
spread, It is not thought inconsistent that a Buddha, claiming- to 
incarnate the Supreme Being completely within himself, should appear. 

have entered it. In many cases the belief 
approaches worship of Nature, especially 
among agricultural peoples. Divinity is 
recognised in the shape of factors essential 
to agriculture — sun, sky, lightning, 
thunder ; these being the beneficent 
deities^ in contrast to whom are the 
earth-spirits who bring pestilences, 
earthquakes, and other evils to man- 
kind. Thus the cult is refined ; spirits are 
no longer attached to fetiches, but men 
worship the heavens, and the earth also. 
Religion accompanies man from birth 
to death. Spirits both for good 
and for evil are supposed to 
hover about him at his very 
birth. The soul of some being — 
perhaps an animal, perhaps an ancestor — 
enters into the new-born child, and from 
this spirit he receives his name. 

Oftentimes there is a new con- 
secration at the time of marriage; 
often when an heir-apparent suc- 
ceeds to the chieftainship. At his 
decease primitive folk believe that 
man enters the realm of shadows. 
At first he hovers over the sea or 
river of death, and often only 
after having passed through many 
hardships does he arrive in the 
new kingdom, where he either 
continues to live after the manner 
of his former existence, or, accord- 
ing to whether his life on earth 
has been good or evil, inhabits a 
higher or a lower supernatural 
sphere. To the dead are conse- 
crated their personal possessions — 
horses, slaves, wives even — that 
they ma}^ make use of them during 
the new existence ; men go head- 
hunting in order to send them 
new helpmates. On the other 
hand great care is often taken 
that the spirits of the departed, 
satisfied with their new existence, 
may no longer molest the world of 
the living : propitiative offerings 
are made ; men avoid mentioning 
the name of the departed, that 
he may not be tempted to visit 
them with his presence ; they seek 
to make themselves unrecognisable 
during the time immediately fol- 
lowing his death, wear different 
clothes, and adopt other dwelling- 
places. Sometimes the light placed 
near the deceased for the purpose 
of guiding him back to his old 



home is moved further and further away, 
so that his ghost, unable to find the right 
path, shah never return. 

Thus the behef in spirits encompasses 
primitive man, foUovving him step by step. 
From animism develops worship of 
heroes and polytheism, with their atten- 
dant mythological narrations. The idea 
of the unity of the supernatural world 
becomes lost ; and the indefinite forms 
of spirit become separate, independent 
beings, that are developed more and 
more in the direction of the souls either 
of animals or of men. This splitting up 
of the deity, which destroys the tendency 
toward unity in religion, is followed by 
a reaction that comes about 
partly through a belief in crea- 

The Belief 

Many Gods 

tion by a father of the gods, 
partly through acceptance of 
a historical origin of the mythological 
world from a single source (theogonic 
myths), and partly through direct 
banishment of the plurality of gods and 
a new formation of the belief in a unity 
according either to theistic or to pan- 

theistic ideas. In spite of the conception 

of a world permeated and pervaded by 

God alone, the belief that certain persons 

and places are more powerful in respect 

to the divinity than others is retained ; 

and the appearance from time to • time 

„ . of a Buddha who incarnates 

Happiness j ■ c j^ j_i o 

. . and mamtests the Supreme 

. „ ,. . Being directly and completelv 

m Religion ..,P ,. -l. ^ . ", 

withm himselt — m a special 

manner apart from other natural phe- 
nomena — is also not looked upon as 

Religion is a thing of the emotions, not 
merely in the sense of having its origin 
in fear, or in the remembrance of lasting 
sensations derived from visions or dreams, 
but emotional in so far that it satisfies 
the necessity felt by men for a consistent 
life-conception — not an intellectual but 
an emotional conception. It is not the 
matter-of-fact desire for knowledge that 
finds its expression in religion, but the joy 
of the heart in a supreme power, the call 
for help of the needy, and the conscious- 
ness of our own insignificance and our 

The elaborate and extraordinary funeral rites of the Todas illustrate admirably the older notions of life and death. 
A funeral endures for several days ; the body is cremated ; last of all the buffaloes of the deceased are slaughtered at 
the grave and thought to enter into mystic reunion with their master. In olden timeS a whole troop would be 
slaughtered, but under British influence the number has been limited to one for a common person and two for a chief. 


From the painting by Daniel Maclise, R.A. 

mortality. Judgment is not yet 
abstracted from the other psychic func- 
tions ; indeed, it really retires behind 
the emotions. 

When men thus believe in divinity, if 
the belief have an active influence on the 
emotions, it follows that the individual 
must establish some connection between 
himself and the object of his worship. 
This is brought about through certain 
actions, or through the creation of cir- 
cumstances in which special conditions 
of consecration are perceived, and there- 
with the possibility of a close relationship 
with the Supreme Being. The acts 
through which this relationship may be 
brought about, taken collec- 

„ ^. , tively, are embraced in the word 
Basis of », -^ 1 • ,, J r r j 

,„ .. worship, and if performed 

Worship J • i. i ■ i. A 

according to a strict system 

they are called " rites." Sacrifice has an 

important place among the ceremonies 

observed in accordance with ritual. It 

is based on a conception of the wants and 

necessities of the higher beings, and, in 

later times, is refined into a representation 

of man's ethical feelings — unselfishness 
and gratitude, which give pleasure to the 
Deity and thus contribute to its happiness. 
But sacrifice does not retain its unselfish 
character for any great length of time. 
Man thinks of himself first : he makes 
fk z-' k offerings to the good spirits, but 
of the ^"^ more particularly to the evil 
n • ^1. , gods, in order to pacify their 
Priesthood y J ii • -1 

fury and appease their evil 

desires. Sacrifices are also offered to the 
dead, and from such offerings and 
memorials is developed the idea of a 
" family " or " clan," which outlives the 

Thus, emotion is the principal active 
agent ; but intellectual power also must 
gradually lay its hold on the system of 
belief. The principles discovered are 
formulated into a science ; and the culti- 
vation of this science becomes the special 
duty of the priesthood, often as a secret 
art^esoteric system — in which conceal- 
ment is conducive to the maintenance of 
the exclusiveness and peculiar power of 
the priest class. The science becomes 



partly mythologic-historical, partly dog- 
matic, and partly ritualistic. 

The artistic instinct develops partly in 
connection with worship, partly in the 
direction of its practical application to 
life ; and although no very sharp line 
of distinction is drawn between the two 
tendencies, the germ at least of the 
_ difference between the fine 

_". . and the industrial arts is 

c igjon ^j_^^^^ .^ existence from the 

very earliest times. Worship 
gives rise to images and pictures, at 
first of the very roughest form. They 
are not mere symbols ; they are the 
garments or habitations with which the 
spirit invests itself. The spirit may take 
up its abode anyw^here according to the 
different beliefs of man — in a plant, an 
animal, a stone, above all, in a picture 
or effigy that symbolically reflects its 
peculiarities. Therefore, the ghosts of 
ancestors are embodied in ancestral images. 
Just as skulls were reverenced in earlier 
times, in later days the images of the dead 
[konvar) are worshipped. Such images 
are the oldest examples of the art of 
portraiture ; and the oldest dolls are the 
rude puppets which according to the rites 
of many races — the American Indians, 
for example — widows must wear about 
them as tokens, or as the husks or wrappers 
of their husbands' doubles. 

Religion itself becomes poetry. The 
belief in the identity of spirits of the 
dei)arted with animals, and the myths of 
metamorphosis, take the form of fables 
and fairy tales ; the cosmogonic and 
theogonjc conceptions develop into my- 
thologies ; hero sagas become epics ; the 
myths of life in Nature become a glorifi- 
cation of the external world, an expression 
of unity with Nature, and thus a form of 
lyric poetry. 

Everyday life, too, demands artistic 
expression. At first the childish passion 
for the changing pictures that correspond 
. ,. ^. with different ideas of the 

Artistic • ,• -,, ,, 

r . imagmation oms with the 

Expression i • , • ,, , 

J , .J desire to impress others, and 

finery in dress and ornamenta- 
tion result. This has developed in every 
clime. Tattooing arises not only from a 
religious motive, but also from the desire 
for ornament. The painting of men's 
bodies, the often grotesque ideas, such as 
artificial deformation of the head, knocking 
out and blackening of teeth, ear ornaments 
and mutilation of ears, pegs thrust through 

the lips, and various methods of dressing 
the hair, may be in part connected with 
religious conceptions, for here the most 
varied of motives co-operate to the same 
end. Yet, on the other hand, there is no 
doubt that they are also the outcome of 
a craving for variation in form and in 
colour. In the same way the darice is 
not only an act of worship ; it is also a 
means of giving vent to latent animal 
spirits : thus, dances are often expressions 
of the tempestuous sensual instincts of a 

The dance exhibits a special tendency 
to represent the ordinary affairs of life 
in a symbolic manner ; thus there are war 
and hunting dances, and especially animal 
dances in which each of the participants 
believes himself to be permeated by the 
spirit of some animal which throughout 
the dance he endeavours to mimic. In 
this way dramatic representation, which is 
certainly based on the idea of personifica- 
tion, on the notion that a man for the 
time being may be possessed by the 
spirit of some other creature that speaks 
and acts through him, originates. Thus 

nni «. .1 arose the primitive form of 
The Birth • u- u j j 

, masques, m which men dressed 

.. T^ themselves up to resemble 

the Drama f 1 

various creatures, real or 

imaginary, as in the case of the animal 
masques of old time ; lor according to 
the popular idea the spirit dwells in the 
external, visible form, and through the 
imitation or adoption of its outward 
appearance we become identified with 
the spirit whose character we assume. 
Among many races not only masks proper 
were worn, but also the hides and hair or 
feathers of the creatures personated. 
Dramatic representation was furthered 
by the dream plays — especially popular 
among the American Indians — in which 
the events of dreams are adapted for 
acting and performed. Even as men 
seek illumination in dreams as to questions 
both divine and mundane, so do they 
anticipate through dreams the dramatic 
representations which shall be performed 
on holidays as expressions of life. 

Play is a degeneration of the dance, 
and it arises less from the instinct for 
beauty than from a desire to realise 
whatever entertainment and excitement 
may be got from any incident or occur- 
rence. Erom another special inclination 
originate those satirical songs of Northern 
peoples, written in alternating verses, 

Ji'nnf^ic''! \s ^".effort to give symbolic expression to affairs and moods of everyday life. Thus the Zulu wedding 
dance is self-evident in its purpose. The second illustration depicts a strange religious dance of the Australian 
e^Sff .°nH^^h^ with otemism or animism, The third picture shows dancefs in Kandy endeavouring to ban th 
evil spirits, and the last illustrates an Australian corroboree. From such sources the drama has been slowly evolved. 




in which the national tribunal and the 
voice of the people are given expression 
at the same time. Thus they have a truly 
educative character. These are the pre- 
liminary steps to the free satire and 
humour that gleam through the lives of 
civilised peoples, now like the flicker of a 
candle, now like a purifying lightning 
A t & PI flash, freeing men from life's 
. '". *^ monotony, and illuminating 
L'f f M ^^^ night of unsolved questions. 
Capacity for organised play is a 
characteristic that hfts man above the 
lower animals. The expression of individu- 
ality without any particular object in view, 
the elevation of self above the troubles of 
life, and free activity, uncoerced by the 
necessities of existence, are characteristic 
both of play and of art. Thus play, as well 
as art, exhibits to a pre-eminent degree 
man's consciousness of having escaped, if 
only temporarily, from the coercion of 
environing nature ; being without definite 
object, it proves that he can find employ- 
ment when released from the pressure of 
the outer world — that is, when he is 
momentarily freed from his endeavour 
to establish a balance between himself 
and the necessities of life, with a view to 
overcoming the latter. Man stands in 
close connection with his environment 
and with the immutable laws of nature ; 
but in play and in art he develops his own 
personality — a development that neither 
in direction nor in object is influenced 
by the outer world and its constraint. 

The step that leads to the overcoming 
of custom is the recognition of right. 
" Right " is that which society strictly 
demands from every individual member. 
Not all that is customary is exacted by 
right ; a multitude of the requirements of 
custom may be ignored without opposi- 
tion from the community as a whole, 
although, of course, detached individuals 
may express their displeasure. The aggre- 
gate, however, grants immunity to all who 
F 11 f M *^° "°^ choose to follow the 
and Rise custom. In other words, the 

ofthe'Racc separation of custom from 
right signifies the develop- 
ment of a sharper line of demarcation be- 
tween that which is and that which ought 
to be. In primitive times " is " and 
" ought to be " are fairly consonant terms ; 
but gradually a spirit of opposition is de- 
veloped ; cases arise in which custom is 
oj^posed, in which the actions of men run 
counter to a previous habit. Man is 


conscious of the possibility of raising him- 
self above the unreasoning tendencies 
toward certain modes of conduct, and he 
takes pleasure in so doing — the good man 
as well as the evil. Whoever oversteps 
the bounds of custom, even through sheer 
egotism, is also a furtherer of human 
development ; without sin the world 
would never have evolved a civilisation ; 
the Fall of Man was nothing more than 
the first step toward the historical de- 
velopment of the human race. 

This leads to the necessity for extracting 
from custom such rules as must prove 
advantageous to mankind, and this collec- 
tion of axioms — which " ought to be " — 
becomes law. 

The distinction between right and 

custom was an important step. The 

relativity of custom was exposed with one 

stroke. Many, and by no means the worst 

members of communities, emancipate 

themselves from custom. It is the opening 

in the wall through which the progress of 

humanity may pass. Nor do the demands 

of right remain unalterable and unyielding. 

A change in custom brings with it a 

_ change in right ; certain rules 

„. , ^ ' of conduct gradually become 

Right, and • i - j • j. ^.u " 

j^ .. isolated owing to the recession 

of custom, and to such an ex- 
tent that they lose their vitality and decay. 
And as new customs arise, so are new 
principles of right discovered. In this 
manner an alteration in the one is a cause 
of change in the other — naturally, in 
conformity with the degree of culture 
and contemporary social relations. Custom 
and right mutually further each other, 
and render it possible for men to adapt 
themselves to newly acquired conditions 
of civilisation. 

Together with right and custom a 
third factor appears — morality. This is 
a comparatively late acquisition. It, too, 
contains something of the " ought to be," 
not because of the social, but by virtue 
of the divine authority or order based on 
philosophical conceptions. Morals vary, 
therefore, as laws vary, according to 
peoples and to times. The rules of morality 
form a second code, set above the social 
law, and they embody a larger aggregate 
of duties. The reason for this is that men 
recognise that the social system of rules for 
conduct is not the only one, that it is only 
relative and cannot include all the duties 
of human beings, and that over and beyond 
the laws of society ethical principles exist. 


Naturally conflicts arise between right 
and morals, and such struggles lead to 
further development and progress. 

The late appearance of ideas of morality 
proves that ethical considerations were 
originally foreign to the god-concep- 
tions. The spirits, fetiches, and world- 
creators of different beliefs are at first 
neutral so far as morals are concerned ; 
myths and legends are invented partly 
from creation theories, partly from historic 
data, and partly through efforts of the 
imagination. In primitive beliefs there is 
no trace of an attempt to conceive of 
deities as being good in the highest — or 
even in a lower — sense ; and it would not 
be in accordance with scientific ethnology 
to appraise, or to wish to pass judgment on, 
religions according to the point of view 
of ethics. Not until the importance of 
morality in life is realised, and the 
profound value of a life of moral purity 
recognised, do men seek in their religious 
beliefs for higher beings of ethical signifi- 
cance, for morally perfect personalities 
among the gods. 

Different elements of civilisation vary 
greatly in their development in different 
civilised dis- 
tricts; one 
race may have a 
greater tendency 
toward intellec- 
tual, another 
toward material 
culture. No race 
has approached 
the Hindoos in 
speculation, yet 
they are as chil- 
dren in their 
knowledge of 
natural science. 
One people may 
develop com- 
merce to the 
highest extent, 
another poetr}' 
and music, a 
third the free- 
dom of the in- 
dividual. The 
language of the 
American I n - 
dians is in many respects richer and more 
elegant than English. Therefore nothing 
is farther from the truth than to say that, 
in case one institution of civilised life is 

This mysterious " totem " disting:uishes a family or tribe of 
the old Hydah Indians and is erected at Wrangel in Alaska. 

found to exist in a hunting people, another 
in an agricultural race, or the one in an 
otherwise higher, and the other in an other- 
wise lower nation or tribe, the institution 
in question must have reached a state of 
perfection corresponding with the general 
development of the people possessing it. 
According to this, the monogamic uncivil- 
ised races were further advanced than the 
polygamous Aryans of India and the Mo- 
hammedans ; and the Polynesians, with 
their skill in the industrial arts and their 
dramatic dances, perhaps in a higher state 
of civilisation than Europeans ! 

Development fulfils itself in communi- 
ties of men. Except in a human aggre- 
gate it cannot come to pass ; for the germs 
of development which are brought forth 
by the potentiated activity of the many 
may exist only in a society of individuals. 
It has therefore been a significant fact 
that from the very beginning men have 
joined together in social aggregates, partly 
on account of an instinctive impulse, 
partly because of the necessity for self- 
defence. Thus it came about that primi- 
tive men lived together in wandering, pre- 
datory hordes, or packs. The individuals 
were bound to 
one another very 
( losel}'; there was 
no private life ; 
and the sex- 
relationships were 
prom iscuous. 
Men not only 
dwelt together 
in groups, but 
the groups them- 
selves assimilated 
with one another, 
inasmuch as mar- 
riages were re- 
ciprocally entered 
into by them. So 
far as we are able 
to determine, one 
of the earliest of 
social institutions 
was that of group- 
marriage. Indi- 
viduals did not 
first unite in 
pairs, and then 
join together in 
groups — such would soon have fallen 
asunder ; on the contrary, group-marriage 
itself created the bond that held the 
community together ; the most violent 


The tribal state has a fixed form of government. The chiefs or patriarchs of the various famiUes stand at the 
head of affairs, the position of chief being either hereditary or elective. In most cases, however, it is determined by 
a combination of both methods, a blood descendant being chosen, provided he is able to give proof of his competence. 

in.stinct of mankind not only united the 
few but the many, indeed, complete social 

Group-marriage is the form of union 
established by the association of two 
hordes, or packs, according to which the 
men of one group marry the women of the 
other ; not a marriage of individual men 
with individual women, but a promis- 
cu(.us relationship, each man of one group 
marrying all the women of the other 
group — at least in theory — and vice versa ; 
not a marriage of individuals, but of 
aggregates. Certainly with such a sex- 
relationship established, sooner or later 
regulations develop from within the com- 
munity, through which the marital rela- 
tionships of individuals are adjusted in a 
consistent manner ; but the principle 
first followed was, as community in pro- 
perty, so community in marriage ; and 
this must of itself lead to kinships 
entirely different from those with which 
we are familiar. 

Group-marriage was closely bound up 
with religious conceptions ; single hordes, 
or packs, considered themselves the em- 


bodiment of a single spirit. And since at 
that time spirits were onl}' conceived of 
as things that existed in nature, the horde 
felt itself to be a single class of natural ob- 
ject — some animal or plant, for example ; 
and the union of one pack with another 
was analogous to the union of one animal 
with another. Each group believed itself 
to be permeated by the spirit of a certain 
species of animal, borrowed its name thence 
and the animal species itself was looked 
upon as the protecting spirit. The ances- 
tral spirit was worshipped in the animal, 
and the putting to death or injuring of 
an individual of the species was a serious 

Such a belief is called Totemism. 
" Totem " — a word borrowed from the 
language of the Massachusetts Indians — 
is the natural object or animal assumed 
as the emblem of the horde or tribe, and 
correspondingly the group symbolised by 
the class of animal or natural object is 
called a Totem-group. 

This belief led to a close union of all who 
were partakers of the spirit of the same 
animal ; it also strictly determined which 


groups could associate with one another. 
And as the totem-group mimicked the 
animal in its dances, and fancied itself to 
be possessed by its spirit, it also ordered 
the methods of partaking of food, and 
all marriage, birth, and death ceremonies 
in accordance with this conception. It is 
said that, the totem being exogamous, 
marriages were not possible within the 
totem, but only without it. Precisely 
so; for the original conception was not 
that individuals formed unions, but that 
the whole totem entered the marriage 
relationship ; a single marriage would have 
been considered an impossibihty. 

To which totem the children belonged — 
to the mother's, to the father's, or to a 
third totem — was a question that offered 
considerable difficulty. All three possi- 
bilities presented themselves ; the last 
mentioned, however, only in case the child 
belonged to another group, a sub-totem, 
and in that event its descendants could 
return to the original totem. 

Descent in the male 'or in the female 

line occasioned in later times the rise of 

important distinctions between nations. 

If a child follow the mother's 

The First ^^^gj^^ ^e speak of " maternal 

, *f . . kinship " ; conversely, of " pa- 
ofKmship ^g^^^j kmship" in case of 

heredity through the father. Which of these 
is the more primitive, or did tribes from 
the very first adopt either one or the other 
system, thus making them of equal anti- 
quity, is a much-vexed question. There is 
reason to believe that maternal kinship 
is the more primitive form, and that races 
have either passed with more or less 
energy and rapidity to the system of 
descent through males, or have kept to the 
original institution of maternal succession. 
There are many peoples among whom 
both forms of kinship exist, and in such 
instances the maternal is undoubtedly the 
more primitive ; from this it appears very 
probable that development has thus 
taken place, the more so since there are 
traces of maternal kinship to be found in 
races whose established form is paternal. 
As time passed, marriage of individuals 
developed from group-marriage or to- 
temism. Such unions may be polygamous 
— one man having several wives — or poly- 
androus — one woman having several hus- 
bands. Both forms have been represented 
in mankind, and, indeed, polygamy is the 
general rule among all races, excepting 
Occidental civilised peoples. The form 




of marriage toward which civilisation is 
advancing is certainly monogamy ; through 
it a complete individual relationship is 
established between man and wife ; and 
although both individualities may have 
independent expression, each is reconciled 
to the other through the loftier associa- 
tion of both. Nearly associated with 
monogamy is the belief in 
imion after death ; it arises 
from the religious beliefs pre- 
valent among many peoples. 
Among other races there is at least the 
custom of a year of mourning, sometimes 
for husband, sometimes for wife, often 
for both. 

Marriage of individuals has developed in 
different ways from group or totem 
marriage : sometimes it was brought about 
through lack of subsistence occasioned by 
many men dwelling together ; sometimes 
it arose from other causes. One factor 
was the practice of wife-capture : whoever 
carried off a wife freed her, as it were, from 
the authority of the community, and 
established a separate marriage for himself. 
Marriage by purchase was an outcome of 
marriage by capture and of the paying of an 
indemnity to the relatives of the bride ; 
men also learned to agree beforehand as to 
the equivalent to be paid. The practice of 
acquiring wives by purchase developed in 
various directions, especially in that of 
trading wives and in the earning of wives 
by years of service. Gradually the purchase 
became merely a feigned transaction ; and 
a union of individuals has evolved — now 
sacerdotal, now civil in form — from which 
every trace of traffic and of exchange has 

Thus already in early times marriage had 
become ennobled through religion. It is 
a widespread idea that through partaking 
of food in common, blood-brotherhood, or 
similar procedures, a mystic communion 
of soul may be established ; and in case of 
marriages brought about by the mediation 
. . of a priesthood the priest in- 

Rehgion yokes the divine consecration. 
i\no^ es Marriage is thereby raised above 
Marriage ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ profane actions 
of life ; it receives a certain guarantee of 
permanency ; indeed, in many cases, by 
reason of the mystic communion of souls, 
it is looked upon as absolutely indissoluble. 
The ownership of property also was 
originally communistic, and the idea of 
individual possession has been a gradual 
development. The idea of the ownership 



In countries where women are subservient to men the idea of niarriage by captu^^ by cojupulsion g-^-ls.^. The 

Bedouin bride (^) makes a pretence of escapmg and is pursued ^^Y tl^bndegroom and h^s ^cms^ e .^ ^^^ .^ 

':l ft^e-ct^'^fcSft^y.^T.^ ^-^- ^'^^-- ^"^ ^-^^■"^' 



of land, especially when developed by 
agricultural peoples, is of a communistic 
nature ; and, from common possession, 
family and individual ownership gradually 
comes into being. It is brought about in 
various ways, chiefly through the division 
of land among separate families : at first 
only temporary, held only until the time 
for a succeeding division arrives ; later, 
owned in perpetuity. Nor was it a rare 
method of procedure to grant land to any 
one who desired to cultivate it — an estate 
that should be his so long as he remained 
upon it and cultivated the 
soil, but which reverted to 
the community, on his leaving 
it. There gradually developed 
a constant relationship be- 
tween land and cultivator 
as agriculture became more 
extended and lasting improve- 
ments were effected on the 
soil. Land became the per- 
manent property of the in- 
dividual ; it also became an 
article of commerce. 

Ownership of movable pro- 
perty even was at first 
of commvmistic character. 
Clothing and weapons, en- 
chantments effectual for the 
individual alone, such as 
medicine-bags or amulets, 
were, to be sure, assigned to 
individuals in very early 
times ; but all property ob- 
tained by labour, the products 
of the chase or of fishing, 
originally belonged to the 
community, until in later days 
each family was allowed to 
claim the fruits of its own 
toil, and was only pledged to 
share with the others under 
certain conditions. Finally, 
individuals were permitted to 
retain or to barter property 
which they had produced by 
labour ; and exchange, especially exchange 
between individuals, attained special sig- 
nificance through the division of labour. 

The individualisation of the ownership 
of movable property was especially 
furthered by members of families perform- 
ing other labour, outside the family, in 
addition to their work within the family 
circle. Although the fruit of all labour 
accomplished within the family was shared 
by the members in common, the results 

of work done outside became the property 
of the particular individiial who had 
performed the labour. Consequent expan- 
sion of the conception of labour led rnen 
to one of the greatest triumphs of justice, 
to the idea of establishing individual rights 
in ideas and in combinations of ideas, to 
the recognition of intellectual or imma- 
terial property — right of author or inven- 
tor—one of the chief incentives to modern 

On the other hand, individual rights in 
transactions led to conceptions concerning 

In very early times marriage had assumed a religious significance and came 
to be regarcled among the sacred as opposed to the secular functions of Ufa. 

obligations and debts. Exchange, either 
direct or on terms of credit, brought wilh 
it duties and liabilities for which originally 
the persons and lives of the individuals 
concerned were held in pledge, until 
custody of the body — which also included 
possession of the corpse of a debtor — 
was succeeded by public imprisonment 
for debt, and finally by the_ mere pledg- 
ing of property, imprisonment for debt 
having been abolished — a course of 



development through which the most 
varied of races have passed. 

The relation of the individual to his 
possessions led men at first to place mov- 
able property in graves, in order that it 
might be of service to the departed owner 
during the life beyond ; hence the universal 
custom of burning on funeral pyres not 
only weapons and utensils, but 
*^ ^ animals, slaves, and even wives. 

p In later times men were satis- 

** *" ^ fied with symbolic immolations, 
or possessions were released from the 
ban of death and put into further use. 
The property of the deceased reverted to 
his family, and thus the right of inheritance 
arose. There was no right of inheritance 
during the days of communism ; on the 
death of a member of the family a mere 
general consolidation of property resulted ; 
with individual property arose the rever- 
sion of possessions to the family from 
which they had been temporarily separated. 
Thus property either reverted to the family 
taken as a whole, or to single heirs, certain 
members of the family ; hence a great 
variety of procedure arose. Up to the 
present day inheritance b\^ all the children, 
or inheritance by one alone, exists in 
Eastern Asia as m Western nations. 

In like manner criminal responsibility 
was originally collective ; the family or 
clan was held responsible for the actions 
of all its individual members except those 
who were renounced and made outcasts. 
Such methods of collective surety still 
exist among many exceedingly developed 
peoples ; but the system is gradually 
dying awa}^ the tendency being for the 
entire responsibility to rest upon the 
individual alone. 

The state is a development of tribal, or 
patri-archal, society. The tribal group is 
a community of intermarried families, all 
claiming descent from a common ancestor. 
From tribal organisation the principle is 
developed that participation in the com- 
_ . . miuiity is open only to such 

ginning individuals as belong to one or 

^ .. other of the families of which 

Community , , ,, 

it IS com]:)osed ; and the 

political body thus made up of individuals 
related either by blood or through marriage 
is called a patriarchal, or tribal, state. 
This form of community was enlarged even 
in very early times, advantage being taken 
of the possibility of adopting strangers 
into the circle of related families, and of 
amalgamating with them. Still, the funda- 


mental idea that the community is com- 
posed of related families always remains 
uppermost in the minds of uncivilised 
peoples. The tribal state gradually 
develops into the territorial state. The 
con-nection of the community with a 
definite region becomes closer ; strange 
tribes settle in the same district ; they are 
permitted to remain provided tribute is 
paid and services are performed, and are 
gradually absorbed into the community, 
the strangers and the original inhabitants — 
plebeians and patricians — united together 
into one aggregate. Thus arises the con- 
ception of a state which any man may 
join without his being a member of any 
one of the original clans or families. 

In this way the idea of a state becomes 
distinct from that of a people bound 
together by kinship, the latter being 
especially distinguished by a certain unity 
of external appearance, custom, character, 
and manner of thought. This is not 
intended to suggest that an amalgamation 
of different race elements in a state and an 
assimilation of different modes of thought 
and of feeling are not desirable, or that a 

^ .1 , spirit analogous to the sense 
Growth of 'f •, ■ ^ 1 r .1 

. la ^^ unity m members of the 

f St t ^'"^""'e family is not to be sought 
for ; such a condition is most 
likely to be attained if a certain tribe or 
clan take precedence of the others, as the 
most progressive, to which the various 
elements of the people annex themselves. 
The tribal state has a fixed form of 
government. The chiefs or patriarchs of 
the various families stand at the head of 
affairs, the position of chief being either 
hereditary or elective. In most cases, 
however, it is determined by a combina- 
tion of both methods, a blood descendant 
being chosen provided he is able to give 
proof of his competence. In addition 
there is often the popular assembly. In 
later times many innovations are intro- 
duced. Passion for power united to a 
strong personality often leads to a chief- 
tainship in which all rights and privileges 
are absorbed or united in the person of one 
individual ; so that he appears as the 
possessor of all prerogatives and titles, 
those of other men being entirely second- 
ary, and all being more or less dependent 
upon his will. Religious conceptions, 
esfiecially, have had great influence in this 
connection. Nowhere is this so clearly 
shown as in " teknonymy," an institution 
formerly prevalent in the South Pacific 


These pictures represent : i, Roman gaolers cutting off a Christian's ears. a. The cangue as still used in China, 
r A prisoner on the rack in Mediaeval England. 4. Torture of the Iron Chair. 5. The ordeal of fire and branding. 



islands, according to which the soul of the 
father is supposed to enter the body of his 
eldest son at the birth of the latter, and 
that therefore, immediately from his birth, 
the son becomes master, the father con- 
tinuing the management of affairs merely 
as his proxy. Other peoples have avoided 
such consequences as these by suj)i)osing 
the child to be possessed by the 
" " . soul of his grandfather, thcre- 
Ch" f "" ^^^^ naming first-born males 
after their grandfathers instead 
of after their fathers. Another outcome of 
the institution of chieftainship is the 
chaotic order of affairs which rules among 
man}^ peoples on the death of the chieftain, 
continuing until a successor is seated on the 
throne — a lawless interval of anarchy 
followed by a regency. 

The power of a chieftain is, however, 
usually limited by class rights ; that 
is, by the rights of sub-chieftains of 
especially cUstinguished families, and of 
the popular assembly, among which 
elements the division of }:)ower and of 
jurisdiction is exceedingly varied. These 
primitive institutions are rude prototypes 
of future varieties of coercive govern- 
ment, of kingship, either of aristocratic 
or of republican form, in which the primi- 
tive idea of chieftainship as the absorption 
of all private privileges is given up, and in 
its place the various principles of rights 
and duties of government enter. 

Class-difterentigition with attendant 
privileges and prerogatives is especially 
developed in warlike races, and in nations 
which must be ever prejiared to resist 
the attacks of enemies, by the establish- 
ment of a militant class. The militant 
class occupies an intermediate jjosilion 
between the governing, ])riest, and scholar 
( lasses on the one hand, and the industrial 
class — agriculturists, craftsmen, merchants 
—on the other. Employment in warfare, 
necessary discijiline, near association with 
the chieftain, and the holding of fiefs lor 
_ . material suj)port give to this 

Growth , ' ' '^. -r, 

,.,.,.. class a unique position. Ihus 

of Military ,, • / i i i • 

-,. the warrior castes developed in 

India, the feudal and military 
nol)ility in Ja))an, the nobility in (iermany, 
with obligations and service to feudal 
superiors and to the Court. This system 
survives for many years, until at last 
leudal tenure gradually disappears, and 
its attendant prerogatives are swallowed 
up by all classes through a universal 
subjection to military service ; although 


even yet a distinct class of professional 
soldiers remains at the head of military 
affairs and operations, and will continue 
to do so as long as there is a possibility of 
internal or external warfare. However, 
here too the militant class is absorbed into 
a general body of officials. Officials are 
citizens who not only occupy the usual 
position of members of the state, but to 
whom in addition is appointed the execu- 
tion of the life functions of the nation, as its 
organs ; in other words, such functions as 
are peculiar to the civic organisation in 
contradistinction to the general functions 
exercised and actions performed by indi- 
vidual citizens as independent units. 
Officialism includes to a special degree 
duty to its calling and to the public trust, 
and there are also special privileges 
granted to officials within the sphere 
appointed for them. 

In a society governed by a chieftain, as 
well as in a monarchy, there is a jwpular 
assembly or consultative body ; either an 
unorganised meeting of individuals, or an 
organised convention of estates founded 
on class right. A modern development, 
that certainly had its proto- 
Thc Birth ^yp^ .^ ^^^ patriarchal state, is 

1 ,. ^ the representative assembly. 
Parliaments ^ , , r • j- j i 

an assembly of individuals 

chosen to represent the people in place of 
the popular gathering. The English 
Government, with its representative legis- 
lative bodies, is a typical example in 
modern civilisation. 

One of the chief problems encountered 
not only in a society ruled by a chieftain, 
Init also in states of later devel()j)ment, 
whether governed by a potentate or by 
an aristocracy, is the relation of tem- 
poral to sjnritual power. Sometimes both 
are united in the head of the state, as in 
the cases of the Incas of Peru and of the 
Caliphate. Sometimes the spiritual head 
is distinct and separate from the temporal ; 
frequently the two forces are nearly asso- 
ciated, a member of the imperial family 
being chosen for the office of high-priest, 
as among the Aztecs. Often, however, the 
two functions are comjiletely indej^endent 
of each other, as among many African 
races, the medicine-man occupying a posi- 
tion entirely independent of the chieftain. 
Such separation may, of course, lead to 
friction and civil war ; it may also become 
an element furthering to civilisation, a 
source of new ideas, opening the way to 
alliances between nations, and setting 


bounds to the tyranny of individuals, as 
exemplified in the relation of the Papacy 
to the Holy Roman Emj)ire. 

The form of state in which the functions 
of government are exercised by a chieftain 
contributes greatly to state control and 
enforcement of justice. The realisation of 
right had been from the first a social 
function ; but its enforcement 
was incumbent on the unit 
groups of individuals (families 
or tribes bound together by 
friendship). The acquisition by the state 
of the power to dispense justice and to 
make and enforce law is one of the greatest 
events of the world's history. The idea 
of all right being incorporated in the 
chieftain (and social classes) played an 
important part in bringing about this 
condition of affairs ; for as soon as this 

State Justice 
a Momentous 
Step Forward 

typical of the effect of the curse of God. 
Already in primitive times religion led to 
a strange idea of justice — secret societies 
consecrated by the deity took upon them- 
selves the function of enforcing right, 
instituting reigns of terror in their dis- 
tricts, maintaining order in society, and 
claiming authorisation from the god with 
whose spirit they were permeated. Later, 
influenced by all these causes, the social 
aggregate took over the control of justice. 
It was already considered to be the 
upholder of right, the servant of the deity, 
the maintainer of public peace, the dis- 
penser of atoning sacrifices, etc. ; and so 
the various elements conceived of as 
justice, which had previously been dis- 
tributed among the single families, tribes, 
associations, and societies, were combined, 
and placed under state control. 


" The Judgment of the Dead " as illustrated by innumerable paintings on the walls of Egyptian temples and tombs. 

conception receives general acceptance, 
the chieftain, and with him the state, 
become interested in the preservation and 
enforcement of justice, even in its lower 
forms in the common rights of the sub- 
jects. On the other hand, not only the 
interests of chieftainship, but also those 
of agriculture and commerce, are furthered 
by the preservation of internal peace ; 
and internal peace calls for state control 
of justice and enforcement of law. 

Moreover the religious element worked 
to the same end. Wickedness was held 
to be an injury to the deity, whose anger 
would be visited upon the entire land — a 
conception that lasted far into the Middle 
Ages, and according to which the fate of 
Sodom and Gomorrah was held to be 

Certain forms for the dispensation of 
justice, judging of crimes, and determining 
of punishments were developed. Thus arose 
the different forms of judicial procedure, 
which for a long time bore a religious 
character. The deity was called upon to 
decide as to right and wrong — divinity in 
_ „ the form of natural forces. 

_* "^ *" . Hence the judgments of God 
jj,. . ^ ° through trial by water, fire. 

Religion . ® , -^ , ' ' 

poison, serpents, scales, or — 
especially in Germany during the Middle 
Ages — combat, or decision by the divining 
eye, that was closely allied to the so-called 
trial by hazard. A peculiar variety of 
ordeal Js that of the bier, according to 
which the body of a murdered man is 
called into requisition, the soul of the 


I j^^-: 


-' ' k ' t 


- 1 "^ 




^^k , "*^;^^ 





victim assisting in the discovery of the 
murderer. Ordeals are undergone some- 
times by one individual, sometimes by 
two. An advance in progress is the curse, 
which takes the place of the ordeal, the 
curse of God being called down upon an 
individual and his family in case of wrong- 
doing or of perjury. The curse rnay be 
uttered by an individual in co- 
operation with the members of 
. ^ families. Thus arise ordeals by 

invocation and by oath with 
compurgators. Originally a certain period 
of time was allowed to pass — a month, 
for example — for the fulfilment of the 
curse. In later times, whoever took 
the oath — oath of innocence — was held 
guiltless. Witnesses succeeded to con- 
jurers ; divining looks were replaced 
by circumstantial evidence ; and, instead 
of a mystic, a rational method of obtaining 
testimony was adopted. The develop- 
ment was not attained without certain 
attendant abuses; and the abolition of 
ordeal by God was among many peoples 
— notably the inhabitants of Eastern Asia, 
the American Indians, and the Germans 
of the Middle Ages — succeeded by the 
introduction of torture. In many lands 
torture stood in close connection with the 
judgment of God ; in others it originated 
either directly or indirectly in slavery. 
According to the method of obtaining 
evidence by torture, the accused was 
forced through physical pain to disclosures 
concerning himself and his companions, 
and, in case he himself were considered 
guilty, to a confession. However barbarous 
and irrational, this system was employed 
in Latin and Germanic nations excepting 
England, until the eighteenth century, in 
some instances even until the nineteenth. 
Judgment was first pronounced in the 
name of God ; in later times, in the name 
of the people or of the ruler who appeared 
as the representative of God. The prin- 
ciples of justice, the validity of which at 
Th SI ^^^^ depends upon custom, are 

„ .... in later times proclaimed and 

Building upr-, ^j r/-j 

of La fixed as commands of God. 

Thus systems of fixed right 
come into being first in the form of sacred 
justice, then as commands of God, and 
finally as law. Law is a conception of 
justice expressed in certain rules and prin- 
ciples. Originally there were no laws ; the 
standard for justice was furnished to each 
individual by his own feelings ; only iso- 
lated cases were recorded. As time 


advanced, and great men who strove to 
bring about an improvement in justice 
arose above the generality of mankind ; 
when the ruling class became differentiated 
from the other classes ; when it was found 
necessary to root out certain popular cus- 
toms — then, in addition to the original 
collection of precedents, there arose law of 
a higher form : law that stood above prece- 
dent, that altered custom, and opened up 
new roads to justice. Great codes of law 
have not been compilations only ; they 
have led justice into new paths. Originally 
a law was looked upon as an inviolable com- 
mand of God, as unalterable and eternal ; 
its interpretation alone was earthly and 
transitory. As years passed, men learned 
to recognise that laws themselves were 
transitory ; and it became a principle 
that later enactments "could alter earlier 
rules. The relations of later statutes to 
already established law, and how the laws 
of different nations influence one another, 
are difficult, much- vexed questions for the 
solution of which special sciences have de- 
veloped — transitory and international law. 
Judgment and law are intimately concerned 
with justice, the conception 
of right as evolved from the 
double action of life and cus- 
tom. To this development 
of justice is united an endeavour of the state 
or government not only to further welfare 
by means of the creation and administra- 
tion of law, but also to take under its con- 
trol civilising institutions of all sorts. 
This was originally a feature of justice 
itself ; certain practices inimical to civilisa- 
tion were interdicted and made punish- 
able offences. Already in the Middle Ages 
systems of police played a great part among 
governmental institutions, especially in 
the smaller states. Subsequently the idea 
was developed that not only protection 
through the punishment of crime, but also 
superintendence of and promotion of the 
public weal, should be administered by law; 
and thus the modern state developed with 
its policy of national welfare. With this 
arose the necessity for a sharper distinction 
to be drawn between justice and the various 
actions of an administration ; and thus in 
modern times men have come to the system 
— based on Montesquieu — of the separation 
of powers and independence of justice. 

Justice varies according to the develop- 
ment of civilisation, and according to the 
function that it must perform in this 
development ; in like manner every age 

of the 
Modern State 


creates its own material and spiritual 
culture. Every poet is a poet of his own 

The notion of natural right, however 
unhistorical it was in itself, characterised 
a period of transition in so far as it enabled 
men to form a historical conception — a con- 
ception of what might be : for, by con- 
trasting actual with ideal justice, we are 
enabled to esca'pe the bonds of the opinions 
of a particular time, and to look upon such 
opinions and views objectively and in- 
dependently. Yet it is certainly a foolish 
proceeding to consider an ideal, deduced 
principally from conceptions and opinions 
of the present, to be a standard by which 
to measure the value of historical events 
of all times, sitting in judgment over the 
great names of the past with the air of an 
inspector of morals. The office of the his- 
torian as judge of the dead is quite differ- 
ently constitut'^d. Every age must be 
judged in accordance with the relation 
which it bears to the totality of develop- 
ment ; and every historical personage is 
to be looked upon as a bearer of the spirit 
of his day, as a servant of the ideas of his 

_. , _,, time. Thus it is quite as 
Right Way , ^ 1 

* . wrong to pronounce moral 

lO V lew , 1 r 1 * 

„. ^ censure on the men ol his- 

History , ... , . , 

tory, as it is wrong to judge 
an era merely according to its good or 
evil characteristics. A period must be 
e^;timated according to what it has 
either directly or indirectly accomplished 
for mankind. 

There are common factors of civilisation 
shared by nations themselves, through 
which many contradictions disappear. 
The religious civilisatio-is of Christian- 
ity, Mohammedanism. Judaism, Buddh- 
ism and Confucianism have been the 
determining factors of the intellectual 
and emotional life, even influencing the 
course of events, in vast regions. And 
thus it is also comprehensible that in 
the judicial life of nations there is an 
endeavour for a closer approach, and 
also the existence of equalising tendencies. 
In spite of countless variations in detail, 
there is a certain unity of law in the 
entire Mohammedan world ; and although 
the hope of establishing the unity of 
Roman canonistic law over the whole 
of Christendom has not been realised 
none the less it was a tremendous idea : 
that of a universal empire founded on the 
Roman law of the imperators, and placed 
under the rule of the German emperor, thus 

ensuring the continuance of the law of the 
Roman people — an idea that swayed the 
intellects of the Middle Ages up to the 
fourteenth, even to the fifteenth century, 
and according to which the emperor would 
have been the head of all Europe, the other 
sovereigns merely his vassals or fief-holders. 
This idea, once advocated by such a 
great spirit as that of Dante, 
onccp ion j^^^^^ ^-j^.^ many others, passed 

»i •. J »ir I J into oblivion ; and in its 
United World , , .' ^, 

place has arisen the con- 
ception of independent laws of nations. 
Yet the original idea has had great 
influence : it has led to a close union of 
Christian peoples ; it opened a way for 
Roman law to become universal law, 
although, to be sure, English law, com- 
pletely independent of that of Rome, 
has grown to unparalleled proportions as 
a universal system, entirely by reason of 
the marvellous success of the English 
people as colonists. Likewise international 
commerce will of itself lead to a unifica- 
tion of mercantile, admiralty, copyright, 
and patent law. 

Then the idea of an international league 
must develop, arising from the idea of the 
unity of Christian nations. We have 
advanced a great distance beyond the 
time when every foreigner was con- 
sidered an enemy, and when all foreign 
phenomena were looked upon as strange 
or with antipathy. Rules for inter- 
national commerce are developed ; state 
alliances are entered into for the further- 
ance of common interests and for the 
preservation of peace. Many tasks 
which in former times would have 
been executed by the empire are now 
undertaken by international associations ; 
and the time for the establishment of 
international courts of arbitration for the 
adjustment of differences between states 
is already approaching. 

It also seems probable that states will 

unite to form political organisations, 

^ wholly or partially renouncing 

Common xt, • ^ -i- ti 

, . . - their separate Tjositions. Ihus 
Interests of .. ^ -n i ^ i . 

j^ . . . nations will be replaced by a 

federal state, and a multitude 

of unifying ideas which would otherwise 

be accomplished with difficulty will come 

to easy realisation. Federal states were 

already in existence during the times of 

patriarchal communities : an especially 

striking example is that of the admirably 

constituted federation of the Iroquois 




The vision of no man may pierce 
through to the ultimate end of the pro- 
cesses of history, and to advance hypotheses 
is a vain endeavour — quite as vain as it 
would be to expect Plato to have foretold 
the life of modern civilisation or the im- 
perial idea of mediaeval times, or Dante to 
have foreseen modern industrialism or the 

,, . , character of industrial peoples. 
Universal i- j . ■ 

_, . . 1 0-day we are more certam 

, ^ ,, than ever that no process of 

of Culture , , , . ^ . , 

development, however simple 

it may have been, has ever taken place 
according to a fixed model ; all develop- 
ments have had their own individualities 
according to place and to time. Thus we 
must forego discussion of the future. 

However, there is another point of view. 
Development of nations as well as of 
individuals leads either to progress or to 
decay. No people may hope to live 
eternally ; and how many acquisitions 
already gained will be lost in the future it 
is impossible to say. If a nation declines, 
it either becomes extinct or is annihilated 
by another state ; it becomes identitied 
with the newer nation, and disappears 
with its own character ; thus its civilisa- 
tion may also disappear. This is a serious 
possibility. It is the Medusa head of the 
world's history which we must face — and 
without stiffening to stone. 

There is one truth, however, the know- 
ledge of which fills us with hope for the 
future : it is the fact that the results of 
development and civilisation are often 
transfused from one people to another, 
so that a given development need not 
start again from the very beginning. 
This is owing to the capacity which races 
have for absorbing or borrowing civilisa- 
tions. Absorption of culture is by no 
means universal ; it does not prevent the 
occasional disappearance of civilisation, 
for every civilisation has before it at least 
the possibility of death. Nevertheless the 
transmission and assimilation of culture 
... , is constantly taking place. 

„ , Ihere are various ways in 

Peoples on i ■ u ■*. i u u^ 

One Another ^'i'^l^'^ '\ ^^^y ^'^ brought 
al)out. A conquering nation 
may bring its own civilisation with it to the 
conquered ; culture is often forced upon 
the latter by coercive measures. The con- 
querors may acquire culture from the 
vanquished ; or assimilation of culture 
may come about without the subjection 
of a people, through the unconscious 
adoption of external customs and internal 

modes of thought. Finally, culture may 
be borrowed consciously from one nation 
by another, the one state becoming con- 
vinced of the outward advantages and inner 
significance of the foreign civilisation. 

In this way the problem of develop- 
ment becomes very complicated ; many 
institutions of vanished races thus con- 
tinue to live on. Certainly the race that 
acquires a foreign civilisation must, among 
other things, be so constituted in its 
motives and aspirations as to lose the very 
nerves of its being, its very stability, in 
order that, intoxicated with the joy of a 
new life, all traces of its past existence may 
be allowed to break up and disappear. 
On the other hand, many a promising 
germ of culture possessed by a vigorous 
people may come to grief, owing to the 
influence of acquisitions from without. 
But, in return, a race that knows how to 
assimilate foreign culture may obtain a 
civilisation of such efficiency as it would 
never before have been capable of attain- 
ing, by reason of the fact that its power 
is established on a recently acquired basis, 
and because it has been spared a multitude 
of faltering experiments. 
rogress Civilisation may be mutu- 

P J, ally obtained from reciprocal 

action, nations both giving and 
taking. Such a relation naturally arises 
when states enter into intercourse with 
one another, when they have become 
acquainted with one another's various 
institutions and are able to recognise the 
great merits of foreign organisations and 
the defects of their own. Especially the 
world's commerce, in which every nation 
wishes to remain a competitor, compels 
towards mutual acceptance of custom and 
law ; no nation desires to be left behind ; 
and each discovers that it will fall to the 
rear unless it borrow certain things from 
the others. Such reciprocal action will 
be the more effective the more like nations 
are to one another, the better they under- 
stand each other, and the more often they 
succeed not only in adopting the outward 
forms, but in absorbing the jirinciples of 
foreign institutions into their own beings. 

Thus we may hope that even if the 
nations of to day decay and disappear, 
the labour of the world's progress will not 
be lost ; it will constantly reappear in new 
communities which may rejoice in that 
for which we have striven, and which we 
have acquired by the exertion of our own 
powers, Joseph Kohler 





The Temple of Diana at Ephesus speaks: 
The sun standeth in the high places of the 

Full of brightness and mirth is the dawn. 
But my loveliness is not shamed by him, 
Neither is it diiimied ; 
For, behold ;ind consider well, the sun is not 

more than thought. [shall be : 

That which yesterday I was, to-morrow I 
I live : I wear u pon my brow the moving ages 

and the spirit of man, 
And genius, and art : 
These things are more wonderful than the sun. 

Senseless is the stone in the earth, [night ; 

And the granite is not more than the formless 

The alabaster knoweth not the dayspring. 

Porphyry is blind, 

And marble is without understanding ; 

Bui let Ctesiphon pass, 

Or Daedalus, or Chresiphon, 

And fix his eyes, full of the divine flash. 

Upon the ground where the rocks slumber, 

And lo, they awake, they tremble, they are 

stricken with understanding ; [eyelid, 

The granite, lifting some vague and troubled 
Struggleth to behold his master : 
The rock feeletli within himself the breathing 

of the unhewn statue, [darkness. 

The marble stirs in the midnight of his 
Because that he is aware of the soul of a man. 
The buried alabaster desireth to rise up from 

the grave. 
Earth shudders, it trembleth violently. 
It feels upon it the will of a man ; 
And behold, beneath the gaze of him who 

passeth with creation in his eyes. 
From the deeps of the sacred earth 
The suljlime palace comes forth and mounts 


When she has made an end, the Gardens of 
Babylon sing their laud of Semiramis : 
Glory to Semiramis, [bridges 

Who reared us up on the arches of the great 
Whose span outraceth lime. 
This great ([ueen was wont to delight herself 

btrneath our floating branches ; 
In the midst ol the ruin of two empires 
She laughed in our groves, 
She was happy in our green places ; 
She conquered the kings of far countries. 
And when the man had humbled himself 
Lo, she would go upon her way, [before her. 
She would come hither. 

She would sigh gleefully under our branches, 
Very pleasantly would she lie down on the 

skins of panthers. 

And alter the Gardens have sung, there is heard 
the voice of the Mausoleum of Halicamassus : 
I am the monument of a heart that knew 

itself infinite ; 
Death is not death beneath my dome of blue, 
Beneath my dome, death is victory, 
Death is lite. [precious stone 

Here hath death so much of gold and of 
That he boasteth himself thereof ; 
Behold, 1 am the burial which is a pageant, 
And the sepulchre which is a palace. 

Then, like a great thunder, the voice of Jupiter : 
I am the Olympian, 
The lord of the muses ; 

All that which hath life, or breath, or love, or 
thought, or growth. 

of Victor Hugo 


Groweth, thinketh, liveth, loveth, and breatheih 
in me. _ [feet 

The incense of supplication which rises to my 

Trembles with terror and affright ; 

The slope of my brow doth touch the a,\is of 
the world ; 

The tempest speaketh with me before he 
troubles the waters ; 

I endure without age ; 

I exist without pang ; 

Unto me one thing only is impossible — 

To die. 

After Jupiter, from the island of Pharos sounds 
the voice of the great Lighthouse : 
In the midst of the mighty waters 
I tarry for the ceasing of the centuries. 
Sostratus the Cnitlian built me. 
He built me that there might be thrown 
Across the rolling waters, 
And through the darkness where lurketh 

A rebuke to the lovely vanity of the stars. 

After the Lighthouse, the Colossus at Rhodes : 
I am the true Lighthouse. 
Rhodes lies at my threshold. 
Before the steadfast gaze of my un.sleeping eves 
Winter maketh white the mountains. [mists; 
I behold the deep waters in their cavernous 
I am the sentinel whom none Cometh to relieve ; 
I look forth upon the co "ing of the night, 
And upon the coming of the dawn 
I behold the lifting of the mists, 
I behold the terror of the sea. 
With the immense dreaming of Colossus. 

And last speaks the Pyramid of Cheops : 
The desert, spread like a table, lieth beneath 

my foundations. 
Lo, from some mysterious gateway of the night 
I lift unto heaven my stair of terror. 
And out of^the darkness itself seemeth it that I 

am builded. 
The sphinxes dropped their broods in the 

caverns; [sighing; 

The centuries went by ; the winds passed 
And Cheops said again : I am eternal ! 

Then, after a profound silence, the creeping 
worm of the sepulchre lifteth up his voice : 

I say unto you Buildings that ye rise, and 

arise still more ! 
Set ye up a stone above a stone. 
Above cities lift yourselves up, O temples ! 
Lift up yourselves, like Babel ! 
Column r.bove column ; 
Higher and yet higher ; 
Let palaces arise upon the hollow places 
And let nothingness be fastened upon the 

foundations of night ! 

Ye are like smoke, 

Therefore exalt yourselves with the clouds! 

Set not an end to your boasting ! 

Mount up, mount up, for ever ! [wait. 

Lo, in the dust beneath your feet I crawl and 

Small am I, O mighty ones, 

And yet I say unto you, 

From the going down of the sun to his rising up, 

From all the corners of the earth. 

Everything which haih substance and which 

The thing which is sorrowful, [hath being. 

And the thing which is glad. 

Descend unto me. [for ever, 

And I only have strength, and I only endure 

For behold, I am death. 



The Hanging: Gardens have been attributed to Semiramis. although Nebuchadnezzar is also said to have built them 
to please one of his wives, who coming; from a hillv couut.y to Baby. on in the midst of a vast and barren plain 
siifhed for some reminder of the leafy b-auty of her old home. The gardens, built in the form of a ^auar^ 
extending some 700 feet on each side, rose to a great heigiit in terrace uuon terrace supported by massive 
pillars. A remarkable hydraulic system kept their multitudinous plants and trees in almost perpetual verdure. 




For six thousand years the Pyramids have thrown their shadow across the sands of Egypt. The stone of which they 
are bint wmdd make a great wall from Cairo to New York; the white marble which covered them would have built 
more k ne's palaces than Egypt has had need of. The building of the Great Pyramid emp oyed ,00,000 slaves for 30 years, 
Sh^g^eomerical perfection of it is a marvel to this day. Khufu, or Cheops, who built the Great Pyramid-probably 
as his tlmb-reigneS about 4700 B.C., so that the pyramid is more than three times as old as the Roman Empire. 






fmsimi ^0Lii^^ !- \4i^ti,»j..%- 

- ■ ^^^iifcji- 'i i-.j-j ii j i if tti gi i,, ' ^ 


^aww—»wp»agg» lMyiJLi J i '!- " ^ i ij.!ig affw(pwi 


This famous monument of antiquity was erected in tlie year 354 B.C. to the memory of King: Mausolus of Caria 
by Ills widow Artemisia, at Halicarnassus, the beautiful Greek city-colony on the shores of the iEgean Sea. Some 
idea of its sizf; will be gathered from the fact that it was surrounded by an esplanade which measured over 
three hundred feet on each side, while its total height was nearly a hundred and fifty le-'t. The statue existed almost 
intact until the fourth century of our own era, and was finally destroyed in the Middle Ages by the Turks. 


This short-lived achievement of ancient ar' -' d rr- n al^ 
the sun-god raised in the island of Rhodp 'i v,' 

it stood. Dedicated to Apollo, who wa 
made from the engines of war which thr 
An earthquake in 224 B.C. destroyed i' 


vas t^ 
juld !■ 

largr of a hundred statues to 

"MS the place where 

I'cetes, it was 

'inary statue. 

•■ Rhodes. 


"Great is Diana of the Ephesians." Her temp, e was burned down in 356 B C , and subsequent to that year the great 
temple famf-d in history was erected by tlie lunians. It is said to iiave taken 220 ypars to constiuct and measured 
about 400 feet in length and 200 feet in width, while it contained no fewer tlian 127 Ionic columns nearly 65 feet high. 
The temple was despoiled by Nero and destroyed by the Goths iu 262 A.D., but some of its ruins still remain. 


The world-fa^moiis statue of Jupiter was the work of the great sculptor Phidias It measured 43 feet in heie-ht above 
the base, i he body of tne god was carved from ivory, and the drapery was of soHd g-old. No other statue 
of such magnitude, of snch artistic perfection, or of such precious material, ha , b^en known to history Among- 
the ruins of the temple are still to be seen the remains of the black marble mosaic on which the statue stooci 


On the island of Pharos, close to Alexandria, stood the famous lighthouse erectoci by Ptolemy Philadelphus about 280 B.C. 
Constructed of white marble, in a series of vast stages of vaulted masonry, it reached the height of 520 feet, and m its 
summit burned ni^ht and day, an immense beacon fire of wood, which could be seen 30 miles at sea. The lighthouse was 
gradually destroyed by earthquakes and the action of the sea, but existed in some condition to the end ol the 13th century. 






TN looking back to the beginning of 
A civilisation in any country, we have 
to deal with the physical changes which 
the land has undergone, and to con- 
sider the conditions which promoted or 
hindered the advance of its inhabitants. 
The nature of a country largely rules 
the nature of its people, both bodily 
and mentally ; and it may even be true 
that, if sufficient time be given, the same 
character and structure will always be 
produced by equal conditions. 

From historical records, and the ceme- 
teries that have been examined, it appears 
that the beginning of a continuous civil- 
isation in Egypt must be set as far back 
as about 10,000 years ago, or 
8000 B.C. The question then 


Years ago 

is, how far the condition of the 
country at that age was similar 
to that now seen ? The present state 
is quite new, geographically speaking, as 
the deposit of mud by the Nile, jn-ovid- 
ing a suitable soil, is only a matter of a 
few thousand years. The' accumulation of 
deposit is about 5 in. in a century (47 at 
Naukratis, 5-1 at Abusir, 5-5 at Cano) ; 
and the depth of it is not less than 26 ft., 
and varies in different places down to 
62 ft. The lower depths are, however, 
often mixed with sand beds, and do not 
show the continuous mud deposit ; hence 
the average depth of 39 ft. is too large, 
and if we" accept 35 ft., it will certamly 
be a full estimate. At the average rate 
of deposit, this would be formed in 6,000 
years. But, on the other hand, the deposit 

may have been slower at the beginning, 
and hence the age would be earUer. Also, 
the full depth may be greater, owing to 
some borings hitting on ground which was 
originally above the river. Hence the 
extreme limits of age of Nile 
How we deposit in different positions 
can Fix ^^.^ perhaps 7,000 to 15,000 
the Date ^^^^^^ ^^^ probably about 
10,000 years may be a hkely age for the 
beginning of continuous Nile mud strati- 
fication. Hence it is clear that the start 
of the civilisation was about contemporary 
with the first cultivable ground. 

Earlier than the Nile deposits there 

must have been some rainfall, enough to 

keep up the volume of the river, and to 

prevent its slackening, so as to deposit 

its burden. We must picture, then, the 

country as having enough rainfall for a 

scanty vegetation in the valleys, while 

the Nile flowed down a mighty stream, 

filling the whole bed as it now does in 

flood, and bearing its mud out to the sea, 

except in some backwaters which were 

shoaling uj). Such a land would support 

a small population of hunters, who 

followed the desert game and snared 

hippopotami in the marshes. 

The Nile had been in course 

of recession for a long period 

before it began to rise again 

by filling its bed. The gravels high 

above the present Nile contain flints 

flaked by human work ; much as in Sinai 

such flakes are found, deep in the filling 

of the valleys which belong to a pluvial 


Age in 


The First 
Dwellers in 
the Land 

period. Yet after the Nile had retreated 
down to the present level, man appears 
to have been still in the Palaeolithic stage, 
as freshly flaked, unrolled flints have 
been found at the lowest surface level of 
the desert. As the country, while drying 
up, and before mud deposits were laid 
down, would have only been suited for 
occupation by hunters, it seems 
probable that Palaeohthic Man 
had continued in Egypt until 
the beginning of the Nile de- 
posits — that is to say, till the beginning 
of the continuous civilisation as dis- 
covered in the cemeteries. 

Bushman Type. On turning to the 
remains of the earliest burials, we find 
that in many cases female figures of the 
Bushman — or more precisely Koranna — 
type, were placed in the graves ; while at 
the same time long, slender figures of the 
European type are also found. The 
inference is that the Palaeolithic race of 
the Koranna type was known to the 
earhest civilised race in Egypt, and that 
they were being expelled and exterminated, 
as only female figures are found — repre- 
senting captive slave women — and even 
these soon disappear. Thus it would 
seem that Egypt, as an almost desert 
region, before the formation of the cultiv- 
able mud flats, was the last home on the 
Mediterranean of the hunters who con- 
tinued in the Palaeohthic stage. The 
physical type of the figures which we can 
attribute to this earliest population has 
the Bushman characteristics of fatness 
of the thighs and hips, with a deep 
lumbar curve ; and a line of whisker 
covers the jaws of the 
female figures, akin to 
the fur on the bodies 
of women on the Bras- 
sempouy and Lan- 
gerie - Basse ivory 
carvings. This indi- 
cates that they be- 
longed to a cold 
climate, and had not 
been developed in 
Egypt. As, however, 
had certainly 
in the Nile 
for long age- 
this northern indica- 
tion points to a com- 
paratively recent 
invasion from a colder 
to a warmer climate. 




As female figures of the Bushman type are found in the 
very earhest Egyptian graves, it is tliought that this 
race was native to the country and was gradually 
expelled by the first civilised people. The photograph 
illustrates one of the figtires taken from a grave. 

such as has been the rule throughout 
historical times. 

Prehistoric Period. The beginning 
of the continuous civilisation of the 
country must be placed at about 8000 B.C. 
The written history extends back to the 
first dynasty, and places that at 5500 B.C., 
and this is checked at the sixth, twelfth, 
and eighteenth dynasties by records of 
the rising of Sirius, and of the seasons in 
the shifting year, which agree to this 
dating in general. For the length of the 
prehistoric age before these written records 
there is no exact dating. But, as in a given 
district of Egypt, where all the desert has 
been searched, the prehistoric graves are 
about as numerous as those made during 
the six thousand years of the historic 
time, at least 2,000 or 3,000 years must 
be allowed. The amount of change in 
every kind of production during this age 
is considerable ; and as we can trace two 
cycles of civilisation, which usually occupy 
about 1,500 years each in the later times, 
it is likely that 2,500 years is too little 
rather than too long a period. As no 
definite scale of years can be used, the 
dating of the graves of this age is treated 
as a matter of sequence. From 
a careful statistical classing of 
the pottery, it is practicable to 
put about a thousand of the 
fullest graves into their original order ; 
this series is then divided into 50 equal 
parts, and these are numbered from 
30 to 80. Thus, sequence date 30 is the 
earliest type of graves yet found, and 
s.D. 80 is of the age of Mena, the founder 
of the first dynasty. The sequence dates 
are given below for 
each stage of the pre- 
historic times. 

Earliest Burials. 
The earliest graves 
found are shallow cir- 
cular hollows on the 
desert, about 30 in. 
across, and a foot 
deep. The body lies 
closely doubled up, 
wrap[)ed in goat-skins. 
There are very few 
objects placed with 
these burials; a 
single cup of pottery, 
red, with black top ; 
rarely, a slate palette 
for grinding face- 
paint ; and, in one 






grave, a copper pin to fasten the goat- 
skin. Pottery was in a simple stage, and 
weaving was quite unknown. These graves 
are classed as sequence date 30. 

First Civilisation. The next period 
is that of the white patterns on red (s.d. 31 
to 34). This use of lines of raised white slip 
is the same as on the present Kabjde 
pottery, and the patterns are so closely 
alike on the ancient and modern that this 
forms a strong evidence for a Western 
connection of the 





lines of the civili- 
sation become 
clearly marked 
The fine flint chip 
ping with delicate 
serrated edges ; the 
polished red pot- 


circular The pottery of the first period of Egyptian civilisation is character- 

s.D. 40 and 44. These changes serve to 
stamp the point of the change, but it is 
in other respects that the differences 
are most visible. The black-topped pottery, 
red polished, and fancy forms of pottery 
cease to develop after 43, whereas the 
decorated pottery, with brown line patterns 
on buff ware, is scarcely known till 40, 
and the late class of pottery begins at 43. 
In the stone vases the forms of tall tubular 
shape, with handles, cease at 40, and the 
barrel forms begin 
at 39, and are 
dominant by 42. 
In flint work the 
various new types 
begin from 39 to 
45 ; the disc mace 
dies out about 40, 
and the pear- 
shaped mace be- 
gins at 42. In the 

tery, of . . 

1 f f^^^^, ised by raised white Hnes on a red body, and from the fact that it ^i„j.„ ^^1^+ + ^r, ^1^ 

ana OI lancy closely resembles the pottery of the Kabyle people, who live in Slate paieiieS OIQ 

forms ; the tall North Africa to-day it is thought the first Egyptian civilisation typCS Vauish and 

' ^ ma V have rnme irom the wp.«:t_ Xhp<;e #»-yamnlp<= nr#i h#iforp"7nnr» R P '^ r 

may have come from the west. These examples are before 7000 B.C 


round- bottomed 

stone vases ; the slate palettes for face-paint, 
of animal forms and of rhombic shape ; the 
use of sandals; the ivory combs with animal 
figures ; the disc-shaped mace-head — all of 
these were in use with the white cross-lined 
pottery, and stamp the general type of 
_ the beginning of the civilisa- 

EmerTaTom *^°"- ^^ ^^^'^ ^^^°'^ ."^ 
^ ™Y/-"1^ *" "* a settled population, with 
the Mists . f. /• , ' 

strong artistic taste in 

handicraft, but not in copying Nature ; 

with patience for very long and skilful 

work, and probably organised, therefore, 

under chiefs who commissioned such 

labour ; yet with sufficient general demand 

for fine things to have raised hand pottery 

to its highest level ; with strong beliefs 

about a future life, as shown by the uniform 

detail of the position of the body and the 

nature of the offerings in the grave ; 

with the arts of spinning and weaving ; 

fairly clothed, as shown by the use of 

sandals ; fighters, with finely-made and 

treasured weapons ; with the use of 

personal marks for property — altogether 

much in the stage which we now see in 

the highest races of the Pacific or Central 


Eastern Invasion. This civilisation 

had lasted for a few centuries when we 

see a change come over it. On searching 

the types of pottery we see many new 

forms arising from s.d. 38 to 43, while 

many older types disappear between 

new ones arise 
37 to 42. The same is seen in 
ivories. Foreign intercourse was increased, 
as silver (from Asia Minor ?), lazAili 
(from Persia ?), serpentine and haematite 
(from Sinai ?) all come into use from 
38 to 40. In copying Nature, the steato- 
pygous figures of the Bushman type 
are only found before 38, and human 
figure amulets are known from down to 
44. Animal figure amulets begin in 45. 
Multiple burials in graves are common 
down to 40, and continue till 43 ; only 
single burials are known later. 

The racial changes that are thus in- 
dicated by these widespread differences 
can only be traced by the different pro- 
ducts. The white hne pottery charac- 
teristic of the earliest people is closely 
like that of the Kabyles, and the simi- 
larity of the skull measurements show that 
there is no bar to accepting the con- 
nection with the North African race. 
But the details of the new people, using 
animal amulets, a face veil, wavy-handled 
pottery like that of early Pales- 
tine, and the Asiatic silver 
and lazuli, all point to their 
coming in from the East. This 
change may be further linked with the 
religious traditions. This later myth- 
ology taught that Osiris had found the 
Egyptians in a brutal existence, and he 
had taught them agriculture, laws, and 
worship ; this appears to be the tradition 


the East 


of the bringing in of cultivation by the 
earhest civilisation at s.D. 30. His wor- 
shippers were allied with those of Isis, who 
were a kindred tribe. Hence Osiris is said 
to have married his sister Isis. The myth 
further shows that this civilisation was 
attacked treacherously by the tribe who 
worshipped Set, in confederacy with an 
Ethiopian queen, and they suc- 
-. * ceeded in suppressing the wor- 

y o ogy gj^jp ^£ Osiris and removing 

*^* his remains to Byblos in Syria. 

This seems to agree to the influx of Asiatic 
influence, about s.D. 40, which we have 
noticed above. The correction of the calen- 
dar from 360 to 365 days, is attributed to 
the beginning of the civilisation (at s.D. 
30) by the myth that Osiris and his cycle 
of gods were born on the extra five days. 

Second Civilisation. The second pre- 
historic civilisation, of which we have 

stone vases were wrought ; and that by 
the form of the vase they were probably 
the same people as the later prehistoric 
stock. Yet, on the other hand, we occa- 
sionally find pottery vases of that people 
in the earlier prehistoric age, so that they 
must have been in touch with Egypt 
throughout. The more likely source for 
them was the mountainous region, where 
snow sometimes lies, between Egypt and 
the Red Sea ; and certainly this was the 
source of the rare igneous rocks used for 
the prehistoric vases. 

The general conclusion would be, then, 
that a people occupying the mountainous 
region east of Egypt had an independent 
civilisation, and were in touch with the 
early prehistoric people of the Nile valley. 
Then about s.d. 38 they began to push 
down into Egypt, and fully entered it 
by s.D. 44, bringing with them various 


The pottery of the second period of Egryptian civilisation is rich in representations of prehistoric ships. The vessels 
are shown with many oars, and the cabins are placed araidship with a gangway between. It is gathered from these 
crude drawings that in prehistoric times there was a considerable shipping trade along the coast of Egypt. 

traced the Asiatic source, is specially 
marked by the use of a hard buff pottery, 
on which designs are often painted in 
l)rown outline. The art of these has no 
connection with that of the early white 
line designs; the habit of covering figures 
with cross lines, and the imitation of 
hasket-work, have entirely disap{)eared ; 
and, on the contrary, the plant, ostrich, 
and ship designs are quite new. 

What, then, were the connections of 
these peo})le ? One indication is gleaned 
from carvings at the close of the i)re- 
liistoric ;ige. Two trilnitaries of the new 
king of I'-gvpt are shown bearing stone 
vases of the style of those of the second 
prehistoric civilisation, s.D. 45-75. They 
have large pointed noses, and wear y)ig- 
tails, and another tributary of the same 
tyi^e wears a long robe. Hence we may see 
that they came from a cold region where 


different points of their own civilisation, 
and expelling the Osiris worship in favour 
of Set, who was their god. They probably 
brought in the Semitic elements to the 
Egyptian language, along with the other 
Asiatic connections. 

Shipping. Under this new order of 
things we see much more foreign and mari- 
time connection. The introduction of 
silver from Asia, of lazuli from 
Persia, of hctmatite from Sinai, 
of serpentine from the Aral)ian 
desert— all show this. On the we .see the starfish jxiinted, and one 
of the most usual decorations was the 
figure of a great galley or ship. These 
shijxs are shown with oars on the pottery 
vases, and without oars or sails on the 
tomb paintings. From the proportion of 
the figures they appear to have been as 
much as 50 ft. long, and this is confirmed 

Fleet of 




by the oars, which number up to sixty. 
Neither indication is exact ; but the ten- 
dency would be to exaggerate the size of 
the figures, and certainly not to diminish 
them, and so aggrandise the ship. The 
shipbuilding in the early history may 
prepare us for the earlier rise of such 
work, when we read of Senefru building 
sixty ships of a hundred feet long in one 

These prehistoric ships were all of one 
pattern. Amidships were the large cabins, 
and there was no poop or forecastle struc- 
ture, probably because of the want of 
support fore and aft, the flotation being 
mainly in the middle. The two cabins 
v/ere separated by a broad gangway across 
the boat, and joined above the gangway 
by a bridge from roof to roof. Lesser 
cabins projected fore and aft from the 
main cabins. On the roofs were rails at 
the corners, so as to secure top cargo 
without getting in the way of loading it up. 
In a large ship there was an upper cabin 
on the hinder main one, a light shelter 
shaded with branches. From the back 
of the hinder cabin stood up a tall pole 
bearing a solid object as a 
What the c;tandard, which we shall notice 

Were Like 

below. At the stern was the 
steersman seated by an upright 
post, to which was probably lashed the 
steering oar, as in the historical boats. In 
the bows was a low platform, with a rail 
round it, for the look-out, shaded with 
branches. The cabins were narrower than 
the beam, and left free space for rowers 
on each side. 

Foreign Imports. Vessels of this large 
size certainly imply a corresponding 
importance of commerce. We have noted 
already the foreign imports into Egypt ; and 
others imply more distinctly a sea inter- 
course. From s.D. 33 down to s.d. 68 there 
is found black pottery with incised basket- 
work patterns [page 238] filled in with 
white. It is always rare, only occurring in 
less than i per cent, of the graves, and in 
only one case was there more than a solitary 
example. It is entirely disconnected from 
the Egyptian types, but it is closely akin 
to pottery found on the north of the 
Mediterranean, in Spain (Ciempozuelos), 
in Bosnia, and in the earhest town of Troy. 
At the close of the prehistoric age the 
black pottery of the late Neohthic city of 
Knossos is found in the lowest levels of 
the temple at Abydos. And in the royal 
tombs of the first dynasty there many 

vases and pieces have been found which 
are clearly of the earliest age of painted 
iEgean pottery. Considering that the bulk 
of the trade must have been for perish- 
able goods — oil and skins from Crete and 
Greece, corn and beans from Egypt — 
it is not to be expected that a great 
amount of breakable pottery would pass 
and be preserved in burials. 
Trade There are, moreover, some 

m Those ^^jjj^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ besides the 

^^® northern pottery. Throughout 

the later prehistoric age emery was regu- 
larly in use for all the grinding and 
polishing of stone vases and of carnelian 
beads ; and so common that one excelsior 
spirit in search of a tour de force had even 
cut a vase out of block emery, as being the 
hardest known material, this emery, so 
far as we know, must have come from 
Smyrna. Again, the gold of the first 
dynasty contains a large amount of silver. 
This points to its source from the Pactolus 
region, where electrum was found, rather 
than from Nubia, where the gold is free 
from silver. 


we look at the evidence of the ships them- 
selves we see that it points to their having 
been used at sea rather than on the Nile. 
It is impossible to row a ship up against 
the Nile stream, which runs at three miles 
an hour, and sailing or towing is the only 
way to go southward in Egypt. But in 
only one instance is a ship with a sail repre- 
sented, while there are many dozens of 
figures of rowing vessels. The galley has 
always been the type of business ship on 
the Mediterranean. All through the clas- 
sical wars the rowing galley was the main- 
stay of power. The Homeric catalogue of 
ships, the Phoenician coinage, the Assyrian 
sculptures, the Greek fleets, the Cartha- 
ginian navy and its destroyers of Rome, 
the pirates of Liburnia and Lycia, down to 
the Venetian fleet and the French galleys 
of a couple of centuries ago, all show 

the dominance of the oar. 
l°^\ The nature of the standards 

Ensigns ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ carried by the shii:»s 
Carried ^^,^^ been variously interpreted. 
We can distinguish the elephant, bird 
on a crescent, and fish ; the two or 
four pair of horns, the Ijush, and the 
branch ; the rows of two, three, four, or 
five hills ; the crossed arrows, and the 
harpoon, besides other forms which we 
cannot identify. The question is, what view 
will account "for these most completely ? 



(i) Slate palettes on which paint for rubbing round the eyes was ground ; (z) adze heads and harpoons, the 
harpoons at the sides being of bone, the oth'-rs of copper; (3) beautifully flaked flint knife; (4) serpent amulet 
of stone ; (5) maces of quartzose rock, very effective weapons ; (6) forked lances of flint ; (7) combs 
of ivory ; (8) vases carved Irom hard stone ; (9) black incised pottery, a foreign import into early Egypt. 



Some have thought they were emblems 
of gods, and that the boats were sacred 
to divinities ; but there are many which 
cannot be thus explained. Others have 
thought that they indicated tribes ; 
Imt the rarity of repetitions, and the 
absence of any duplicates together, are 
against this. Marks of personal ownership 
have been suggested; and this is not 
impossible, as they might be well dedicated 
to special gods. But the prominence of 
the groups of hills as signs agrees best with 
their being marks of the ports from which 
they hailed ; the divine emblems would 
naturally be those of the god of the port, 
the number of hills would be very likely to 
distinguish different ports, the elephant, 
the bush, or the fish might well be the mark 
of a port. And the parallel in later times 
of such being distinctive ensigns for ports 
— as in the ensign of Gades found in the 
Red Sea— agrees to this usage. The carry- 
ing of a port ensign in an age of independent 
city-states was equivalent to a national 
flag in later times ; 
and it was essential 
for showing friends 
or foes. 

We have dwelt at 
length on the detail 
of this shipping, as 
it is the most im- 
portant subject for 
showing the extent 
and character of the 
early civilisation. It 
takes two to trade as 
well as to quarrel ; 
and these large ships 
were not rowed about the Mediterranean 
unless there was a paying trade to be done 
on those coasts, a people civilised enough 
to produce goods that were wanted and to 
require foreign stuff in exchange, and a 
society stable enough to enable goods to be 
stocked in bulk and traded without any 
serious risk of fraud or force. 

Hunting. The main occupation repre- 
sented in the prehistoric paintings is hunt- 
ing. The bow and arrow was 
used. The bow was a single 
piece of wood, painted red and 
covered with zigzag white lines ; 
the arrow was of reed, with a point several 
inches long of hard wood. The forked lance 
of flint was also a favourite weapon [p. 238] ; 
it was inserted at the end of a wooden 
shaft, which was controlled by a long thong 
of leather ending in alabaster knobs which 



There has been much speculation as to the significance 
of the standards carried by the most ar>rient of the 
Egyptian vessels, as recorded on pcti-ery and else- 
where. Some examples of these standards are here 
given. The most reasonable supposition is that these 
devices indicated the port from which the vessel sailed. 

kept it from entirely flying trom the fingers. 
Thus the lance could be thrown by a man 
in ambush to cut the legs of a gazelle, 
while, if it missed, it was jerked back 
by the elastic thong, and so saved from 
breaking the delicate edge of flint. These 
forked lances are found throughout nearly 
all the prehistoric time ; and they con- 
tinued in use in North Africa 
Mode of ^jj^ ^^g Roman Age, when Com- 
modus borrowed thence their 
Hunting ^gg ^^^ hunting the ostrich. 

This lance retained by a thong was the 
parallel to the favourite harpoon used 
in fishing. Another mode of hunting was 
the trap. This is represented as being 
formed of pointed sphnts or stakes, 
lashed together like spokes of a wheel, 
with the points around a central hollow. 
Such traps to catch the legs of animals 
are used now in Africa, and an example 
was found at the Ramesseum, dating 
perhaps from the twentieth dynasty. 
Sticks or clubs were used in hunting and 
in fighting. 

Fighting. The 
earliest representa- 
tion of fighting is on 
a vase of the white 
slip on red, at the 
beginning of the pre- 
historic age. On that 
a man with long, 
wavy hair appears to 
be spearing another 
man in the side. 
Later, there are the 
fighters on the Hiera- 
konpolis tomb, at 
this hooked sticks are 


of the 

about s.D. 63. 
used, and the fighters are clad with a 
spotted animal's hide on the back. One 
man has been killed, and another is hard 
pressed, fallen on one knee. To save him- 
self from blows he has taken off the hide 
and is holding it up, thus anticipating the 
use of the shield. It seems likely that the 
Egyptian shields of hide stretched on a 
frame of sticks were directly copied 
from this use of the hide that was other- 
wise worn on the body. In another group 
a black man is holding three red captives 
bound with a black cord, while two red 
men approach him to deliver their 

The weapons mostly found are the stone 
maces [page 238]. ^ These were sharp-edged 
discs in the earlier age, a form which is 
very effective in a mixed fight, as it 






cannot be turned aside like a battleaxe, 
but must cut in whatever direction it 
fails. These maces were usually made 
of porphyry and other quartzose rocks. 
The mace used in the later age was of a 
pear shape, and this form was continued 
into the historic times, and per- 
}:)etuated in the conventional 
scene of the king striking an 
enemy, even in the latest times. 
The handle holes in these maces are 
very small, and this shows that prob- 
ably the handles were dried thongs of 
hide. Nothing else would be sufficiently 
tough and elastic. The flint dagger was 
probably also used, and certainly the 
copper dagger. A very fine ex- 
ample of this, dated to s.d. 55 or 
60, is wrought with a quadran- 
gular blade, giving the utmost 
strength and lightness, a better 
design than that of any daggers 
of the historic times. 

Tools. Tools of metal begin 
with small, square chisels of cop})er 
at S.D. 38. The intermediate 
examples have not been found till 
we reach a fine large chisel of 
copper at the close of the pre- 
historic. Adzes of copper [p. 238J 
begin at s.D. 56, or earlier, and 
increase in size down to historic 
times ; they con- 
tinued to be the 
favourite tool of 
the Egy})tians 
for both wood 
and stone work- 
ing until (ireck 
times. Borers 
are usually 
tapered, to work 
in soft material. 
Needles of cop- 
per appear as 
early as s.D. 48 

and perfection of hand work. The Scandi- 
navian flint chipping used to be regarded 
as the most perfect, but the Egyptian 
work entirely surpasses it in regularity 
and boldness. 

Stone Vases. Hard stones were largely 
employed for making vases [page 238]. 
In the earlier age tall, cylindrical forms 
were used, and in the later age barrel 
forms. The earlier material was usually 
basalt, but syenite, porphyry, alabaster 
and limestone were also used. The later 
materials included slate, grey limestone, 
breccia, serpentine, and diorite. The 
hollowing out of these vases was by 
grinding, but the outside was entirely 
_ formed by chipping and polishing 
without rotary motion. The per- 
fect regularity of the forms, and 
the line taste shown in the curves 
of the outlines, as well as the 
hardness of the material, place 
the vase working higher than any 
work of the historic times. 

Pottery. Pottery was greatly 
developed, although the wheel was 
not used, and all the forms were 
entirely modelled by hand and 
eye without mechanical guidance. 
The outlines are true and fine, the 
circularity is astonishingly regular, 
although all the trimming and 
polish runs verti- 
cally ; and it was 
as easy in such a 
mode of building 
to make oval, 
doubled, or 
square forms, all 
of which are 


The earliest representation of fighting, at the beginning of the ' J . . 

prehistoric age, shows a man with long, wavy hair, spearing pottcry iS the 

another man in the side. Later, are fighters on the Hierakonpolis Aarnr^^tfA with 

tomb, using hooked sticks and clad in piebald hides of animals. ClCCOiaieu, Willi 

brown - red lines 
on a hard buff body. The forms are 
clearly copied from those of the stone 
vases ; and the patterns are derived from 
the fossils and veins in the stone, or 
from the cordage net in which the vases 
were slung for carrying. Next 

and the fastening pins 
of copper begin with the very earliest 
graves of s.d. 30. 

Flint working was the greatest artistic 
industry of the prehistoric age. The 
surfaces were not merely reduced by hap- 
hazard flaking, but the flints were ground 
into form, and then reflaked in a mar- 
vellously regular manner with uniform 
parallel grooves [page 238]. The finishing 
of the edges by deep serrations of the 
fineness of forty to the inch, and the 
chipping out of delicate armlets of flint, 
show also the same astonishing skill 


1. 000 

Forms of 

appear aloes and other bushes, 
and figures of ships, which 
we have already noticed. 
Kows of ostriches and of hills are also 
favourite designs. 

Other pottery of this ware, but not 
decorated, has a curious type of pro- 
jecting ledge, wavy up and down, for 


handles. Beginning at s.d. 40 as a globular 
vessel, the type narrows to an upright 
jar ; by s.d. 60 the handles dwindle, 
becoming united around it as a wavy 
band of pattern ; by s.d. 70 the jar at 
last becomes a cylinder ; by s.d. 75 the 
band becomes a mere line ; and then 
after s.d. 80 — ^^in the first dynasty — the 
jar dwindles to a rough tube like a thumb- 
stall. The contents of such jars similarly 
deteriorate. At first, perfumed ointment 
was put in them, then it was covered with 
a layer of mud to retain 
the scent ; the mud in- 
creased until it was 
merely scented mud, then 
only plain mud was used, 
and lastly they were left 
empty. Beside many other 
forms of this hard 
ware there was also 
a long series of types 
in a rough brown 
pottery, which passed 
on into the ordinary 
pottery of the first 
dynasty. As there 

they only belong to the earlier age, sug- 
gesting that the hair was worn shorter 
in the second period. Decorated tusks 
of ivory are also early ; they were fastened 
on to leather work, probably to close the 
openings of water skins. Ivory spoons 
belong only to the second period, as like- 
wise do the forehead pendants of shell. 

Amulets of animal forms were fre- 
quent in the second period. They are 
generally cut in stone, carnelian, serpen- 
tine, porphyry, and coloured limestones. 
The forms are the bull's 
head (which continued in 
use into historic times), 
the hawk, serpent [p. 238], 
frog, fly, scorpion, claw, 
vase, and spear head. The 
meanings attached to 
them are quite un- 

Games are found, 
as shown by the ivory 
draughtsmen, the 
small balls or 
marbles, the stone 
gateway and nine- 


are over a thousand The later pottery of the prehistoric period is characterised pins [page 2421, the 

,..,,, , ,. r , 1 • by brown-red lines on a hard buff body. The forms ;- ^r o -r i' 

dmerent forms of this and decorations have been copied from earlier stone hgUrCS Of llOUS and 

prehistoric pottery ^^^«^' ^"^ ^'°'^ *^« "«*^ '" ""^'"^^ t^^y ^^""^ ^^"'^'^- hares, and the throw- 

A Constant 



panics it 

known, and their study has been the key to 
the whole arrangement of that age, this 
subject is a very wide one, which we have 
barely noticed here. 

Slate Palettes. A constant personal 
possession was the slab of slate upon 
which the green malachite or 
red ochre was ground for colour- 
ing around the eyes. Usually 
a brown pebble crusher accom- 
and the dead often have a 
little leather bag of malachite in the 
hands. These slate palettes begin with 
a plain rhomb form, probably de- 
rived from the natural cleavages of the 
slate rock. Well-formed animal figures 
were also carved as slate silhouettes ; the 
deer, hippopotamus, and turtle are the 
oldest, and the fish also comes into the 
earlier age. The double bird type begins 
with the second age, and all the types 
continuously degrade by repeated copy- 
ing until their original form is quite 
indistinguishable at the close of the 
prehistoric age [page 238]. 

Personal Objects. Ivory carving 
is common, mainly for long combs 
to fasten up the hair. These usually 
have an animal on the top of them ; but 


ing slips for obtaining a count as with dice. 
Clothing. The clothing of men was, 
at most, the kilt of linen, or an animal's 
hide put over the body. Often only a 
belt was worn, with three narrow strips 
hanging down in front. A usual covering 
was a belt with a sheath attached to it 
to hold up the genitals. With the pleated 
kilt was also worn a belt having apparently 
a jackal tail hung behind. On some figures 
there is merely a double rope round the 
waist. These various forms may belong 
to different peoples and periods ; but 
there are hardly enough examples to 
prove any distinctions, as the varying 
circumstance of the figures, captive and 
conquered, resting and working, rich 
and poor, in heat and in cold, may easily 
have led to the different dress that we 
see. Women are represented 
with 'a white linen petticoat 
from the waist to the feet. 
Leather was a favourite 
material for clothing, as well as for bags. 
It was painted withi patterns, and deco- 
rated with beads, reminding us of the 
North American work. 

Decay of Civilisation. All of this 
civilisation gradually decayed ; the 



the People 



pottery is seen becoming coarser, good 
work dying out in rougher copying, new 
types seldom appearing, cheaper and 
poorer objects being more usual. There 
is ground, however, for supposing that 
at some time in this age there was a 
central rule at Heliopolis. There are 
many traditions of a principality there, 
Tu r\tj which must certainly have 
The Oldest been before the dynasties. The 
^^'''^ sacred emblem preserved in 

° ^^^ the temple was the shepherd's 
crook, haq, which served for the title of 
" prince " in all later times ; the other 
sacred emblem was the whip, and these 
two were the royal emblems of Osiris. 
The title of the nome was " the princes' 
territory," and this capital retained in 
later ages the re]mtation of being the 
centre of learning and theology. And on 
the fragment of the early annals known 
as the " Palermo Stone " there is shown 

These ninepins, the gate to play through, and the 
porphyry balls were all found in a child's grave. 

a long row of kings of Lower Egypt 
before the dynasties ; these cannot have 
ruled at Memphis, as that was a new 
foundation by Menes. 

History in Mythology. Of the break- 
up of this civilisation we may trace some 
relation in the mythology. After Isis 
had recovered the body of Osiris, and the 
worship of the Osiris and Isis tribes had 
revived again from the Semitic invasion 
of Set worshippers. Set again 
H.Story as attacked the Osiris worship, 

M tholo " ''"'^ scattered the body of 
y o ogy Q^-jj-jg jj^i^Q fourteen parts in 

different places. This refers probably 
to the distribution of parts of the body 
to different districts, when it was cut 
up in the funeral ceremonies, according 
to prehistoric usage. These parts of 
Osiris were kept at sixteen nomes in 
Egypt in historic times, six in the Nile 
valley and ten in the Delta, probably 
the original nomes of the country. The 


End of 



civil discord implied in this persecution 
must have weakened the land ; and then 
came the attack by the hawk worshippers 
from the south. In the legend of Horbe- 
hudti, or Horus of Edfu, we read that 
the crocodiles and hippopotami (animals 
of Set), attacked him, and his servants, 
armed with metal weapons, smote and 
conquered them, slaying 381 before the 
city of Edfu. Then the worshippers of 
Horus allied themselves with the sun 
worshippers, and " Horbehudti changed 
his form into that of a winged sun disc," 
and " took with him Nekhebt the goddess 
of the South and Uazet, the goddess of 
the North, in the form of two serpents, 
that they might destroy their enemies 
in the bodily forms of crocodiles and 
hippopotami." That is to say, the Horus, 
Ra, and serpent goddess tribes were all 
allied to attack the domination of the Set 
tribe. They gradually drove them back, 
and " Set went forth and cried out 
horribly " ; he was finally struck down 
at Pa-rehehu. " Thus did Horbehudti, 
together with Horus, the son of 
Isis, who had made his form like 
unto that of Horbehudti." That 
is to say, the rest of the Horus 
worshippers joined the Horus-Ra party. 

The final battle and expulsion of Set 
was at Zaru on the eastern frontier of 
Egypt. This, in mythological form, seems 
to give the history of the driving out of 
the Semitic population of the later pre- 
historic age, by the dynastic race descend- 
ing from Upper Egypt, at the close of 
the prehistoric period. An actual result 
of this war, all through later times, was 
the multitude of towns named Samhud, 
or " United to Behudti," marking the 
allies of the Horus party. 

Historical Slate Palettes. Of the 
period of the conquest by the dynastic 
races, which closed the prehistoric age, 
there is an invaluable series of monu- 
ments carved on slate. These carved slates 
are the elaborated outcome of the slate 
palettes used for grinding the face paints 
throughout the prehistoric age. A similar 
elaboration of a simple article is familiar 
in modern times in the snuff-box. A 
plain receptacle of bone or wood was 
decorated, ])lated, made of silver and 
of gold, inlaid with diamonds and 
painted with the costliest miniatures, and 
yet — it was but a snuff-box. So the j)lain 
slip of slate was carved into animal out- 
lines, had animals scratched on it, then 


signs in relief upon it, and at last was 
covered with the most elaborate carvings, 
and yet — it was but a paint grinder, 
and had always the pan for colour carved 
on it, exactly of the shape of the pans on 
the painters' palettes of that age. Every 
stage can be shown, from a formless slate to 
an artistic scene in relief. There are many 
stages to be seen in the artistic development. 

A. In the prehistoric age arc the scratched 

B. The well-incised elephant is as early as 
s.D. 33-41 ; and with it are those signs in 
low relief. 

C. The high relief sign is of s.D. 60-63. 

D. On the boat slate, the drawing is much 
more detailed than on the boats of the 
Hierakonpolis tomb of s.D. 63. We can 
hardly separate this from the work of the 
artistic new-comers, and it may well be 
about s.D. 70-75. 

E. The animal slate seems to be next, as 
the treatment of the lion's hair is unlike the 

F. The four-dog slate, being a coarser but 
more elaborated design of the same type, 
may well be next. 

G. The hut slate shows for the first time 
the arrangement of lion's mane as on the 

* ivory lions of King Zer. 

H. The gazelle slate shows the same treat- 
ment more advanced. 

J. The towns slate shows the wiry detail 
of muscles, beginning to appear in archaic 

K. The bull slate has the same style 
carried out fully and finely. 

L. The Narmer slate has a less forcible and 
smoother treatment of the bull, and brings 
us down to touch with the historic times. 

The figures can be seen in Capart's 
" Primitive Art in Egypt," where they 
may be identified by these letters, corre- 
sponding to the paragraphs above : A, B, 
figures 61, 62 ; C, 63 ; D, 169 ; E, 171-2 ; 
F, 173-4 ; G, 170 ; H, 177-80 ; J, 175-6 ; 
K, 181-2; L, 183-4. 

Racial Types. These slate carvings 
not only show the art of the time, but they 
present the different races and the details 
of their Ufe, more fully than we find them 
for many centuries later. We see six differ- 
ent types of physiognomy in the early 
remains, and learn how complex the racial 
history must be at the most remote period 
accessible to us. 

A. The acjuiline type is that of the principal 
prehistoric race, closely like the Libyan on 
the west and the Amorite on the east. 
When mixed with negro it produced the exact 
type of a European-Negro mulatto. Prob- 
ably equal to the Libyan. [See Heads i to 
4 on next page.] 

f4 EP I T £ ff f?A rv 

£ A N -:- SEA 

This map of Egypt shows Eg-ypt in three of its early 
periods, (i) The earliest centres of culture were at the 
places where parts of Osiris were preserved in the 
prehistoric age, here named. (2) The second period is 
shown by other centres being placed in the right geo- 
graphical order, all here numbered I to XIX, following 
down each branch of the Nile. (31 The third period is 
when other centres were inserted in the lists in the 
wrong order, here numbered 8 to 20. These three 
stages of Egypt's history are all before the monarchy. 



Numbers i and z are the aquiline type, similar to 3, the Libyan, and 4 the Amorite. s is the curly hair 
type, 6 the sharp-nosed type, 7 the short-nosed type, 8 the forward beard type, 9-11 the straight-faced 
type of dynastic conquerors. 12 is King Khafra of the Pyramid age, reverting to the original type of i and z. 

B. The sharp-nosed type, firstly, with the 

hair in a pigtail, bringing stone vases as 
tribute, and sometimes dressed in long robe ; 
secondly, with bushy hair and armed with 
spear, throw-stick, mace, bow and arrows. 
Probably the Arabian mountain race mixed 
with Libyan. See figure 6 on this page. 

C. The curly hair type, with plaited beard, 
conquered and destroyed by type B. Prob- 
ably from North Syria, by sculptures there. 
See figure 5 on this page. 

D. The forward beard type, with close-cut 
hair ; much like the figures on early Nau- 
kratite vases. Probably a coast people of 
Libyan connection. See figure 8 on this page. 

E. The short-nosed tvpe, a variety of D, 
apparently belonging to the Fayum. Fig. 7. 

F. The straight-faced type of the dynastic 
conquerors. See figures g-ii on this page. 

All of these different people.s were in 
continual mixture and struggle during 
the few centuries before the first 
dynasty. Looking to the tribal hints 


given by the mythology 
able that : 

it seems prob- 

A represents the early Osiris and Isis 
worshippers ; B the first dominance of Set ; 
C the second irruption of Set ; D and E the 
allied Osiris and Isis worshippers of the 
Delta and coast who helped to expel Set ; 
and F the hawk Horus worshipjiers, who took 
the lead in driving out B and C by alliance 
with A, D and E. 

Dynastic Race. The most essential 
difference between the prehistoric and the 
dynastic people is in their artistic capacity. 
The earlier peoples, though highly skilled 
in mechanical detail and handling, were 
yet very crude in their copying of any 
natural forms. But as soon as we reach 
the dynastic race we find that there is an 
artistic .sense and power in their work, which 
puts even the roughest of it far above all 
that had gone before. The earliest examples 


of their sculpture appear to be the 
colossal figures of the god Min, found at 
Koptos. These are of the most primitive 
style possible, the limbs scarcely marked 
off from the trunk, and no details of form 
attem])ted. But on the side of each there 
is a patch of hammer-work outlining 
some figures, perhaps a copy of embroi- 
deries on a skin pouch hung at the side. 
These are figures of a deer's head and 
pteroceras shells on one, svvordfish, 
shells, and standards of the god on an- 
other, and the same objects, together with 
an ostrich, elephant, hyaena, and calf on 
the third. All are but roughly hammered 
round, yet the spirit and correct forms 
of the animals are of an entirely different 
order from anything that had yet appeared 
in Egypt. The promise of all the artistic 
triumphs of thousands of 
years to come is clearly seen 
in these decorations of the 
rudest statues known. 
The source of this dynastic race can 
only be inferred. Though marked off 
from the earlier inhabitants by their 
artistic taste, and by their use of 
hieroglyphic writing, we know so very 
little of the early history of any other 

of Dynastic 

Promise of 

lands near Egypt that we cannot yet 
trace any link to their original source. On 
looking in various directions, it seems at 
least clear that they do not belong to the 
southern tribes, to which they have no 
resemblance ; nor can we suppose that the 
Libyans, who appear to be one 
with the prehistoric people, 
would also supply a race so 
different in face and in habits. 
The north and Syria seem barred by the 
earliest centres being at Abydos and 
Hierakonpolis in the south of Egypt, from 
which they conquered the north. 

Lastly, no source seems open except the 
East, the road from which joined the Nile 
at Koptos. It is there that the earliest 
statues have been found, and the decora- 
tion on those comprises the swordfish and 
pteroceras shell belonging to the Red Sea. 
Such seems to have been the road of the 
dynastic race into Egypt ; but the 
origin of that race yet awaits research. 
There are undoubtedly some Babylonian 
elements in their culture, and somewhere 
at the south end of the Red Sea lay Punt — 
the " divine land " of the Egyptians. 
Thus we are tempted to look to some 
migration from Southern Arabia, whence 


These animal figures were wrought by hammering around on the surface of the colossal statue of the god Min, 
found at Koptos, and show the beginning of the wonderful art of Ancient Egypt. It is the work of the earliest 
dynastic people, who have passed beyond the stage of making rude scratches on walls and on pottery, and 
have arrived, as the figures of the ox and the hyaena prove, at a real conception of the methods of sculpture. 


also may have proceeded the kindred 
Sumerian culture, a few centuries later. 
From this centre in Pun, or Punt, it may 
have conquered and colonised Egypt, and 
then later passed on up the Red Sea 
to the coast of the Poeni and their later 
Punic colony — Phoenicia and Carthage. 
Such is a pleasing co-ordination, but 
Tk \iA k whether we shall ever recover 
Con Tenors *^^ evidence to prove or 
onqucrors (jjc^prove it hangs upon the 
chance of the past and the 
activity of the future. 

Conquest of Egypt. The conquest of 
Egypt spread down from the south to the 
north. The earliest centres were Abydos 
and Hierakonpolis. Probably Edfu was 
as important, or more so ; but the great 
Ptolemaic temple there being still com- 
plete, the remains of the earliest kingdom 
are sealed beneath its pavements. The 
conquest must have been a gradual pro- 
cess ; it is described as such in the myth, 
many times and in many successive places 
was Set defeated and repelled. And the 
probability is that tribal war of such a 
kind would only gradually transfer district 
after district from one holder to the next. 
We know how in England the conquest 
occupied three centuries, from the Saxon 
landing to the first Saxon king of all the 
land. So it may well have been in 


We read in Manetho of ten kings of 
Thinis (Abydos) who ruled for 350 years 
before the first dynasty of kings of all 
Egypt. And we know, from the fragment of 
the Palermo Stone, that at least thirteen 
kings of Lower Egypt were recorded before 
the first dynasty. It is obvious from this, 
and from the probabilities of the conquest, 
that there were Kings of Upper Egypt 
before the first dynasty ; and there is no 
reason for not accepting this statement of 
Manetho as being equally correct with his 
account of the first dynasty, which we can 
verify. Of the actual course of the con- 
„. quest, one fragment of carved 

g'j slate has preserved the record. 

Histo Seven towns are represented 
upon it, each attacked by one 
animal of the standards of the allies. 
These towns may be tolerably identified 
by comparing the hieroglyphics placed 
within them with the names known in 
historic times. The upper row of four 
towns seem to be Mem in the Fayum, 
Hipponon, Pa-rehehui, and possibly 
Abydos ; and the lower three towns were 


probably in the delta, though there are 
the uncertainties of two northern similar 

Dynasty O. The contemporary remains 
that appear to belong to this age of the 
Rings of Abydos (which we may call 
Dynasty O) are the tomb chambers and 
funeral objects in the royal cemetery at 
Abydos. The plan of that cemetery 
shows a sequence of each later tomb 
being placed next to the previous tomb, 
and generally a receding further back into 
the desert as time went on. Now, in 
front of the tomb of Zer, the second king 
of the first dynasty, there are three large 
tombs alike, and four lesser ones. As 
objects of Mena, the first king, were found 
here, the other tombs are presumably 
those of six kings before the first dynasty, 
by their position. The actual objects found 
in these tombs are all of a more archaic 
style than those of ]\Iena or any later king. 
The tombs themselves are all lesser and 
simpler than those of Zer and later kings. 
And the names of kings found here are all 
without the vulture and urseus title, but 
with only neb neb, the double lordship of 

■ Egypt. The whole of the evi- 

/*^f^ dence, therefore, goes to show 

of Unknown ,1 . 1 • . 1 r 

„. that we have six tombs of 

'"^^^ the Thinite kings before Menes. 

The names of these earlier kings, so far 
as we trace them, are Ka, Ro, Zeser, Zar, 
Nar, and Sma. Of these, Nar, or Narmer, 
has the most important remains — part 
of an ebony tablet, and an alabaster 
jar from his tomb, and the great slate 
palette, a great mace head, with scene 
of a festival, and an ivory cylinder, 
from Hierakonpolis. The next in im- 
portance is Zar, or the " Scorpion 
King," of whom there is a great carved 
mace head, and also some vases. The 
objects of the carvings appear to be 
celebrations of the sed festival ; this 
appears originally to have been the slaying 
of the king every thirty years, making 
him Osiris, one with the god, while his 
daughter was married to the new king. 
By the time of these carvings, it appears 
that the king took the place of Osiris in 
the ceremonials, and his successor mas- 
queraded as the new king, and was hence- 
forth the crown prince — the heir to the 

There were brought to the festival of 
Narmer 120,000 captives, 400,000 oxen, 
1,422,000 goats ; and the system of 
numeration was as complete before Menes 


... . . , % f ji _ /- __i J i.__ «r i_:„^^ ^f oil 

A record of the festival of Narmer, a king of Abydos who reigned before the first dynasty of km&s of all 
Egypt. It indicates that when the festival of his own death was celebrated in accordance with the ancient 
custom of killing the king every thirty years to make him one with Osins the god, no f^^^"; tha" i^o ooo capt v^^^ 
400,000 oxen, and 1,422,000 goats were offered. The numerical system is here seen to be complete up to milUons. 


as it was in any later time. The other 
mace head of King Zar shows part of the 
festival, and also the ceremony of the 
king hoeing the bank of a canal, probably 
at the inundation. We see the reclama- 
tion of the land, with men busy embanking 
the canals, and cultivating a 
Planting pQ\ra tree in an enclosure of 
reeds, while they lived in reed 
huts with plaited dome tops, 
and used boats with a very high, upright 
stem. The carved slate palette of Narmer 
shows him grasping the chief of the Fayum, 
prepared to smite him, a scene which was 
repeated for five thousand years in all the 
Egyptian triumphs. The metal water- 
pot and sandals are carried behind the 
king by his body servant. On the other 
side of the palette is the king going to a 
triumphal ceremony, preceded by the 
scribe, thet, and four men of different 
types bearing the standards of the army, 
possibly connected with the four terri- 
torial divisions of the army found under 
Ramessu II. Before them lie ten slain 
enemies, with their heads cut off and put 
between their legs. The carving of the 
detail, and particularly the muscular 
anatomy of the king's figure, is extra- 

ordinarily fine and firm, and as true as 
any work of later time. 

Written History. Having now dealt 
with the history as drawn from the 
remains which have come to light, we now 
enter from this point on the continuous 
written history, which has come down 
from hand to hand without a break 
to our own times, during over seven 
thousand years. This history was com- 
piled by the high- priest and scribe Manetho 
of Sebennytos in the Delta, and only a 
fragment of his work has been preserved 
on its full scale ; but three later writers 
have given epitomes of it, and it is on their 
lists that we have to depend. These are 
Julius Africanus (221 a.d.), Eusebius (326 
A.D.), and George the Syncellus (792 a.d.). 

Unfortunately, much confusion has been 
caused by scholars not being content to 
accept Manetho as being 
The Men Who s^ibstantially correct in the 
Handed Down ^^^-^^ though with many 
the Story small corruptions and errors. 

Nearly every historian has made large 
and arbitrary assumptions and changes, 
with a view to reducing the length of 
time stated. But recent discoveries seem 
to prove that we must accept the lists as 



An Ancient 
Historian and 
His Figures 

having been correct, however they may 
have suffered in detail. A favourite 
supposition has been that the dynasties 
named were arbitrary divisions of later 
times ; but the earlier lists also show such 
divisions as far back as the eighteenth 
dynasty, and kings founding 
a d3masty used to copy the 
titles of the founder of the 
previous dynasty, showing 
that the change was recognised at the time. 
Another idea has been that the dynasties 
were contemporary. But, on the contrary, 
in the overlapping of the tenth and 
eleventh and also the twenty-fifth and 
twenty-sixth dynasties, we can trace that 
Manetho was very careful to cut off from 
one dynasty all the time which he allows 
to another. As regards the general 
character of the whole length of time, we 
can show that Manetho's version in 271 B.C. 
at Sebennytos was the same as that given 
to Herodotus two hundred years earlier at 
Memphis. Herodotus was told that from 
Menes to his time were 330 kings, and 
the totals of Manetho are 192 4-96 -1-50 
to Artaxerxes -^ 338, so that, in spite of 
corrujition in de- 
tail, the totals 
seem to have 
been correctly 

In earlier times 
we can compare 
Manetho with the 
fragments of the 
Turin papyrus, 
written in the 
eighteenth d y - 
nasty ; and here, 
in one of the 
most disputable 
points — the kings 
of the thirteenth 
dynasty — the 
average of eleven 
reigns legible in 
the papyrus is 
(ih years, and 
Manetho states 
sixty kings in 453 
years, or 7 i years' 
average. The 
general character 
of a great number of short reigns in this age 
IS quite su])ported. Then in the eighteenth 
dynasty there is a rising of Sirius in the 
movable calendar, in the twelfth dynasty 
another rising of Sirius, and some seasonal 



This carved slate palette of King Narmer shows him grasping the 
chief of the Fayuni, prepared to smite him, a scene which was 
repeated for five thousand years in all the Egyptian triumphs. 
The sculpture shows anatomical treatment for the first time in art. 

dates, and in the sixth dynasty are two 
seasonal dates. [Owing to the ignoring of 
leap year, the Egyptian months shifted 
round the seasons in 1,4(50 years ; hence any 
seasonal date can only recur once in 1,460 
years, and fixes an absolute date in that 
cycle.] All of these agree with Manetho ; 
and though the seasonal dates are vague, 
they at least show that there is not an 
error of several centuries in the total. In 
the earliest times there is the account of 
the first dynasty, the names and succession 
of which are verified by the sculptured 
lists in the nineteenth dynasty and by 
the actual graves of the kings. Every 
accurate test that we can apply shows 
the general trustworthiness of Manetho, 
apart from minor corruptions. 

. It is naturally a question 

a eria or ^j^g^^ ^^^^ q{ material existed 

r'^,°'^i..° for an accurate historv of the 
Early Times , , ■ t-, r " ^ r 

early times. 1 he fragment 01 

annals known as the Palermo Stone was 
engraved in the fifth dynasty, and it 
recorded the principal events of all the 
years back to the beginning of the king- 
dom, a thousand years before, the height of 
the Nile for every 
year, the length 
of every king's 
reign and of in- 
terregnum to the 
exact days. With 
such a record of 
the most remote 
times carefully 
maintained we 
have every 
reason to sup- 
pose that the 
high-priests and 
sacred scribes 
had adequate in- 
formation as to 
the genera] 
course of their 
history. And we 
can see by the 
Turin papyrus 
how in the 
eighteenth dy- 
nasty there was 
a full historical 
list of all the 

kings, with their length of reigns, dynasties, 
and summations of numbers and years at 
each of the large divisions. Thus it is 
proved that there were historians at 
various periods who compiled and edited 






11 II 





A part of early annals known as the Palermo Stone. 
Each compartment contains the events of one year, with 
the height of the Nile in cubits stated below it. The 
lower right division records : " Building of a ship 170 feet 
long, and of 60 ships 100 feet long. Conquest of negroes, 
bringing 4,ock> men, 3,000 women, and 200,000 cattle. 
Building a wall of the palaces of King Sneferu. Bring- 
ing 40 ships of cedar (from Syria)." The left division 
reads : " Making 35 hunting lodges and 122 tanks for 
cattle. Building a ship of cedar 170 feet long, and 
two other ships of 170 feet. 7th census of cattle." 

the history, and so provided a soHd ground- 
work for later writers, such as Manetho. 

The materials that we have for studying 

the civilisation of the early dynasties are 

the royal tombs and steles, the 

E / ^ *^ tablets of the annals, the seal- 
C'v'r'^ V ^'^S^ ^^ ofificials, the inscribed 
stone bowls, glazed pottery, 
ivory, and wood, the rock steles of Sinai, 
fragments of buildings of the second 
dynasty and onward, the steles of private 
persons and their graves. 

Royal Tombs. The tombs show that 
brickwork was familiar on a large scale. 
The prehistoric houses and tomb chambers 
were by no means slight. The town at 
Naqada has house- walls about two feet 
thick, and a town wall nearly eight feet 
thick. The brick-lined tombs are some- 
times as large as 8 ft. by 12 ft. The kings' 
tombs of Dynasty O are about 10 ft. by 
20 ft. Those of Narmer, Sma, and Mena 
are about 17 ft. by 26 ft., with walls 5 ft. 
to 7 ft. thick. Under Zer there is a great 
extension ; the brick pit is 39 ft. by 43 ft. ; 
it contained a wooden chamber 28 ft. by 
34 ft., and it was surrounded by many 
rows of graves — 318 in all. The later 
tombs of the first dynasty are less . im- 

In the 

posing. At the end of the second dynasty 
the tomb of Khasekhemui consisted of 
fifty-eight chambers covering a ground 
223 ft. long and 40 ft. wide. The sizes of 
bricks were between 9 in, and 10 in. long, 
half as wide, and under 3 in. thick, in 
the prehistoric and through 
the first and second dynasties. 
Wood was used on a large 
scale. The royal tombs show 
beams for framing of about 10 in. wide 
and 7 in. deep, and 18 ft. or 20 ft. long, 
and these beams supported chamber sides 
and floors formed of planks 2 in. or 3 in. 
thick. The roof was made of similar 
beams, covered with boards and mats, 
which sustained 3 ft. or 4 ft. of sand 
laid over the tomb. Such was an 
extension of the roofs of poles and 
brushwood which were laid over the 
prehistoric tombs, and over the lesser 
tombs of the officials of the early kings. 
The sign for royal architect in the earliest 
inscriptions is that of a carpenter, the 
" two-axe man." 

The stone steles were of limestone in the 
first dynasty, and in the end of the 
first dynasty the steles of Oa are of 
black quartzose stone. Those of Perabsen 
in the second dynasty are of very tough 
syenite. The carving of all these is in high 
relief, finely and boldly cut in a simple, 
clear style. At the end of the second 
dynasty a stone-built chamber appears for 
the first time ; the blocks have naturally 
cloven surfaces so far as possible, and the 
rest of the faces are dressed with a flint 
adze. Of the same reign of Khasekhemui 
there is a granite door- jamb with signs in 
high relief. Granite had already been 
wrought flat for pavements in the previous 
dynasty, at the tomb of Den. 

Tablets of Annals. The greater part 
of the inscriptions of this age are on small 
square tablets of el)ony and of ivory, which 
were found in the royal tombs. These 
each have a hole in the top corner, and the 
sign of a year — the palm stick 
gyp s — down the side, as there is by 
P . the side of the entries of the 
events of each year on the early 
annals. They thus appear to be each the 
record of a year, and to have been strung 
together by the corner holes. There has 
not yet been any authoritative study of 
the meaning of these earliest inscriptions, 
which are very difficult to understand, 
owing to the transitory condition of ideo- 
graphs having not yet yielded to syllabic 



usage. ■ We can, however, glean many 

]:)oints about the civiUsation from them. 

The towns were fortified with battlemented 

walls. The shrines were small sanctuaries, 

with a large court in front, like the temple 

_,. „ courts of later times. At the 

1 he Honour , j. j.i_ j. ^ 

. „. entrance to the court were two 

Di^d foT^ ^^^^ P°^^^' apparently with flags, 
which later developed into the 
row of masts with streamers in front of the 
pylon. The great festival at the close of 
each thirty years was one of the most 
important, already noticed here under 
Narmer. The sanctuary for it had two 
shrines back to back, each with a flight of 
steps, apparently for Upper and Lower 
Egypt. The dancing of the new king, or 
the crown prince as king, before the old 
Osirified king in the shrine, was one of the 
main events of the feast. The types of 
temple furniture were already fixed in the 
forms which lasted for several thousand 
years ; the barks of Harakhti are shown 
with the same hangings at the prow, and 
are double — for the E. and Wv— as in the 
temple of Sety I. Large bowls of electrum 
were offered in the temples by the king. 

Wild cattle were hunted by trap nets, 
as was done much later in Greece. And 
there is shown a long road, with rest- 
houses and palm-trees, leading up to the 
great temple in the reign of King Zer. 

Sealings. The clay sealings of officials 
show much of the organisation of the 
country. The oldest titles, under Zer, 
are the " Commander of the Inundation " 
and " Commander of the Cattle." In 
the reign of Zet we find a " Commander 
of the Elders " and " Archon," or chief 
of the city ; also the temple property, 
or " Inheritance of the Chief God," is 
named. Under Merneit and Den there is 
a prince (ha). The vizier was " Commander 
of the Centre," probably the major do mo 
of the Court, and also " Over-head of the 
Commanders." There are further 
named a " Royal Sealer of the 
Vat of Neit," the " winepress of 
the north," and a " Deputy of 
the Treasury." In later reigns there is an 
" Over-head " of a city. And under the 
second dynasty the titles are "Royal Sealer 
of all Deeds," " Scribe of Accounts of Pro- 
visions," " Sealer of Northern Tribute," 

of the 


The greater part of the inscriptions of the first dynasty are on small square tablets of ebony and of ivory. These each 
have a hole in the top corner, and the sign of a year -the palm stick— dowrn the side. They thus appear to be each 
the record of a year, and to have been strung together by the corner holes. They were found scattered in the tombs, 



"Collector of 
Lotus Seed," and 
" Chief Man Under 
the King." These 
titles are from but 
a very small part 
of the bureau- 
cracy, only those 
whose seals were 
affixed to the royal 
provision w h i c h 
was placed in the 
tomb ; but they 
suffice to show the 
regular organisa- 
tion of the govern- 
ment at that age. 

Stone Vases. 
The stone vases for 
the royal palaces 
were cut in many 
kinds of hard rock. 
The rarer kinds are 
rock crystal, ser- 
pentine, and 
basalt ; limestones, 

porphyry and syenite were more usual ; 
and the commonest materials were meta- 
morphic rocks formed from volcanic ash 
verging into slate, dolomite, marble, and 
alabaster. These materials were mostly 
selected for their beauty. The red por- 
phyry is the rarest, being only known 
in a bowl of the time of Mena, and two 
prehistoric pieces. Black porphyry with 
very large detached white crystals belongs 

Brickwork was common in the houses and tomb-chambers of the prehistoric period, 
and in the time of the kings of Abydos the building of the tombs was greatly 
extended Here are seen the brick partitions to contam offenngs, around a wooden 
chamber now destroyed. Beyond this all round were 318 graves of the royal servants. 

working of the inside was always done by 
grinding with blocks, sometimes having first 
removed the axis by a tube drill hole. The 
outside was dressed by chipping, hammer- 
dressing, and hand polishing ; sometimes 
done by circular motion on a block, but 
often by crossing work by hand. The 
readiness with which oval forms were 
made shows how little depended on 
circular motion. 

The use of glazing had been already 
invented early in the prehistoric age, as far 
back as s.d. 31 ; but it was only applied 
to beads and small amulets. The earliest 
glazed pottery vase known is of 
Mena, and this has his name 
in violet glaze inlaid in the 
green glazed body. Glazed 
vases continued to be made throughout 
the first and second dynasties, but became 
rarer, and they have not been found 
revived till much later times. But ivory 
and wood were largely used for carved 
objects, sometimes of elaborate design. 
One of the most distinguishing points of 
the age of the early kings was the minute 
carving in imitation of leafage and basket- 
work, which was mainly done in slate, 
but also in wood. The fragments which 
remain show most elaborate patterns 
worked out with minute attention to 
detail. Nothing of the same kind is 
known in any other age. 




Much exact knowledge of the life of ancient Egypt 
is derived from the clay seals of high officials. The 
oldest known titles are those of " Commander of the 
Inundation." The seal here is that of the " Southern 
Sealer of all Documents of King Sekhem-ab," 5100 B.C. 

only to the age of Mena. Pink granite, 
blue-grey volcanic ash, the quartz crystal, 
and the pink limestones are all very 
beautiful materials. The hardness does 
not seem to have been aught but an 
attraction, as the finest work is always put 
on the best materials ; whereas the soft 
alabaster and slate did not seem to 
challenge any great amount of care. The 



the Pyramid 

Monuments, There are but few monu- 
mental remains from these early dynasties. 
The great rock-cut scene of Semerkhet 
conquering a Bedawy chief in Sinai is 
the main example. The figures are only 
. summarily cut in the natural 

Remains ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ sandstone : but the 

ScuMull" ^™^^ °^ ^^^ °"^^^"^ '^^ ^^^^^^ 
cu p ure ^j^^j^ jjQ g^j^y q{ ^i^g jnore pre- 
tentious work of later times in that 
region. The scene of Sanekht — early 
third dynasty — is much poorer, and that 
of his successor, Zeser, is scarcely legible, 
the work is so rude and slight. The private 
tablets which were put over the graves 
around the royal tombs show that the 
fine work was limited to a small number 
of royal artists in the first dynasty, and 
that there was no general school of able 
men such as arose in later times. The 
figures and hieroglyphics are rudely 
hammered out, and the 
drawing is but clumsy. 
There is seldom more 
than just the name of 
the deceased. By the 
time of Den many are 
distinguished as the 
Akhn-ka, the " glorious 
soul" ; while there is also 
a class apparently named 
" people of King Setui, 
daughter of the captive " 
— i.e., slaves born of cap- 
tives taken in his wars. 

It appears that the use 
of fine materials was at 
its height under Mena 
and Zer. Zer has the 
largest and best - built 
tomb, Zet shows the 
greatest delicacy in work, 
and Den seems to have 
had the most showy ob- 
jects. The changes in 
about five generations 
here were much like those 
in an equal time from 
Amenhotep I to III. m ^he earliest sculpture . ,. ., , 

tne eighteenth dynasty. There are but few monumental remains from individualism 

Then decay markedly set the early dynasties. The great rock-cut highest plane of ab- 

•„ „ 1 ,1 "^ scene of Semerkhet, of which this shows a " . ^ 

in, ana there was no re- part, is the main example. The figures are StraCtlOU. 

vival until the Pyramid 3°a"n^dsTor;"bi;t^?L'VrSth"of^'hl'ruufiets Under the twelfth dy- 

Kings. But some develop- better than in any of the more pretentious nasty the personality is 

ment in the use of """'^ °^ ^^'^' ^'"^^^ '" *^« ^^""^ '^^'°"- weaker and the style 
materials went on ; and Zeser, of the third that of a formal school, highly trained 
dynasty, is .said to have built a stone palace; but dependent upon training. In the 
while Khasekhemui, a generation earlier, eighteenth dynasty the vivacity of expres- 
had a limestone chamber for his tomb, sion is directed to a purely personal appeal, 

and carved granite for the door- jambs 
of his temple, at about 4950 B.C. These 
instances are the earliest use of stone 
for construction that are yet known ; 
though as early as the middle of the first 
dynasty King Den had a pavement of 
red granite in part of his tomb. 

Pyramid Building. We now approach 
to the well-known age of the pyramid 
builders, when the civilisation appears 
at its highest development in most 
respects. We shall not deal with this 
in detail, as it falls into the 
^* ° ordinary historical period 

which appears elsewhere in this 
work [see Egypt] . But it may 
be useful to give the most essential 
facts of the material civili.'^ation, which 
may otherwise be lost sight of in the 
mass of the history. 

In stonework the accuracy reached its 
highest point in the fourth 
dynasty, when the Pyra- 
mid of Khufu was con- 
structed with an average 
error of less than i in 
15,000 of length, and even 
less in angle. The later 
work fell off from this 
accuracy ; but in the 
twelfth dynasty the 
granite sarcophagus of 
Senusert II. was wrought 
with an average error in 
straightness and parallel- 
ism of under seven - 
thousandths of an inch, 
and an error of propor- 
tions between different 
parts of less than three- 
hundredths of an inch. 
There was no attempt to 
reach this high degree of 
accuracy in the later 
work. In sculpture the 
main character of the 
work of the Pyramid 
kings is its dignity and 
grandeur, representing 
on the 


The age of the Pyramid builders may be regarded as the height of Egyptian civilisation. The greatest accuracy in 
stonework was reached during the fourth dynasty, when the Pyramid of Cheops, or Khufu, was constructed with an 
average error of less than i in 15,000 of length, and of even less in angle. In the twelfth dynasty the granite sarcophagus 
of Senurset 1 1, was wrought with an average error in straightness and parallelism of under seven-thousandths of an inch. 


History of the world 

The Great 

of Egypt 


more of emotion than of character. After 
that there is nothing but copjdng, good 
or bad. The growth of shipping at the 
early date of Snefeni, the end of the 
third dvTiasty, is surprising ; and the 
record that we happen to have shows 
how much probably went on at other 

times, there being built, in 

one year sixty ships of lOO ft. 

long, in the next year two 

of 170 ft. long. 
The use of copper is as remote 
as the beginning of the continuous civilisa- 
• tion in the prehistoric age, about 8000 B.C. 
It increased in quantity down to the 
eighteenth dynasty, and it was hardened 
by using arsenical copper ores, and 
leaving oxide in it ; this, with hammering 
made it equal to soft steel for working 
purposes. Rare instances of tin, probably 
derived from natural mixture in the ore, 
are knov\Ti from the third dynasty ; 
but there was no regular use of it until 
we find pure tin, also known about 
1500 B.C. Thence bronze was the main 
material until Roman times. Iron had 
been sporadically found in the fourth, 
sixth, twelfth, and other dynasties, and 
was known for about 4,000 years before 
it came into general use in Greek times. 
This agrees with its having been obtained 
from native masses 
rarely discovered, as has 
been the case in North 
and South America. 
Such native iron is the 
result of volcanic action 
on iron ore in con- 
tact with carboniferous 
strata. All these con- 
ditions exist in Sinai, 
and hence native iron 
might be found there. 
By about 800 B.C. iron 
was used for knives, but 
with a handle of bronze 
cast upon it to save the 
rarer metal. The iron 
tools in Egypt from the 
seventh to fifth century 
B.C. are all Assyrian or 
Greek, and it is not till 
Ptolemaic or Roman 
times that bronze tools 

The forms of tools 
varied very little. The plain strip of copper, 
which was used for an adze in the early 







widened at the edge, and had a slight con- 
traction at the top to assist in binding it 
on ; but the straight strip was kept up 
for 7,000 years without any attempt at a 
haft, simply lashed on to a bent handle. 
It is not till about 800 B.C., or later, that 
any use of a haft occurs in Egypt, and 
then only for a hoe ; while in Babylonia 
axes cast with a strong haft were used 
before 3000 B.C. Nor was a haft used for 
a hammer — a smooth stone in the hand 
was the only beating tool ; while for 
striking tools a wooden mallet was used, 
cut out of a block. The axe began as a 
plain rectangle of copper, sharp on one 
edge ; projections at the back were added, 
until they were half as long as the breadth 
of the axe, but no haft was attempted. 
The saw was used before the pyramid 
period ; and also the saw and tube 
drill set with hard stones for 
cutting granite. Drills for bor- 
ing vases were usually blocks 
of stone fed with sand and 
water, or probably emery for cutting the 
harder stones. Socketted chisels were 
an Italian invention in the later Bronze 
Age, about 900 B.C., and were copied by 
the Greeks, in iron, about 500 B.C. ; but 
they were never used except under 
Greek influence in Egypt. Shears are 
also Western, and were 
unknown till Greek 
times in Egypt. 

Glazing and Glass. 
The very ancient art of 
glazing, already used in 
two colours under Mena, 
did not take any new 
form till the eighteenth 
dynasty, when it was 
greatly varied by new 
colours and new appli- 
cations. Large objects, 
five feet high, were 
covered with a single 
fusing of glaze ; minute 
ornaments, for stitching 
on garments, blazed 
with the brightest red, 
green, blue, 01 yellow ; 
while whole inscrip- 
tions were executed in 
coloured glaze hiero- 



X I//// 

prehistoric age, became in historic times 

The plain strip of copper used for an adze in the 
early prehistoric age became in historic times 
widened at the edge, and had a slight contraction 
at the top ; but the straight strip was kept up for 
7,000 years without any attempt at a haft, simply 
lashed on to a bent handle. It is not till ah)out 
800 B.C. that any use of a haft occurs in 

Egypt and then only for a hoe. The different glyphs, inlaid in the 
dynasties are mdicated in the examples here given. '^ y F ' ,, „, 

wliite stone walls. Glass, 
however, was not made separately until 
about the time of Tahutmes III., 1500 B.C. 
There is no earlier example of true glass, 







I •• D 

W « 

to s 

l-w I 

Q ^ 
I-) a 
(^ »> 






Prehis. 1st Dyii. XllthDyn. KVIII D. 




A A^ 




















^ E^ 





B H 







D n 










^ 1^ 










vry V 


















d ^ 




) C 

1 (D 

) ) 











^ 1= AA 





















X ir 


















N A/ 



r' M 








^r ? 
















m LU 

muu Y 


HH m A 


















V\ V* 




























The signary which was used in various early ages is 
here shown, as it has been gathered from examples of 
over loo signs found in Egypt. Closely related to 
these are the early alphabets of Karia and Spain, the 
latter alphabet containing over 30 signs. It is from 
this prehistoric signary that the present Roman 
alphabet has been gradually selected during past ages. 


nor any representation of working glass. 
All the truly Egyptian glass was wrought 
pasty, and never blown. 

Blown vases belong entirely to the 
Roman age and later times. The large 
blown glass lamps of Arab age, covered 
with fusible enamel designs, are highly 
skilled pieces of work. The uses of 
glass to the Egyptian were mainly for 
beads, for coloured inlays in wood of 
shrines or coffins, and for variegated 
glass vases. The beads were made by 
winding a thread of glass on a wire ; 
the vases, likewise, were made by modelling 
on an infusible core, held on a mandrel, 
and winding coloured glass threads on the 
body. The inlays were often of one 
colour, generally deep blue imitating 
lazuli ; but often mosaics were used, 
made of a bundle of glass threads fused 
together, drawn out, and then cut off in 
slices. Such are all of Greek or Roman 
age. An important use of glass in 
Roman and Arab times was for weights, 
and for stamps impressed on glass bottle 
measures, inscribed with the names of the 
ruler and the maker. 

Lastly we may note the variations in 
the nature of the Egyptian literature, 
as reflecting the civilisation. 
^^tK '^'^^ earliest tales are those of 

°. ^ magical powers, belonging to 

imcs ^j^^ pyramid age. Next, in 

the Middle Kingdom, comes the contrast 
between town and country, and the 
tales of adventure in foreign lands. In 
the New Kingdom the contrasts of 
character are the main interest, and, in' 
the late tales, the pseudo-historical 
romance of the great tournament of the 
Delta, or the antiquarian interests of a 
priest. These subjects of romance 
varied as much or more than the actual 
grammar and language. 

Alphabet. One subject of great 
European interest should be noted here, 
as Egypt has thrown much light upon it. 
The origin of the alphabets of the Mediter- 
ranean has been disputed, without his- 
torical knowledge of the examples of such 
signs in early ages. The Egyptian hieratic 
and the archaic Babylonian signs may 
have, perhaps, added a few to the Mediter- 
ranean signary, but neither source can at 
all account for it. The alphabet is by no 
means a clean cut series of 22 signs ; 
it is a very complex tangle of parallel 
groups of signs in different lands, more or 
less alike. Of these groups two of the 



This tomb was begun as a square block of masonry, and was enlarged by successive coats, which are here seen. 
Then one smooth coating of sloping blocks was put over all from bottom to top, and so the first real pyramid 
appeared in 4700 B.C. The pyramid coating has been destroyed and only the base remains under the rubbish mounds. 

largest are those of Karia and Spain, 
comprising over 30 signs, and these have 
many points of peculiarity in common. 
This is .sufficient to show that the fuller 
alphabet is the original form, from which 
the shorter lists have baen selected. 
Now, in Egypt there are found scratched 
on pottery and woodwork over 100 signs, 
and these comprise the forms of the 
fuller alphabet. Moreover, these Egyptian 
examples are found at about 1200 B.C., 
or only a few centuries before the Karian 
and Spanish alphabets, again in 3000 B.C., 
in 5500 B.C., and before 7000 B.C. Of 41 
alphabetic signs, 19 occur in 1200-1400 B.C., 
32 in 3000 B.C., 27 in 5500 B.C., and 31 in 
7000 B.C. As we have not a very large 
amount of material, the occurrence of 
from iq to 32 out of 41 signs is as much 

as we could expect, as all the 41 occur 
in one period or another. The early date 
of these puts all derivation from the 
subsequent hieroglyphics entirely out of 
the question. We can as yet only say that 
a large signary of 40 or more linear forms 
was in continuous use from before 7000 B.C. 
downwards, and that these furnish all 
the forms of the fuller alphabets, those 
of the short Phoenician and Greek list 
of later time. 

We have now outlined the rise of 
civilisation in Egypt, apart from the 
history of the country, which is dealt 
with separately ; and we turn to the other 
great valley of early civilisation, in Meso- 
potamia, to compare the resemblances and 
the differences between the two lands. 
W. M. Flinders Petrie 








Continuous civilisation of 

prehistoric age bi'gan . . s.d. 30 

Before , 


Asiatic invasion s.u. 40 

6000 Susa founded 


Invasion of dynastic race 


Mfna rules all Egypt . . . . s.u. 80 

5000 Ea founds Eridu and civilises the land 


Khufu builds Great Pyramid 

4700 Earliest monuments of Kings 
4500 Urnina 


Invasion from north 

3800 Sargon and Naramsin, Semitic rule 


Middle Kingdom, twelfth dynasty 

3300 Gudea 


Hyksos invasion, fifteenth dynasty 


Second Hyksos movement 

2280 Elamites conquer Babylonia 
2i2() Hammurabi 


New Kingdom, eighteenth dynasty 

1572 Kassite dynasty 


Tell el Aniarna letters 

1380 Burnaburiash 


Taharqa (Tirhakah) 

690 Sennacherib 


26 Aahmes (.Amasis) 

556-38 Nabonaid, fall of Babylon 





The first impression that strikes the 
reader in passing from the Egyptian to 
the Mesopotamian civihsation is the 
lack of that unity and conciseness which 
makes history in the Nile valley so 
intelligible, and its problems so well 

In place of the well ordered history of 

Manetho, with its numbered dynasties, 

and totals stated throughout, there is 

practically nothing stated befor3 Nabunasir 

in 747 B.C. The mythological extracts 

from Berosus, and the list of Ktesias, 

which cannot be identified with any 

known facts, give no help in arranging 

the outlines of the history. In place of 

the uniform language and writing, which 

develops without a break during the 

whole history of Egypt, there is the entire 

break from Sumerian to Semitic. In 

place of the continuous importance of 

Egyptian capitals, there is the change 

from the principalities to Baby- 

Disunion bn, and thence to Nineveh. In 

° Y ^. place of the unified kingdom 
Babylonia ^^ ^^^ ^-^^ ^^^^^^^ through the 

whole written history, the greater part 
of the documentary period is filled with 
rival principalities, within thirty or forty 
miles of each other, the tops of whose 
temples must have been visible over 
the entire territory of their respective 

As the general scale of Egypt is so 
familiar to the modern reader and traveller, 
it will be well to compare Mesopotamia 
with that. Babylon was twice as far from 
the sea as Cairo ; and from Babylon to 
Nineveh was the distance from Cairo to 
Sohag. Or in other terms, starting from 
the sea, Babylon was a? distant as 
Oxyrhynchos, Nineveh in place of Thebes, 
and the highlands of Carchemish, Com- 
magene, and Lake Van were the equivaient 
of Nubia. The old land of Shumer was 
just the size of the Delta, and Akkad as 
large as Middle Egypt. The principalities 
of Eridu, Lagash, Ur, Erech, and others, 
were as far apart as those of the Delta — 

The Nile 
and the 

Bubastis, Benha, Sais, or Sebennytos. 
Indeed, it seems as if this were a natural 
unit-size of early dominions in a fertile 

Though the relative age of the beginning 
of civilisation on the Nile and the 
Euphrates is yet an uncertain matter, still 
it is clear that the unification of Egypt 
long preceded that of Baby- 
lonia. The earliest date of the 
scattered Sumerian kings is 
about that of the fourth 
dynasty ; the earliest Semitic dynasty — 
Sargon and Naramsin — was contemporary 
with the ninth dynasty, and the rise of 
the dynasties of Babylon is of the later 
Hyksos age of the sixteenth dynasty. 

Euphrates Valley. The conditions 
of the Euphrates valley are very different 
from those of the Nile. On the Egyptian 
coast the river runs into a strong current 
in the Mediterranean, which sweeps away 
its sediment and prevents any continuous 
growth of the coast. But the Meso- 
potamian rivers reach the sea-level at the 
head of a deep bay, the Persian Gulf, and 
hence there has been a continuous for- 
mation of new land at the estuary. The 
Mesopotamian valley and the Persian Gulf 
form one long drainage valley gently sloping 
down to a distance about twenty miles 
outside Hormuz, where the valley bottom 
drops suddenly three miles into the floor 
of the Indian Ocean. The slope of this 
valley so far as submerged, is about i ft. 
to the mile, and it is i)robably even less 
in the Babylonian plain, where sea-shells 
are found as far up as Babylon. 
Sea-shore j^^^ valley has been filled, and 
the sea-shore pushed down- 

47 Miles 

ward, 47 miles in 2,200 years, or 
115 ft. yearly, since Spasinus Charax — now 
Mohammerah — was founded on the shore 
in the time of Alexander. The account of 
a sea expedition to Elam by Sennacherib 
is usually interpreted as showing a more 
rapid growth ; but in the uncertainty how 
far he went down a channel before enter- 
ing the Persian Gulf, it is not decisive. 



How far back the extension of land has 
been going on, and whether it was con- 
tinuous to above Babylon, has not yet 
been proved. The appearance of the map 
much suggests that the original drainage 
bed ended— i.e., the valley was sub- 
merged — at about the nearing of the two 
rivers by Sippara, and that all below this 
is the filling up of the estuary. Should 
this growth have extended uniformly back 
so far, it would give limits to the possible 
ages of cities — 5000 B.C. for Eridu, 8000 B.C. 
for the whole plain of Shumer, 10,000 B.C. 
for Nippur, and earlier for the site of 
Babylon. This would bar the southern 
region from being as old as Memphis, and 
Eridu was probably open sea when 
Menes laid out his capital. 

Range of Civilisation. In looking 
for the earliest movements of people 
that we can trace, it seems that the 
Semites must have extended from Northern 
Arabia into Upper Mesopotamia and 
Assyria. In short, Semitica stretched up 
to the mountain ranges of Armenia and 
Media. But the culture was barbaric, 

and probably they were nomads who had 
no fixed centres of life or stable organisa- 
tion which could resist any united move- 
ment. At this period the Persian Gulf 
probably extended as far as Babylon. 
On their eastern flank were the mountain 
tribes, in what is known as Parthia and 
Media, south of the Caspian. How remote 
is the beginning of civilisation in this 
region has been found in the last few years. 
On the north-east extremity of Parthia, 
in the far end of Hyrcania, stands a group 
of mounds, near the modern Askabad, 
not far from the celebrated Turkoman 
stronghold of Geok Tepe. Here are 14 ft. 
of town ruins with iron, 15 ft. with copper 
and lead, about 70 ft. of ruins with wheel- 
made pottery and domesticated animals, 
and 45 ft. of remains with only rude hand- 
made pottery. What ages these represent 
we cannot judge until the full account 
by Prof. Pumpelly is issued. But in any 
case a very long period is involved. If 
the accumulation is at the rate found in 
Palestine, 4^ ft. per century, the periods 
would be perhaps 1,500 years for the 


This map shows how the Plain of Babylonia has been extended down by silting since 10,000 B.C. The dotted 
lines, marked 330 B.C. and 1830 A.D., show the known positions of the coast, as it shifted by silting up. These give 
an approximate scale of dating for the coast-line of earlier ages, which is marked here at each thousand years. 



wheel pottery, and i,ooo years for the 
rough pottery, before the beginning of the 
age of copper. 

At the other side of these countries 
stands the great mound of Susa, with 
over 80 ft. of ruins. The inscriptions show 
that about 26 ft. of the height was accu- 
mulated between about 4500 and 500 B.C., 
or in about 4,000 years. Yet before that 
there is a depth of about 50 ft. com- 
prising three periods. In the upper of 
these is elementary cuneiform writing on 
tablets. Below that is a period of rather 
rough, thick pottery, painted with chequer 
patterns and closely-crossed lines, of the 
style common in early Syria and Cyprus. 
And at the bottom of all is a great quantity 
of very line, thin wheel-made pottery of 
buff tints, with decoration of thin dia- 
gonal lines, rows of ostriches, and various 
patterns all derived from basket-work. 

If the scale of accumulation of the 
historic times were to apply here, it 
would reach back to 12,000 B.C. ; but 
if the far quicker scale found in Palestine 
applied, it would hardly reach 6000 B.C. 
. In any case we have here 
k**4*"^'k^ evidence of a civilisation appa- 
of Time rently much earlier than that 
ime ^j- gg]~,yiQ^ja,, and none of this 
earliest line pottery has been found in 
the great plains. The highland civilisation 
may have begun as early, or earlier, than 
that of Egypt ; but that of Babylonia 
started probably later than the North 
African culture on the Nile. Seeing, then, 
that there was a very early civilisation 
at Susa on the west of Media, and that 
further east on the limits of Parthia we 
meet another early centre, it is not 
surprising that the inhabitants of these 
regions united to spread down into the 
fertile plain which was created by the 
growing delta of Mesopotamia. These 
people belonged neither to the Semite 
of Arabia nor to the Aryan of Persia and 
India, but used an agglutinative language 
of entirely different structure from these 
others, and most akin to Turkish or 
Finnish. Having descended from their 
mountain homes, the people were known 
as Akkadu, probably meaning " high- 
landers," though there are other open 
derivations. And hence the northern 
part of the Babylonian plain, next to the 
Semitic Assyrians, was the land of Akkad ; 
while the southern part, next to the sea, 
was known by the native Babylonian 
name of Sumer, or Shumer. 

SuMERiANS. The civilisation of the 
Sumerians was more akin to that of the 
Chinese than to western types, especially 
in its art, its picture writing and devo- 
tion to literature, its capacity for town 
life, and its religious ideas. The cognate 
origins of the people may well account 
for this, and some more precise re- 
, semblances led Terrien de 

,.\'^**.^. Lacouperie to the view that 
Links with ^, ■ ^ • v X- 

„ . . Chmese civilisation was an 

a y on offshoot from the Sumerian 
stock in its old Parthian home. 

The elements of life were well developed 
by the Sumerians. They were great 
agriculturists, and wrote works on the 
main industry of man, much as the 
Carthaginians wrote standard works prized 
later by the Romans. They fermented the 
grape and corn, and had alcoholic drinks. 
Cattle of all kinds were raised, and prized 
as stock, which was fed on grass or grain 
or oilcake. The horse is mentioned first 
in Semitic times, about 2000 B.C. Dates 
and figs were the principal fruits grown ; 
and, indeed, the date palm seems to have 
had a far more important place in the 
civilisation than it did in that of Egypt. 
Both wool and leather were used for 
clothing, as might be expected. 

Building. The main structural in- 
dustry of the country was that of brick- 
making and building. Immense piles of 
brickwork were made to support the 
temples, marking clearly the custom 
of the highlander Akkadi worshipping on 
the hilltops. The brick ziggurat, or iive- 
stepped pyramid, at Nippur was 190 ft. 
by 128 ft., and about a hundred feet high. 
The earliest baked bricks are 8'7 in. by 
5"6 in. by 2"2 in., and they were enlarged 
to 12 in. by 7*8 in. by I'g in. within the 
Sumerian age. Toward the close of that 
time large square bricks were used. 
Sargon made baked bricks 18 in. square and 
3^ in. thick. From the time of tJr-Engur 
(3200 B.C.) onward the baked bricks were 
II in. or 12 in. square. 
f 'h" Grc Beside the baked brick used 

^^ f ""^^ for pavements, drains, 
mgs facings, and important work, 
the great bulk was made up of crude 
brick as in Egypt. For important pur- 
poses, such as store-rooms, the inside of 
chambers was lined with a coat of bitumen, 
rendering them damp-proof ; and such a 
lining was used on tanks. Pottery is 
abundant in all ages, but we still need 
a study of the pottery such as has been 



There is a fine study of weapons on a carving of Eannatiim (4400 B.C.), where spears about 7 ft. long, 
with blade heads, are figured. Shields are shown reaching from the neck to the ankles, straight- 
sided, used edge to edge as a shield wall by a phalanx of soldiers. The heads of the men are 
covered by well-formed peaked helmets reaching down to the nape of the neck, with nose pieces. 

made in Egypt, so that it can be used 
to date excavations in general. Stands 
for jars, framed of vvood, were used as in 
Egypt ; and also the cic^y sealings were of 
the same type in bith lands. Stone vases 
were made to imi te pottery ; and this 

suggests that the 
using basket-work 
into the plain, a; 
possess any types r 
Tools and We 
tools were used, sue 
and great skill wi. 
engraving upon harr 
weapons there is a ii. 
of Eannatum (4400 
of about 
shown : 

neck to 

hlanders were only 
hen they descended 
therefore did not 
one work. 

The common 

s Knives and drills ; 

develo]:)ed in seal 

stone cylinders. Of 

study on a carving 

B.C.), where spears 

7 ft. long, with blade heads, are 

also shields reaching from the 

the ankles, straight-sided, and 

used edge to edge as a shield wall by a 
phalanx of soldiers ; while the heads are 
covered by well -formed peaked helmets, 
with nose pieces, and reaching down to the 
nape of the neck. Bows and arrows and 
daggers were also used ; and stone mace- 
heads, of the pear shape used in Egypt, 
were important ceremonially, and often 
bear inscriptions. Woodwork was elab- 
orated with carving, and used for bed- 
steads and stools, as seen in the seats of 
the gods figured on seals and tablets. 

Clothing. Clothing varied a good deal. 
A primitive custom of nudity when offering 
to the gods was continued down to the 
close of the Sumerian age, as shown on the 
tablet of Ur-en-lil. The kilt was worn 
with a fringe, not reaching the knee ; or it 
was worn from the waist to the ankles, as 


by shepherds. A robe over the left shoulder 
reaching to the knee was used with a 
deep fringe all down the front edge and 
round the bottom. A long robe reaching 
to the ankles is shown on the figures of 
Gudea. But the most characteristic dress 
was that of ribbed woollen stuff, much like 
that of the fifth century B.C. in Greece, as 
on the Running Maiden. This stuff was 
worn as a flounced petticoat (Urnina 4500 
B.C.), or in a longer form over the left 
shoulder and down to the ankles, as by 
Eannatum and Naram-Sin. A splendid 
flounced cape and long robe of this stuff is 
shown as worn by Ishtar on the Anubanini 
rock stele, about 3600 B.C. 

Science and Art. The system of num- 
ber, weight, and measure was peculiarly 
Babylonian. Some people have theorised 
about all later standards having been de- 
rived in various intricate ways from those 
of Babylon. But it is very unhkely that 
standards should not arise in different 
centres, and still more unlikely that the 
complex derivations should be formed 
when the whole object would be to 
maintain a system in common. 

But there is no question of the great 

advance of the Sumerian in these matters. 

_ . The sexagesimal system, which 

Science ■ s • i. i 

IS far more convenient lor 

tf . many purposes than the deci- 

mal, and which we still retain 

for time and for angle, was due to the 

Sumerian intellect, while the standards 

of weight, the talent, maneh, and shekel, 

were also from the same source. And we 

cannot doubt that the cubit was already 

in use by a people living in cities and 

carrying on business. 

The style of art was clumsy, owing to 
the habit of crowding together as much as 
possible into the space, in order to form the 
record. The human forms are thick and 
short, and detail is firmly and perse veringly 
repeated. It entirely lacks, in its early 
stages, the spontaneous truth of the early 
dynastic work in Egypt. At the close of 
the Sumerian age, under Naramsin, there 
is a fine bold design in groups of figures, 
well proportioned, and with good action, 
recalling curiously the spirit of late Greek 
work from Praxiteles to the Pergamene 
warriors. The stages of change cannot yet 
be distinguished, owing to the scarcity of 
the dated examples that we have. 

Literature and Writings. It is in 
lit':rature that we know the Sumerian 
best. Unhappily, other branches of 

archaeology have been neglected, and even 
destroyed, in the eager search for tablets, 
and yet more tablets. By the thousand 
they are found, and hurriedly removed, 
while the architecture, crafts, and art- 
history are thrown aside in the process. 
The hunter for tablets in Babylonia, and 
for papyrus in Egypt, is a heartless wrecker, 
without any interests beyond 
°^* his own line. When so much 

° . has been sacrificed for the 

^^ written record, we must glean 

all we can from it for the history of 
the civilisation, as most of the other 
material that might have been preserved 
has been sacrificed. The Sumerian kin- 
guage was the sole language of civilisa- 
tion, until, at about 4000 B.C., the Semite 
began to conquer and to take part 
in the. advance of the world. Yet the 
older tongue was by no means extin- 
guished ; it held its place as the official 
religious and literary language, like Latin 
in Europe. The literature of the world was 
in Sumerian, and only gradually did the 
new Semite intruders translate the older 
works or rise to writing a literature of their 

The Sumerian literature was for long 
accompanied by a Semitic translation, like 
Latin and Saxon gospels ; and syllabaries, 
v^ocabularies, and grammatical lists were 
written to teach the Semite the old religious 
language. Legal documents were drawn up 
in Sumerian, and it only gradually lost its 
precedence from 4000 B.C. down to 1600 
B.C., when it was almost extinct, being 
only revived as a literary curiosity in the 
.seventh century B.C. 

The writing was a pictorial system like 
the Egyptian hieroglyphics. And so long as 
the Sumerian used it he clung to the 
pictorial origin even though obscured by 
the lineal style of drawing. On papyrus or 
parchment it is easy to make curved forms, 
and such were adopted in drawing the signs 
originally. But on clay, which was the all- 
available material in the 
Babylonian plain, impressing 
lines is far neater than 
scratching them up ; and the 
handv tool for making impressions was a I 
slip of wood with a square end. Hence all 
the curves tended to become four or five- 
sided outlines, and all the detail became 
built up of little lines tapering off to one 
end, or "digs" with the corner of the stylus. 
Yet down to the close of the Sumerian age 
the forms of the objects can still be 


How the 
Semite Made 
His Notes 


This work, found in Siisa, is curiously free and pictorial ; it is unriva led by any early carvings, and most resemb es 
the action and spiiit of late Greek sculpture. It marks the great period of the fusion of the Sumeriau and Semite. 



discerned, and they are still pictures rather 
than mere immaterial symbols. 

The Semite, however, changed all this. 
He learned merely the sound values of 
certain forms, their meaning could not 
appeal to him, and he built up his words 
out of these sounds or syllables. He found 
it inconvenient to write in vertical 
columns, which was the constant Sumerian 
habit, and turned his tablet sideways to his 
hand, so as to make his signs along a 
horizontal line of writing. Hence these 
signs became familiar to him on their 
sides, and as they had to him no pictorial 
values, the position was indifferent. Lastly, 
he produced a syllabary of signs written 
with combinations of four forms of impress, 
a long line wider at one end, a short line, 
a tall triangle, and a small equilateral 
triangle, written in horizontal lines ; and 
each sign was standing on what had ori- 
ginally been its side. The wedge-shaped 
form of these lines has given rise to the 
name of wedge-writing, or cuneiform 
writing for this system. 

The knowledge of this writing survived 

Greek influence for some four centuries 

after iVlexander, only becoming extinct at 

the close of the first century 

e Story ^^ ^^^ ^^^ j^ -^^ ^^^^ history, 

° * double that of the Roman al- 

anguage pj-i^j^g^ at present, it had been 
used for very diverse languages. The 
Sumerian inventor had handed it on to 
the Semitic intruder, and he had passed 
it to the Syrian, the Mitannian, the 
Hittite, and the Vannic peoples. Prob- 
ably it had kept its hold in its first home 
in Elam, where it is found in historic 
times, and thence it became the writing 
of Persia, and even of the Parthian, before 
it became extinct. The variety of 
languages and the extent of country 
which it covered is much like the scope 
of the Roman alphabet in Europe to-day. 
Law and Religion. In matters of 
law the Sumerian was well advanced. 
The needs of city life which he had 
developed necessarily required a full 
definition of rights and duties. The first 
law book was that of Ea, the god of 
civilisation, the Oannes of the later 
legends of Berosus. The decisions of 
judges were kept in abstract, and such 
case-made law served as a body of 
precedent to guide decisions. The posi- 
tion of women was on a level with that of 
men ; in the Sumerian hymns the woman 
takes precedence, and one of the great 

<['> w ^> i M u 

1 11 

V A 3 E 3 

IJli III! k AA? 




— ' ^f r^ 




fie to 

This illustrates the decay of pictures into signs, and 
shows very clearly how the cuneiform writing was deve- 
loped from the earlier hieroglyphics. It will be noticed 
that the word originally rendered by a crude drawing 
of the object— "fish," for example— retains even in its 
final cuneiform style some resemblance to the tail of a fish. 
The cuneiform lettering was necessarytotheB aby lonians, 
as clay was the meet abundant material in their land 
and could best be marked upon in lines without curves. 

Sumerian divinities was Ishhtar, who 
became Ashtaroth of Syria, Athtar of 
Arabia, and hence Hathor of Egypt. In 
the Semitic system the goddess is but a 
feeble companion of a god ; but Ishtar was 
the great divinity of war, to whom the kings 
owed their triumphs, as well as the queen 
of love, who ruled the course of nature. 

The religion of the Sumerians was like 
that of other Turanian races. These 
peoples have an aversion to the idea of 
a personal god, to which the Semitic 
peoples cling. The Samoyede believes in 
a multitude of local spirits, the Chinese 



have their impersonal Heaven and the 
host of gnomes or earth spirits. Thus 
also the Sumerian thought of all objects 
as having a zi or spirit, good or evil, 
which needed to be appeased by the 
weak or commanded by the sorcery of 
the strong. Shamanism was the type of 
religion ; and books of exorcisms and 

The fact that the shaven type of face appears 
in all the monuments back to 4500 B.C. indi- 
cates that the Sumerians were shaven as they 
were the older of the two main races in Babylonia. 

magic spells were in permanent use. The 
importance of the principalities naturally 
led to their local spirits being of general 
importance ; and hence the political 
changes brought Sin the moon god of 
Ur, or Utuki the sun god of Sippar and 
Larsa, or Marduk of Babylon, into a 
leading position, and led toward the 
Semitic type of deities. How far this 
change was due to the beginning of 
Semitic influence we cannot now say. 
Other native gods were less personal, 
such as Ana the sky, Enlila the earth, 
and Ea the .sea. 

Types of Races. The physical type 
of the people is .shown to us by the early 
monuments, though we hardly yet know 
enough of the early history to understand 
them fully. Two main types stand out 
entirely apart, the shaven and the full- 
haired. And when it is seen that the 
.shaven type is that of all the earliest 
human figures, dating from 4500 B.C. and 
extending down to even 2100 B.C., while 
the full-haired type is not found on men 
before 3750 B.C., it is clear that the 
shaven is the Sumerian and the bearded 
is the Semitic type. The remarkable 


point is that the gods are represented 
with long hair tressed up and long beards 
from 4400 B.C. ; and as early as we can 
go back there is never a figure of a beard- 
less god. The reason probably is that 
personal gods were of Semitic origin, 
their worship was borrowed, and hence 
their forms. If so, we must see a 
large Semitic influence already acting on 
the earliest known Sumerian art. The 
variations of type may perhaps lead to 
some further distinctions. The full, 
curly, square- ended beard and long hair 
are usual for the gods, as seen under 
Eannatum (4400), Urenlil (4000), Gudea 
(3300), and Hammurabi (2100). The 
same beard, but with the hair done up 
into a disc (as on the Tello heads and 
Hammurabi), is worn by the King 
Anubanini (3600). The long and rather 
pointed beard is seen on Naramsin (3750), 
and Hammiurabi (2100). The short, 
square beard is seen on the god, under 
Eannatum (4400), and on men about 


Men with full beards are not represented on Babylonian 
monuments until 3750 B.C. ; hence it is clear that 
such figures represented people of the Semitic type. 
This portrait is from a sculpture of King Hammurabi. 

Naramsin's age [see the seal of Ubilishtar]. 
The shaven type has a wide face, with a 
large prominent aquiline nose, best seen 
in the head from Tello. This type is 

Although the full-haired faces are later in appearing on the monuments of Babylonia, all ^^^^es of gods are shown as pos- 
sessed of full beards and a wealth of hair. A familiar example is here reproduced. 1 . is supposed that the Semitic race 
fn Assyria was the first to personalise the deities, and hence the resemblance of the images to the features of the Semites. 

that of all the human figures on the scenes 
of Urnina (4500), Eannatum (4400), and 
Urenlil (4000) ; and in the figures of the 
Scribe Kalhi (cylinder, 375o),Gudea (stele, 
3300), the heads of the same age from 
Tello, and the later head of beautiful 
work at Berlin. The general conclusions 
may be that the beard was worn and 
admired by Semites, who elaborated a 
very full type for the gods ; and that 
the Semitic influx, though ruling under 
Naramsin at Sippara, north of Babylon, 

was yet subordinate at the later date of 
Gudea, in tie Sumerian south. 

Semitic / ;e. We now turn to the 
later stage )i the civilisation, as it 
flourished under the mixed race of 
Sumerians as.d Semites, partaking of 
the culture o^ the older race and the higher 
moral tone •' the less advanced people. 
The Sumerij . as we have noted, had 
pushed down from the Median high- 
lands into the growing plain of Babylonia, 
while the earlier Semites remained to the 



north in Assyria, and to the west in 
Naharaina and Syria. Sooner or later 
a fusion was inevitable ; as we have seen 
already, the gods were of a Semitic type 
at a very early time, and gradually the 
union took place during three thousand 

pond, and every ancient temple, with its 
fortifying wall, was built out of a large 
pit at its side which became the sacred 
lake of the temple. 

A higher branch of building was the use 
of glazed bricks. In Egypt the use of glazed 

out in the earliest dynasties, before 
5000 B.C. ; but there was no glazing of the 
bricks, because in so dry a climate the 
Egyptian was never induced to burn his 
bricks. In the wet and damp of Babylonia, 
on the contrary, burnt bricks were usual, 
and all the facings and main divisions 
of structure were in the indissoluble 
material, which held together and pro- 
tected the mass of crude brickwork within 
it. It was, however, mainly, or only, 
in the later times — from the ninth century 
onwards — that bricks glazed on the outer 
face were used for building. It seems that 
this was done not so much for utility — like 
our modern use of glazed bricks — as 
for the artistic effect of colours and 
designs. The grandest example of such 
work that is known is the facade of 

years, until in the later times the product tiles for coating walls was boldly carried 
was unified in one strong civiUsation 
which spread its strength far and wide 
to the Crimea, to Egypt, and to the 
deserts of Central Asia. 

Building. The old skill and abihties 
found a wide scope in this larger frame 
of life. The fundamental craft of brick- 
work was carried on to a vast extent. 
Every city had its great pile of an artificial 
hill of bricks, built in stages to support the 
temple of its god high above all. Immense 
walls surrounded the cities ; those of 
Babylon were some nine miles around, and 
are stated to have been 85 ft. high and 
340 ft. thick, surrounded by a moat lined 
with burnt brick laid in bitumen. Not 
only was brickwork used on this great 
scale in the Babylonian plain where stone 
was a luxury, but the force of example 
was so strong that the 
Assyrian, in his highland 
home, kept up the same 
scale of brickbuilding as 
his teachers, and used 
brick for his palaces and 
temples when stone would 
have been much more 
easily available. 

In Babylonia, as in 
Egypt, the supply of 
material for brickmaking 
on a large scale is a 
serious question. For the 
great walls of cities, ob- 
viously a surrounding ditch 
was an advantage ; but 
for the materials of houses, 
temples, and ziggurats, 
great pits had to be dug, 
or older buildings pulled 
down. At Nippur it was 
found that the later 
builders had torn down a 
long piece of the disused 
city wall and dug out 
a great pit below and 
around it. So in Egypt 
the outskirts of every 
village has its perilous 
hole where the bricks are 

This restoration of the Temple of Bel at Nippur, from the designs of Hilprecht 
and Fisher, gives a good idea of the massive character of Assyrian 
. architecture. The portion marked (i) consists of a stage tower with a 

made, which, in course of shrine at top and a long stairway leading thereto; (z) is the temple 
j.;.„„ U.-,,-^ . « +„ 4- proper; (3) house for "honey, cream and wine"; (4) "place for the 

time, becomes a stagnant Seiight or Bur-sir v*/ . »- 

-sin"; (5) is the inner wall and (6) the massive outer walls. 



coloured glazed brick in relief, repre- 
senting the royal archers, from Susa of the 
Persian age, now in Paris, restored from 
the fragments. 

Beside baked brick, pottery was used 
on a large scale. Great jars occur in the 
earliest times, and cylindrical drains of 
large size, sufficiently wide for a man to 
descend in them for repair. In later times 
coffins of baked pottery of the Parthian 
age, and glazed coffins of slipper shape, 
dating from the Sassanian period, are very 
common on most of the city ruins. Un- 
fortunately, sufficient attention has not 
yet been given to the pottery of any age. 

Wood was largely used in the more 
wealthy ages, but it was always valuable. 

This illustrates the richness of the decoration on 
the breast of an Assyrian king, whose complete 
attire is seen in the other picture on this page. 

as large timber had to be brought from a 
distance. The great halls of the palaces 
were all roofed with timber beams, and 
panels of cedar lined the walls where 
stone was not used. Probably palm trunks 
and palm leaves served for ordinary 
roofing, as in Egypt at present. 

Clothing. Clothing became far more 
elaborate than in earlier ages, and the 
dominance of the more northern people 
brought a fuller dress into customary use. 
The Assyrian covered the whole body with 
a tunic down to the knees, and the upper 
classes wore a robe to the feet. Rich em- 
broideries were usual among both Baby- 
lonians and Assyrians, and the splendour 

Rich embroideries were usual among Babylonians and 
Assyrians, and the splendour of Babylonian garments 
was spread far in other lands by trade. The royal 
head-dress in Assyria was practically the modern tarbush, 
which has again been imposed on the East by the Turk. 

of Babylo' 'aTi garments was spread far 
in other 1 i - oy trade. The cap was 
either cyli 1 or conical, and the royal 

head-dress . .ssyria was practically the 
modern ta. ' which has again been 

imposed on ist by the Turk. Sandals 

were used syria, and the boot so 

characterisvi* the Hittite was also 

brought in ' 'i the cold mountainous 
country. W*- i wore a long, thin robe to 
the feet, cc i sometimes by a tunic and 

a cape. Bu itar is always shown in a 
ribbed dres ^unced from top to bottom. 
This is tht ,;ilar women's dress of the 
western Se ; and its use, like that of 

the beard Sie male deities, points to 
the strong antic influence on the ap- 
pearance ai b- r icter of the divinities. 

The arm ihe Assyrian was much 

the same ; in the early Sumerian 

days. The d helmet became rather 

taller, and t cover the back of the 

head.' The t , and the bow and, arrow, 
were the main weapons as before. The 
old straight-sided shield was also used 
in Assyrian times, but was partly super- 
seded by the round shield considerably 
coned. The extension of the kingdom 


History of the world 


Years Ago 

brought in various auxiliaries, who differed 
from the older Babylonians. Slingers, 
northern horsemen clad in leather, and 
mountaineers with woodman's axes, all 
added new branches to the army. 

Art. The arts were carried to great 
perfection by the mixed population. 
Broadly speaking, the best work is that of 
the early age of Naramsin 
(3750 B.C.), and that of the 
late age of Ashur-bani-pal 
(640 B.C.). Though not so fine, 
yet probably the Hammurabi sculptures 
are the highest between the early and late 
schools. This would give intervals of 1,650 
and 1,460 years between the successive 
waves of art, and about 1,450 years more 
to the glories of Baghdad, a period much 
like that found on the Mediterranean, 
though not coincident with it. 

The finest work of Naramsin (3750 B.C.) 
is his great stele from Susa, now in Paris. 
It is remarkably pictorial in style, agreeing 
in this with the pieces of a limestone stele 
representing rows of combatants from 
Tello, also in Paris. The figure of the 
king is lithe, active, romantic in attitude, 
the enemies and his soldiers are full of 
animation. No Oriental sculpture has had 
quite the same life in it ; and it recalls 
the pictorial style of Crete and the later 
Greek sculpture. The art of Gudea (3300 
B.C.) is more cold and formal, and has not 
the same fine sense of proportion ; it is 
distinctly a period of survival and not of 
artistic instinct, as seen, for instance, on 
the limestone relief in B.erlin. The age 
of Hammurabi (2100 B.C.) shows careful 
portraiture, but not the spirit of the earlier 
age ; the work is well finished, and there 
was no hesitation in handling materials 
boldly, as on the great black stele of the 
laws, now in Paris. There was a fine 
sympathetic treatment in private sculjv 
ture, as shown in the beautiful limestone 
head of a Sumerian in Berlin [seepage 266 \. 
The last great age was that of the 
Assyrian Emi)ire. Under Ashur-nazir-pal 
(1S85) the work is fine and severe, 
but without much expression. 
Shalmaneser HI. (860) troubled 
more about history than about 
art, and his i)rincipal remains are the 
long records of the black obelisk and 
the Balawat gates, which are but clumsy 
in the forms. Under Sennacherib (705) 
there is a breadth of composition, as 
in the siege of Lachish, which is 
worthily aided by a more i:)ictorial 




style, while under Ashur-bani-pal (668-626) 
the art reaches both grace and vigour, 
as in the splendid natural scenes of the 
wild-ass hunt, in the lion hunt, and in 
the garden feast with the queen. 

Mechanics. The mechanical arts were 
also greatly developed. The large size of 
the buildings, the great quantities of stone 
transported for the sculptures, and the 
immense size of many blocks — the bulls 
weigh nearly 50 tons each — all show that 
there was not only considerable skill, but 
also large ideals and directive ability. 
Layard found that three hundred men were 
wanted for drawing his cart bearing the 
great bull ; and the sledge used by the 
Assyrians for the transport must have 
needed as many, or more. Long levers are 
represented as having been used in a 
very effective manner ; but the placing of 
such great blocks exactly in the right 
position required far more ability than the 


This shows the Babylonian art at 3300 B.C., inferior to the 
earlier style of Naramsin. The original is in Berlin Museum. 

Under Ashur-bani-pal (668-626 B.C.) Assyrian art reached both grace and vigour, as is manifest in the splendid 
natural scene of the wild-ass hunt, which is here reproduced from the original in the British Museum. 

mere transport. The forms of tools were 
much in advance of those used by the 
Egyptians. As far back as Naramsin, 
the copper axes were all well halted, gener- 
ally with rings raised round the edges of 
the haft hole to strengthen the band and 
prevent it splitting. 

The forms of the iron tools are also 
excellent ; and iron seems to have been 

w . ^ . common in Assyria at an 
Modern Tools i- j . .r • ,1 

- . . , earlier date than m any other 

of Ancient , 1 1 1 j- " ^i 

y^ . country, probably from the 

tenth or twelfth century e.g. 
Certainly the set of Assyrian tools left at 
Thebes by an armourer of Esarhaddon in 
670 B.C., show that the principles, and even 
the exact forms, of modern tools had 
already been reached. The chisels and rasp 
have not been improved since ; the saw is 
the same as the modern Oriental pull-saw, 
but the teeth have not an alternate set ; the 
centre-bits and files anticipate our forms, 
but have not reached the complete stage. 
The material of most of the edge tools is 
steel, showing that the hardening was then 
understood. The cutting of seals in hard 
stones was an early art, but it was well 
maintained, and some of the most beautiful 
specimens are the chalcedony cylinders 
such as that of Sennacherib in London. 
The engraving of the inscriptions also 
shows that cutting in hard stones was 
freely done on a great scale ; but the 
writing, being entirely in straight lines, 
was much easier to engrave than the 
figures of natural objects of the Egyptian 
signs. Probably emery powder or copper 
was the means used, as in Egypt. 

The use of an official stamp of guarantee 
on uniform pieces of silver was adopted by 
the time of Nebuchadnezzar, but as this 
is two centuries later than Greek coinage 
it was probably copied from that. In one 
respect the Mesopotamian never equalled 
the Egyptian. The Memphite school of 
work had attained to a mechanical ac- 
curacy which we can scarcely gauge ; their 
errors on large pieces of work were only a 
matter of thousandths of an inch. But the 
Mesopotamian never did a piece of passably 
square or regular stonework ; the inequali- 
ties and skew angles are glaring, even in 
highly elaborated works of art. The sense 
of accuracy was quite untrained, and 
neither Semite nor Sumerian show any 
ability in this line. Egypt, on the con- 
trary, started with a prehistoric race which 
excelled in exquisitely true handwork and 
dexterous flint flaking, and 
with the artistic sense of the 
dynastic people added, the 
combination was one of the 
highest that the world has seen. 

Literature. To give any adequate 
idea of the literature of Babylonia is far 
beyond our scope, and only the main 
classes of it can be named in this outline. 
These were : 

I. Theology and Omens. 2. History. 
3. Despatches and Correspondence. 4. Lan- 
guage and Translation. 5. Mathematics. 
6. Astronomy. 7. Geography and Natural 
History. 8. Medicine. 

The striking omission is that of literature 
in the form of tales or poetry of actual 
life ; there seems, amid all the myriads of 


The Books 




tablets, to be nothing similar to the tales of 
the various periods of Egypt. We look in 
vain for the tales of the magicians, the 
romances of adventure, of love, or of his- 
tory, which restore to u- the living v'" *" 
Egyptia" tbo-.-.-ij' Thi^ bdoniu. 
-eve. ^ '- Y -r • :c, 

,, 3etK . v. o lb ae^ pea in nis 

theology , seems to have had no play 
of fancy o aste for the excitement of 
story-telling. Similarly in the Middle Ages 
the " Thousand and One Nights," though 
often referring to Baghdad, are yet 
tales of entirely Egyptian source and 

But for his own purposes the Babylonian 
was well educated from a hterary point of 
view, and, considering the complexity of 
his writing, he was probably better trained 
than any modern people except the Chi- 
nese. The hundreds of signs which he 
had to remember had long lost their 
pictorial significance, and needed an atten- 
tive memory and long training ; yet not 
only in public documents, but also in pri- 
vate letters, mistakes are but rarely 
found. Classification of the signs, classified 
lists of words of Sumerian and Semitic, 
grammatical works, and reading books 
were the apparatus used.. 
Wonderful ^^^^ ^^^ peasantry and 

Training of sometimes the slaves 
Babylonians learned to write, and there 
was hardly more need of a professional 
scribe than there is in England to-day. 
But this general eucation belonged to the 
Sumerian stock, and was much diminished 
where the Semite was in the majority, so 
that in Assyria only the upper classes could 
write, and nail-marks of contracting parties 
are common. The feeling for hterature kept 
the names of great writers in remembrance, 
and the authors of the main religious pieces, 
such as the Epic of Gilgames, are still 
known. The Egyptian, on the other 
hand, has not preserved the name of a 
single author ; even Pentaur was probably 
only a scribe. The honouring of hterature 
led to the Assyrian kings amassing great 
libraries, and to the princes becoming 
librarians and secretaries. The copying 
of ancient tablets for the new libraries 
was a large business, carefully planned ; 
and the scribe was required to exactly 
state where his original was defective and 
what uncertainties existed in the reading. 
Even private persons sought to obtain 
favour by presenting copies of works 
to the temple libraries. 


Shall We Find 
an Assyrian 
State History? 

Of the classes of writings, the religious 
works are noticed later ; the historical 
writings are mainly Assyrian, recording 
the constant wars with other lands, and 
the tribute and booty brought from them. 
That there was a complete State history is 
shown by the ready allusions to the time 
since certain events had happened. iVshur- 
bani-pal recounts 1,635 
years since the Elamite king 
had carried off an image. 
Nabonidus searched for and 
found the tablet of Naramsin, which he says 
had not been seen for 3,200 years ; he recites 
that there were 800 years from his time to 
Shagarakti-buriash, and 700 years from 
Burnaburiash to Hammurabi. These 
references show that we may hope to 
recover a complete State history from 
Assyria, as we may hope yet for a com- 
plete historical papyrus from Egypt. 

The despatches and correspondence give 
full light on detail of politics and affairs, 
showing the conditions of various countries ; 
and where a sulhcient number have been 
preserved together it is possible to build 
up a continuous history of a period, as 
in the case of the Tellal-Amarna letters. 
The yearly annals of a reign belong more 
to the historical division, and such records 
of Sennacherib, Ashur-bani-pal, and others 
are of the highest value. The private 
letters give a full view of the current life ; 
and the business documents, especially 
receipts, are the commonest of all records, 
showing the trade, the law, and the 
business of the country in all its fulness. 

The tablets dealing with the Sumerian 
and Semitic languages together, and the 
translations from one to the other, we have 
noted already. The mathematical tablets 
are multiplication tables, lists of multiples 
of measures, tables of squares and cubes, 
and plans with measurements along the 
sides, which show the practical use of the 
science. The astronomical records were 
already tabulated in the time of the early 
Semitic Empire, Sargon having 
Beginning compiled for his library a work 
°' in seventy-two books, the title 

Astronomy ^^ ^^^-^^ -^ rendered "The 

Observations of Bel." The purpose of this 
was astrological, like the great mass of 
short tablets reporting observations of a 
later date. But the inquiries involved a 
considerable familiarity with astronomical 
movements, and a mass of records which 
became of great value to the student. 
The astronomical tablets of the Seleucid 



period are of special value, as they often 
contain valuable historical matter. 

Law, In the domain of law the Baby- 
lonian had early formulated a code from 
the actual working of decisions. Case- 
made law was his basis, as in most countries, 
and abstracts of important cases were 
carefully preserved as precedents. No 
torture was used upon witnesses, and 
ample investigation of the right of a case 

AVIV'S'- #- 


A clay tablet letter from Tushratta, King of Mitani, to 
Amenophis III., King of Egypt, announcing the despatch 
of valuable gifts and begging Amenophis to send him a 
large quantity of gold as payment for expenses 
incurred by his grandfather in sendmg gifts to the King 
of Egypt, and also as a gift in return for his daughter, 
a princess of Mitani, whom Amenophis had married. 

seems to have been usual, with full cross- 
examination. High penalties were stipu- 
lated for the infringement of sales or con- 
tracts. The status of women was equal 
to that of men in the Sumerian, but became 
inferior in the Semitic law. Slavery was 
rather an assignation of labour than a 
control of the person, as a slave family 
could not be separated. Slaves could hold 
property, own other slaves, give witness, 

and were sometimes well educated. The 
family union was strong, as inherited land 
could not be sold without assent of 
relatives, and boys and girls alike inherited 
iiiLCstrte property. 

The detail of the laws form a long study, 
but w may here note the main sections 
of tiie great code of Hammurabi, show- 
ing the scope of the laws, and stating the 
number of enactments. 

Witchcraft 2 JNIarriage property 19 

Legal falsehood 3 Women 32 

Theft 3 Votaries property 7 

Loss 5 Adoption 10 

Child and slave steal- Assault 20 

ing 7 Doctors 13 

Robbery 5 Builders 6 

Ro^'al messengers and Shipping 7 

officers 16 Cattle 12 

Agriculture 24 Hire 25, and 

Accounts 8 Slaves 5 

Licensed traders 6 Distraint Sc deposit 13 

Thus the whole scope of an agricultural 
and commercial community was well safe- 
guarded, and little doubt left as to general 
principles and penalties. All this must 
have been the product of innumerable 
cases and difficulties for two or three 
thousand years, before' such a complete 
code was set up. 

History in Mythology. The religion 
has usually occupied a large part of the 
attention and interest given to Mesopo- 
tamia ; it is comparatively well known 
owing to the quantity of documents and 
representations. Here we need only 
mention such points as bear on the general 
civilisation. We have already noticed 
how the purely Sumerian Shamanism, or 
belief in the spirit of every object, which 
needed to be appeased, had been tinctured 
by the worship of personal deities of the 
Semitic neighbours, and how this influence 
was shown by borrowing the Semitic beard 
for the gods and flounced robe for the 
goddesses, and occasionally for the gods. 
Thus the Semite was the missionary of 
theism as against animism. 

On the other hand, the civilisation of 
Babylonia is expressly stated to have been 
given by Ea, or Cannes, who rose from 
the sea of the Persian Gulf ; he passed 
the day among men, and taught letters 
and sciences and arts — the building of cities 
and temples, and the use of laws and geo- 
metry. Also he showed the uses of seeds 
and fruits, and softened and humanised the 
people, who had lived in a lawless manner 
like wild beasts. This full ascription of civi- 
lisation to sea immigrants shows that it 



cannot be set down 
growth, or as due to 
still less to the Semite, 
movement is roughly 
belonging to the 
city of Eridu ; 
and 5000 B.C. is 
the earliest date 
at which we can 
suppose the 
ground of that 
city to have been 
dry land. Such 
must be taken as 
the extreme limit 
of the early civili- 
sation, and what 
we find of the 
early kings of 
about 4700 B.C. 
is the first effi- 
cient rise of 
monumental his- 
tory in the land. 
All this is paral- 
lel to the early 
civilisation in 

as an indigenous 

the Sumerian, or 

The date of this 

indicated by Ea, 

came only a few centuries earlier than the 
mission of Ea. It may be possible that there 
is one common source of a seafaring people 
for both civilisations, and, if so, we might 
look to Hadhra- 
mot as being in 
the most likely 
common centre. 
At least, it is 
always conveni- 
ent to explain 
the unknown by 
the unknown. 

The nature 
gods of Apsu and 
Tiamat , the ocean 
and the chaos, 
described in the 
first tablet of 
the Creation 
series, belong to 
the primitive 
Sumerian. " The 
waters of these 
mingled in union, 
and no fields 
were embanked. 

A CAT* p 


The interior of a castle, ii c- d b- a kind 
compartments. In each is 1 cup of figures 
reUgious ceremony. The p lion is suppon 
adorned with a fringe of alte late flowers an 


ground-plan v :h towers and battlements, is divided into four 

iithe»- engage' in domestic occupations or in preparations for a 
J ty columns probably of painted wood, and the canopy is 
buds, like the usual Egyp' ian border. Beneath the canopy is a 
groom cleaning a horse with a ^urry-comb. A eunuch at the entrance is receiving four prisoners. Above are two 
mummers dressed in the skins of lions, while a figure with a staff appears to be the keeper of these monsters. 

Egypt. That also came in apparently 
from the Red Sea at about 5800 B.C., 
as the civilising movement which changed 
the prehistoric age to the dynastic. And it 


no islands were seen ; when the gods 
had not come forth, not one ; when they 
neither had being nor destinies." And 
afterward " Evil they plotted against 

The series of which this bas-relief formed a part appears to have recorded the conquest by the Assyrians 
of an Arab tribe or nation who made use of the camel in war as a beast of burden. This sculpture 
belongs to a later period than the bas-relief from the North-West Palace at Nineveh reproduced below. 

the great gods." After an attempt of 
Anshar (perhaps the same as the Egyptian 
Anher, the sky god) to subdue Tiamat 
(tablet 2), Marduk, the sun god, gains the 
victory ; and in tablets 3 and 4, the 
supremacy of Marduk is finally confirmed 
by all the gods. In this we seem to have 
the echoes of a tribal history as in the 
Egyptian theology. The Shamanistic 

worship of a confused host of warring and 
malignant spirits, is at last subdued by 
the worshippers of personal gods under 
Semitic influence, and of these the people of 
the sun god take in the end the leading 
place. All of these changes were, however, 
long before the political domination of 
the Semite, which began about 3800 B.C., 
with Sargon. 

This bas-relief probably formed part of a subject representing the King of Nineveh in his chariot hunting 
the wild bull. The warrior rides on one horse and leads a second, richly caparisoned, for the use of the 
monarch. Numerous small marks on the body of the animal probably denote long and shaggy hair. 

■ 277 



\ „ 




































































































We have now reviewed the questions of 
the rise of civiHsation, as apart from the 
ordinary history of the countries, which is 
dealt with in its proper place in this work. 
Though it is difficult, and rather mislead- 
ing, to look at civilisation and the political 
history apart, yet, so much has come to 
light in recent years to clear our view of the 
origins of culture that we may be allowed 
to focus our attention on that view of 
man, apart from his better known historv. 

We seem at last to have reached back to 
a definite beginning of arts and capacities 
on both the Nile and the Euphrates, and 
to have touched a condition of things that 
seems to point in both lands to some 
external source of a yet pre-existing 
culture, which yet has to be traced. 
I am happy to add that one of our greatest 
Babylonian scholars, Dr. Pinches, concurs 
in the view of his subject which is here 
presented. W. M. Flinpfrs Petrie 

" By the rivers of Babylon there we sat down ; yea, we wept," From the painting by Bendemann. 




OUT of the East came Light " has been 
the text on which all great historians 
of civilisation have preached, from the 
authors of the Mosaic literature down 
through Greek and Roman times to our 
own. Hebrew writers have looked back to 
Mesopotamia ; Greek writers to Egypt ; 
Roman writers to Greece; writers of Western 
and Northern Europe and the New World 
to Rome, Greece, and Palestine. Their belief 
is justified in so far as it is based on two 
great facts. Man first found in the warm, 
alluvial valleys of Southern Asia and 
North-Eastern Africa the conditions of 
chmate and soil most favourable to his 
upward progress from the savage state ; and 
from these regions, so soon as with increase 
of numbers he was moved to migrate, his 
steps were turned by the geographical 
conditions surrounding his early homes, 
in a general way, westward. He knew not 
yet how to cross broad seas ; deserts, 
sandy steppes, high mountains and tropi- 
cal forests and swamps were 

"Out of the 
came Light 

equally deterrent. The Polar 
,, ice-sheet, which had extended 

in Pleistocene times to the 
Caspian, Black Sea, and Danube basins, 
and still lay, in the dawn of human civilisa- 
tion, far south of its present limits, pro- 
bably rendered, with its wide fringe of 
impassable moraine, forest, and tundra 
country, all the lands included in the 
present Emjiire of Russia singularly in- 
hospitable. Whoso looks at the map of 
the Western Hemisphere, bearing these 
facts in mind, will see at once that the 
line of least resistance, and, indeed, the 
only possible line, led the men of the 
great sub-tropic river valleys towards and 
along the Mediterranean coasts. 

In so far, therefore, as European civilisa- 
tion is a state of things due to influences 
from without, it is due to the East ; but 
that is very far from the whole explanation 
of its origin. The impulse to rise above 
savagery has not always — not, indeed, 
usually — come to peoples from without ; 
and probably in primitive time, when 

communications were slow and difficult to 

a degree which we can hardly reahse, the 

origin of local culture was seldom or never 

to be accounted for thus. In modern days 

there have been obvious instances to the 

contrary ; but even now it remains to 

be seen how far civilisations originated 

among absolutely barbarous peoples by 

-,..,. ,. contact with higher races are 
Civilisation , i i- • ,, ^^ 

from ^ ^ hvmg growths. Ex- 

Without amples of the modification and 
possible elevation of ancient 
indigenous societies by incoming aliens, 
such as have been seen in Mexico or Peru, 
India or Japan, Egypt or Barbary, are 
not in point ; for in these cases local 
civilisations certainly existed long before 
the foreign influence. We must look to 
the history of the relations of white and 
negro, or other savage, races in the homes 
of the latter, and the results of such 
inquiries are far from conclusive. Does 
civilisation so originated grow and thrive ? 
Do even the races thus civilised themselves 
any longer thrive and grow ? Our antipo- 
dean colonies, and the story of the native 
races of North America, if there were no 
other instances, would not admit a cate- 
gorical affirmative. Nay, rather, the 
evidence so far available tends to discount 
the permanence of transferred civilisation, 
and to throw doubt on the continued 
vitality of races so civilised. 

It is necessary to raise this question at 
the outset of the present essay because it 
has been too often assumed, both implicitly 
and explicitly, by historians of our civilisa- 
tion, that all the cultural devel- 
opment of Central, Western, 
and Northern Europe has been 
due to alien influence, exerted 
from the south and south-east, ana 
mainly by the agency of the Greek, 
Graeco - Roman, and Grseco - Romano - 
Semitic (the Christian) systems. Maine's 
famous dictum that " Nothing moves in 
the world which is not Greek in origin " 
has long dominated our thoughts. Yet 
that magnificent generalisation is contrary 


The Escape 




not only to inherent probability, but to 
known fact. Escape from the savage 
state, as Buckle showed, depends in the 
first place on the existence of such con- 
ditions of geographical environment as 
favour the accumulation of wealth and 
the development of a leisured class — that 
is, such as conduce to the production of a 
^ ... good deal more than the mini- 

_ ,. , , mum necessary lor lite. It 

Essential for j^i r v_ ^ i i 

^. ... ^. can, therefore, have taken place 
wherever man found compara- 
tively genial climate and remunerative 
soil, and, in process of time, made for 
himself, by clearing forests or draining 
swamps, an arable area which would feed 
him and his more abundantly than was 
absolutely necessary. 

Where these conditions were presumably 
present it is unreasonable to suppose that 
the beginnings of civilisation were deferred 
age after age, until late in time some 
stimulus chanced to be imparted by an alien 
race or races which had, after all, advanced 
towards their own civilisation, albeit 
earlier, through the operation of similar 
conditions elsewhere. In the European 
areas inhabited by the Celtic and 
Germanic peoples, for instance, long 
before we have the slightest reason to 
believe that these can have come into 
intimate relation with the civilisations of 
the South and East, both climate and soil 
were unquestionably favourable, and local 
civilisations cannot but have been origin- 
ated independently. As has been well said, 
" Man everywhere has the same humble 
beginnings " ; and, up to a certain point, 
which is found to be, in fact, far later 
than the inception of some kind of culture, 
he will satisfy his primitive needs and 
desires in very much the same ways. 

Under certain conditions, known 

to have arisen independently in many 

different regions of the earth, articles of 

luxury and art, irrefragable witnesses to 

incipient civilisation, begin to be produced 

- ^ spontaneously. To what re- 

Spontaneous . • i i j. 

J: ... ^. mote periods have not cave 
Civilisation ' 

in Europe 

deposits thrown back the 
history of artistic effort in the 
valleys of Gaul ? And what credit, in 
reason, can be given to Greece, or even to 
Rome, for the elaborate social order of the 
Teutonic tribes, which was of ancient 
standing when first the Romans pene- 
trated beyond the Danube and Rhine ? 
So well rooted in the soil, so potent and 
so widely diffused were the Teutonic and 


Celtic social systems, that in the history 
of our actual civilisation they are factors 
as worthy of consideration as the influences 
of Rome, Greece, or Palestine. If Graeco- 
Roman Christianity came greatly to modify 
them in the end, they had, perhaps, ere 
that, modified Christianity itself hardly 
less ; and the social superiority of the 
northern and western adherents of the 
now dominant religion is probably as 
much due to character and habits deve- 
loped before ever its creed was formulated, 
as the dominance of the Turkish peoples 
in the Islamic system is undoubtedly due 
to social characteristics evolved in the 
oases and steppe-lands of Central Asia far 
back in the " Times of Ignorance." 

Let it, therefore, be understood that in 
the following pages it is not necessarily 
the whole origin of European civilisation 
that is being set forth, but the modi- 
fication and heightening of probably 
pre-existent European culture by the first 
influences of the Nearer East which can 
be supposed to have reached it. Of these 
influences the effect is to some extent a 
matter of inference only. We cannot 
always, or, indeed, often, point with any 
assurance to actual results of their action. 
In great part we must still be content 
with little more than a demonstration 
that directly along certain lines of com- 
munication, or indirectly through certain 
intermediaries, the civilisations of the 
South could, or did, come into relation 
with European areas at an early age. 

The sea routes which were 

e wo jYiost likely to be used in ruder 
« P ages by Levantine mariners, 

after leaving the Nile estuaries 
or the Syrian ports — which, as a matter of 
fact, are known to have been most used — 
are : that which followed the littoral of Asia 
Minor to Rhodes, whence it bifurcated, to 
Crete on the one hand, and to the ^Egean 
isles and coasts on the other ; or that strik- 
ing across the narrow strait to Cyprus, and 
thence by way of Rhodes, or directly, to 
Crete. In connection with both these 
routes, the importance of Crete and 
Rhodes, and especially the former, must 
be obvious. Thence the Cyrenean and 
Carthaginian })rojections of Africa were 
reached with greater ease than by way 
of the littoral to west of Egypt, 
which, for some hundreds of miles, is 
desert, reef-girt, almost harbourless, and 
pitilessly vexed by an on-shore wind. 
From Carthage, Sicily and the Italian 

O 1«« JOO 300 


Along: the routes marked in this map lay the course of ^gean and Phoenician civilisation. The importance of Crete 
and Rhodes in the spreading of civilisation is clearly seen; they may be called the "half-way houses" between 
Mesopotamian culture, with its seat in the valley of the Euphrates, and Egyptian culture, in the valley of the Nile. 

peninsula were readily accessible, or the 

Gibraltar strait and the Iberian shores 

could be made after coasting a littoral 

much kinder to navigation than that 

between Egypt and the western bight of 

the Syrtis. 

The land routes in chief were also two. 

The Nile valley, closed by desert on the 

_ western side, had comparatively 

g ^ easy access to the great natural 

¥ J n 4 road which, leading northwards 

Land Routes , , ' . o , ^ , 

through Syria, passes at first 

along the Palestinian littoral, and then 
through the central cleft between the 
Lebanons to the Orontes valley. Mesopo- 
tamian traders, following up the Euphrates 
till they had left the desert part of its 
course behind them, fell into this same road 
in the region of Aleppo and Antioch. 
Thence by the easy passes which turn the 
southern end of Mount Amanus, the com- 
bined caravans reached Tarsus, penetrated 
Taurus by the gap of the Cilician Gates, 
and found themselves on the plateau of 
Asia Minor with a choice of easy routes 
leading either to the rich western littoral, 
or the north-western straits, and from 
any and every point offering safe passage 
to South-eastern Europe. This was the 
only land route for Egyptian civilisation. 
But the Mesopotamian had an alternative 
one, leading by way of the upper Tigris 
valley to the north of Taurus and the 

Cappadocian plateau, whence it descended 
the Sangarius and debouched, like the 
first route, on either the north-western or 
the western coast of Anatolia. 

In speaking of such land routes, we do 
not, of course, mean to imply the existence 
of any made road, nor even of a single 
track. When most definite, they probably 
resembled the Syrian Pilgrim Way — a 
skein of separate paths now spreading 
widely, now running into and across one 
another ; and doubtless the early tracks 
diverged far more than this, and making 
great elbows, followed now one valley, 
now another, to meet again only after 
many days. One of the great hues from 
Mesopotamia to the western Anatohan 
coast, that described last in our enumera- 
tion, came to be defined more strictly 
than the rest, perhaps by the Kings of 
Nineveh and their " Hittite " rivals and 
allies in Cappadocia, and was known in the 
Persian era to the Greeks as the Royal 

Th R 1 ^^^^ " °^ ^^^ ^^^*^ go up iuto 
c oya ^gjg^" g^^ ^^ ^Yie much earlier 

into As^a ^^^^ 'With which we are most 
concerned, the influences of the 
East did not rush westward torrent-wise 
in one bed, but soaked slowly, finding a 
way now here, now there, in one general 
westward direction, and sending offshoots 
far out to right and left of the main 



It has been said that there is evidence 
of the routes just indicated having been, 
in fact, those most used. It is upon these 
hues, and no others, that we find certain 
remarkable focuses of early culture dis- 
posed as half-way houses between theMeso- 
potamian and Egyptian civilisations on the 
one hand, and continental Europe on the 
other. These are, in relation to the sea 
routes, first, the prehistoric iEgean 
civilisation, focused from the first in 
Crete, but extended to all isles and 
peninsulas of South-eastern Europe from 
Cyprus to Sardinia and Spain ; and, 
secondly, the Phoenician, originated on 
the Syrian coast, but focused also at a 
later time at a second point much farther 
west — namely, on that Carthaginian pro- 
jection, whence lay easy sea-ways to Sicily 
and Italy and all the western seas. Hard 
by the Egyptian land route lay this same 
Phoenician society; while all about its 
point of junction with the Euphrates 
road, on both its continuations north- 
westward, and on the northern road from 
Mesopotamia so soon as this had passed 
Euphrates, was established the singular 

but as yet little understood 
Half-way civilisation which we call 

Hittite. How early we may 

Houses of 

assume the latter's existence 
in North Syria is still doubtful ; but since 
the discoveries of Winckler at Boghaz Keui, 
there is little question that it was focused 
in prehistoric time in Northern Cappa- 
docia, whence its influence seems to have 
radiated southward to the confines of 
Palestine, and westward to Lydia and 
almost the shore of the ^gean Sea. It 
is to this North Cappadocian region 
that the Tigris route from Assyria and 
Babylonia, which was afterwards the Per- 
sian " Royal Road," tended. Among these 
civilisations the most imjiortant for our 
present purpose is the ^gean, because 
its geographical area touched at some point 
all the westward roads, whether by sea or 
land ; and, moreover, because it is the 
one which actual evidence both dates from 
the remotest antiquity and most clearly 
proves to have been operative on Europe, 
especially on the most expansive of its early 
cultures, the Hellenic. The recent explora- 
tion of Crete, due in the main to Messrs. 
Arthur Evans and Federico Halbherr, has 
enhanced enormously the significance of 
the civihsation revealed to the modern 
world at Hissarlik and Mycenae by the 
faith and fervour of Henry Schliemann. 

Evidences of 

We are now assured of certain facts of 
much moment to our inquiry. Firstly, 
that this civilisation was developed origin- 
ally from its rudest beginnings within the 
JEgean area itself. This is proved by 
evidence of the uninterrupted evolution 
of fabrics and decoration, especially in 
ceramic ware, produced at Cnossus from 
the dawn of the historic 
Hellenic period right back to 
Neolithic time. At various 
points in this long retrocession 
we can place the Cnossian culture in 
synchronic relation with the Egyptian 
by the presence both of Egyptian objects 
in the ^gean strata, and ^gean in the 
Egyptian. These points correspond with 
the highest developments respectively 
of the New, Middle, and Old Pharaonic 
Empires — moments at which we should 
naturally expect to find evidence of inter- 
national communication. The earliest 
point indicated by these synchronisms 
lies possibly as far back as the First 
Dynasty, if certain vases, exported 
apparently from the ^Egean as vehicles 
for colouring matter, and found by 
Dr. Petrie at Abydos, are accepted as of 
the remote date to which their discoverer 
attributed them ; but in any case the con- 
temporaneity of some part of the Old 
Empire period with the iEgean civilisa- 
tion is assured, and that, moreover, when 
the latter was already far advanced 
beyond its rudest origins, as represented 
by the contents of the thick strata of 
yellow clay which underlie the earliest 
structures at Cnossus. 

Thus is the indigenous origin of Mgean 
civilisation assured. So also is the in- 
dependence of its after development. 
The typical Cretan pottery, known as 
the " Kamares " style and Hneally 
descended from Neolithic ware, which 
attained, about the acme of the Pharaonic 
Middle Empire a perfection both of fabric 
and ornament worthy of the highest 
ceramic products of any age, 

-,.^... ^^.'^^ remained absolutely distinct. 
Civilisation t-, ■ , j , 

. ., ,. Ihe same mdependence cha- 

ts Native , ■ f , 

racterises a later ceramic 

product of the i5igean, a glazed ware with 
monochrome decoration, which went into 
Egypt abundantly under the Eighteenth 
Dynasty, and especially when Amen- 
hotep IV., " Khuenaten," was reigning 
in his new capital at Tell-el-Amarna. Nor 
is iEgean art distinctive only in its 
humbler products. The frescoes, the 





The perfection of the Hellenic style, derived from^gean architecture. 5th century B.C. 

plaster reliefs, the chased work in precious 
metals, the ivory carvings, and the gem 
intaglios of the JEgea.n area, of which Sir 
Charles Newton said thirty years ago that 
they were not to be confounded with pro- 
ducts of any other glyptic art, show the 
development and retention of an in- 
dividual naturalistic style — a style 
which reacted on the fresco paintings L^_ 
of Egypt itself under Khuenaten. 
Finally, to clinch the proof of its 
independence with the strongest pos- 
sible argument, the JEgesin civilisa- 
tion, as soon as it became articulate, 
evolved for itself, in Crete at any rate, 
a system of writing, displayed to us 
on some thousands of surviving clay 
documents, which was purely its own, 
and cannot be interpreted by com- 
parison with any other known script. 

Secondly, it is now known that 
this civilisation, of remote indigenous 
origin and independent development, 
reached a very high point of achieve- 
ment in many respects which afford 
the best-known tests of culture — 
namely, in its artistic products, ex- 
tant examples of which of^er ample 
evidence of wonderfully close study 
of natural forms, of mastery of 
decorative principles and their exe- 
cution, and of a sort of idealistic 
quality, which has been rightly 
called " a premonition of the later 


Hellenic " ; also, in 
architectural construc- 
tion and the organisa- 
tion of domestic com- 
fort, as displayed in the 
palaces at Cnossus and 
Phffistus, with their 
superposed stories, 
their broad stairways 
of many flights, their 
rich ornament, their 
arrangements for ad- 
mitting air and light, 
and their astonishing 
systems of sanitation 
and drainage. The 
written documents 
tound, though still 
undeciphered, plainly 
attest an advanced 
knowledge of account- 
keeping and correspon- 
dence. The frescoes and 
gem scenes, as well as 
many surviving objects 
of luxury, attest the existence of a leisured 
and pleasure-loving class ; and, lastly, the 
tribute-tallies of Cnossus support the in- 
ference which is legitimately drawn from 
the uniformity of certain material objects 
all over the .-Egean area at certain periods 

The perfection of the second Hellenic style, refined from the Doric, 
probably in the first place by Asiatic Greeks. Fifth century B.C. 


— notably that contemporaneous with the 
earUer part of the Eighteenth Egyptian 
Dynasty— and also from the wide range of 
certain place-names, that there was an 
extensive imperial organisation. The centre 
of this empire, as well as the original focus 
of the civilisation, was almost beyond ques- 
tion in Crete. The prejudice in favour of 
other focuses raised by the priority of 
JEgesm discoveries elsewhere, especially 
those made in the Argohd, has been greatly 
weakened by demonstration of the superior 
catholicity and quality of Cretan culture, 
and by recognition of the failure of Mycenae 
to offer evidence of anything like the same 
antiquity. And no more need be said here 
to counteract it than that, if Buckle's 
statement of the climatic and geographical 
conditions necessary to the first develop- 
ment and upward progress of culture be 
sound, those conditions were never present 
in plenitude, any where in the vEgean area 
except in Crete. There are found in the 
most conspicuous degree the combination 
of these geographical features— large tracts 
of fertile and deep lowland soil ; moun- 
tains so situated as to cause abundant 
precipitation, and so high as 
The Contact ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ against the early 

of Early 

summer ; absence of both 
swamps and desert areas ; and 
a climate not prone to extremes. 

Like all other high civilisations the 
^gean both borrowed and lent. Since 
its debts could be contracted only with 
contemporary cultures as high as its own, 
they were owed mainly to Egypt and 
Babylonia, while its loans went out 
chiefly to lower civilisations further re- 
moved than itself from the eastern centres, 
those, namely, of the European continent. 
As regards Egypt, something has been said 
already of its intercourse with the iE:gean 
in all ages of the latter's prehistoric 
period. The evidence of that intercourse, 
known even before the exploration of 
Crete, was fairly abundant, though 
limited almost entirely to later ages of 
^gean culture, often caUed particularly 
" Mycenaean." The " pre-Cretan " case 
was set forth very concisely in a paper 
read before the Royal Society of Literature 
in 1897 by Professor Flinders Petrie, who 
enumerated the objects of Egyptian fabric 
or style found on ^Egean sites, notably at 
Mycenae, and in Cyprus and Rhodes ; 
and of objects of .<Egean style or fabric 
found in Egypt, notably at Thebes, 
Memphis and Tell-el-Amarna, and in the 

Fayum. One word of warning only 
may be added — that the occurrence ol 
such imported objects, especially if they 
be of the amulet class, on a site of a certain 
date does not necessarily imply exact 
contemporaneity with the period at which 
the objects were actually produced; for 
they may well have been carried hither 
and thither in the stream of 
What Crete ^j-g^^g jq^ some time ere coming 
^^ . to rest, and been long preserved 

Taught us aftgi-wards. Some of the 
Cypriote and Rhodian tombs, for example, 
in which scarabs and other Egyptian 
objects of the Eighteenth Pharaonic 
Dynasty have been found, are probably 
considerably later than that dynasty. 

Crete has largely reinforced this evidence, 
not only by throwing it back to a much 
earlier time than that of the Eighteenth 
Dynasty, but by proving that in its later 
periods JEgea.n art had come to be con- 
siderably modified, both in forms and in 
motives and treatment of decoration, by 
the art of Egypt. We have then to do, 
not merely with mutuahy imported objects, 
but, much more than was previously 
understood, with the mutual action of 
influences — the strongest possible proof 
of close intercourse. On the.^gean side, 
our sole concern at present, are now found 
scenes represented in fresco-painting or 
metal-work — for example, the mural 
scene with a river and palms at Cnossus, 
and the well-known cat-hunting scene 
inlaid on a Mycenaean poniard — and also 
decorative motives which are of obvious 
Egyptian parentage. Other motives pro- 
claim their aliea origin by more or less 
mistaken treatment. The best instance 
in point is the use made of the lotus 
motive in Greece and the isles, where the 
flower was never domiciled. 

For influences of the Mesopotamian 
civilisation we have to look in the main 
to the early civihsations of Syria and Asia 
Minor ; but evidence is not wholly wanting 
on iEgean sites. A Babylonian 
Influence of (, i^^der came to light at Cnos- 
Egypt and ^^^ . ^^^ fashion of dress, 
Mesopotamia ggpg^^i^Hy female, as shown in 
iEgean frescoes and gems, is very like 
the Babylonian, from whatever primitive 
garments it had been developed ; and in 
other respects also the intagho class of 
Mgean art products shows at least as 
much Mesopotamian as Egyptian in- 
fluence. It has borrowed the decoration of 
both cyhnders and scarabs ; but it proves 



One of the chief glories of the art of ancient Greece left to the modern world. Athena was the goddess and 

protectress of Athens, and her statue stood at the height of the Acropolis, dominating the city. 


The Venus of Milo, one of the noblest examples of Greek art, and one of the most famous statues extant. Found 
at Milo, in Crete, about loo B.C., and now in the Louvre, Paris. , 




its essential independence all the time by 
never adopting the forms of either of those 
characteristic alien vehicles of glyptic art. 
Lastly, in the most important of all 
aspects of early civilisation — the religious — 
we now know that the ^^igean approxi- 
mated very closely to the old civilisations 
to south and east of it. The main idea 
of its cult was that which seems 

Ideas of 

Early Times 

to have been the oldest and the 
most dominant in such cults — 

namely, the worship of the re- 
productive force of Nature. This idea was 
embodied, as soon as divinities were 
imagined in human shape, in feminine form, 
the desired relation of divinity to humanity 
being expressed by the addition of a son- 
consort. How far other features of this 
cult, common to the south-eastern lands — 
such as the descent of the son to the 
human race, his periodical death at the 
hands of the latter, and his joyful resur- 
rection — were present, we do not yet 
know. It would probably be false to 
ascribe the presence of this cult idea in 
iEgean civilisation to any foreign influence, 
for it seems to be a necessary expression 
of the religious sense of many peoples, 
and is as likely to have been as indigenous 
in the case of Rhea and Zeus (to give the 
Divine pair their possible .-Egean names) as 
in those of Isis and Osiris, or Ashtaroth and 
Tammuz-Adon. But we may note first 
that here was a vital bond of affinity 
between the ^^gean folk and their main- 
land neighbours on east and south, and 
second, that long before historic Hellenic 
times the former had arrived at that essen- 
tial condition of progressive civilisation, an 
anthro})omorphic conception of divinity. 

Enough has now been said to show 
that /Egean civilisation was both a broad 
channel througli which influences of Asiatic 
and Egyptian culture could and did flow, 
and also in itself of such importance as to 
be likely to exert influence on nascent 
civilisation in Europe. To see whether 
it did so, we look first to the 
culture which succeeded 
it in its own area, the 
Hellenic culture of the his- 
toric age, about whose action, exerted in- 
directly on all subsequent civilisation, there 
is no possible doubt. And at the outset 
stress must be laid on the fact that we are 
dealing, in respect of the two civilisations 
in question, with one and the same geo- 
graphical area. There is here no question 
of alien influences dependent on short or 

The Greek 
Debt to /Egean 

long communications by sea or land. The 
Hellenic race, if indeed to be distinguished 
from all elements in the earlier iEgean, 
came into the very domain of the latter, 
and experienced by actual contact the full 
force of the pre-existent culture. This being 
so, the probability of heavy debts having 
been contracted by the later culture to the 
earlier is enormous ; and it becomes all 
but certainty when the few facts which 
we know about the early history of the 
Hellenic peoples proper come to be con- 
sidered in the light of ascertained general 
laws governing the relations of inter- 
mingled races. 

It is clear that the Hellenic tradition of 
a great descent of peoples from the north 
into mainland Greece and the western 
isles, about 1000 B.C., enshrines substantial 
fact. These peoples, possessed of iron 
weapons, were superior to the ^Egean folk 
in war, but evidently inferior in the softer 
social arts. The Greeks called them 
Dorians, a name afterwards associated 
with the most distinctive, but the least 
cultivated, of the historic races of the 
peninsula — a race, however, possessed in 
its full form of the conception 
merging ^^ ^j^^ city-state ; which im- 
u ,, . plied the subordination of the 

Hellenism • t • i i , .1 

mdividual to the corporate 
body, and was the chief social message to 
be taught thereafter by the Greek to the 

Without calling these invaders by any 
one name, or supposing Northern folk to 
have made then their first appearance in 
the ^gean area, we may safely see in this 
Greek tradition the record of a cataclysmic 
change out of which historic Hellenism was 
to issue at the last. In proof of the invader's 
inferiority in the useful arts we have the 
undoubted fact that the command of the 
Greek seas, formerly held by Cretans and 
other JEgesLTi folk, passed for some cen- 
turies into Semitic hands — the hands of 
those Sidonian Phoenicians whose coming, 
but as yet incomplete, " thalassocracy," is 
reflected in the most important of con- 
temporary documents, the Homeric lays, 
and, under the lead of the Tyrians, was to 
grow greater yet. To illustrate their 
inferiority in the luxurious arts we have 
the dry, uninventive style of artistic 
decoration known as the " Geometric," 
which also lasted for some centuries. It 
is evident that the newcomers were con- 
quering soldiers, who destroyed, but could 
not of their own virtue create. 



Now, the course of events after all 
such conquests, if permanent but not 
exterminative, is the same. The rude 
military invaders, finding themselves de- 
ficient in woman-folk, take not only slaves 
but wives from the civilised people of the 
soil. The resultant children tend more and 
more, as time goes on, to be influenced 
by their native mothers. In them previous 
culture begins to revive, and ere many 
generations are past, so completely is the 
new race assimilated by the old that the 
language in general use is that not of 
the conquerors but of the conquered. 

For a crucial instance we need look no 
further than to the after history of the 
Norman invaders of Britain ; and we 
might almost assume, were there no actual 
memorials of the fact, that the civilisation 
which arose anew in the ^gean area, after 
the tumultuous period reflected in the 
Homeric lays and the Greek tradition of 
early Asiatic colonisation, was largely 
influenced by what had been there in the 
^gean Age. There is, however, proof that 
such was indeed the fact. As will presently 
be pointed out, the long period of unrest had 
allowed other alien influences to 
e as an gj-j^gj- HeUas, notably the Sem- 
^ itic from Phoenicia. But be- 

side what appears to be Asiatic, 
and also beside what was new and dis- 
tinctively Hellenic in the historic culture, 
which became prominent from the ninth 
century onwards (and this includes such 
all-important features as the conceptions 
of a supreme Father-God, and of the 
city-state — an idea of social order as 
obdurate to southern influences as our 
own Germanic social order has proved) — 
beside all this, the " non-Hellenic " ele- 
ments in the civilisation are almost 
entirely such as may be referred to Algain 
I)rototypes. Hellenic art, which flourished 
j)re-eminently among the non-Dorian in- 
habitants, is distinguished from Eastern 
art by just those distinctive qualities of 
both realism and idealism which dis- 
tinguished the highest art of the ^gean 
Age. Hellenic religion has for its oldest, 
most universal, and most popular deities 
various feminine impersonations, indistin- 
guishable from the earlier Mother-Goddess. 
The chief of these is the unwcddcd Artemis- 
Aphrodite, su]neme patroness of life 
all through the historic period of pagan 
Greece, the essential features of whose 
cult are still dominant in the observance 
of the Greek peasant -worshippers of the 


Christian Virgin. Hellenic cult is full oi 

interesting survivals of the Tree and Stone 

ritual amply attested in ^gean cult. 

Hellenic custom retained many traces 

of a matriarchal system, appropriate to 

a society exclusively devoted to the Great 

Mother, whom Hellas took in name and 

actual primitive form to her pantheon 

^ under the names of Rhea and 

^. ... ^^. Kybele. The Dorian and 
Civilisation t • j^ 1 r 1. .l ^ 

. Q Ionian styles of architecture 

can be directly affiliated to the 
i5^gean as revealed in Mycentxan tombs 
and Cnossian frescoes, and the Greek 
house is a development of the earlier 
domestic plan. Certain notable excep- 
tions go far to prove the rule. The dress 
of the upper class, and the fashion of 
body-armour and weapons, seem to have 
been determined henceforth by the 
new folk. These are just the features 
in civilisation which conquering invaders 
would naturally introduce and retain. 
It is hardly necessary to add that if 
JEgesLU civilisation seriously influenced 
that of historic Hellas, it seriously 
influenced at second hand that of Western 
and Central Europe. 

Hellenic civilisation, however, was per- 
haps not the only medium through which 
^gean influence affected inner Europe. 
In Scandinavian tomb-furniture certain 
presumably foreign decorative motives, 
notably the returning spiral and the 
triqnetra, which are identical with charac- 
teristic i^igean types, make their appear- 
ance in the first part of the local Bronze 
Age ; and these have been noticed also, 
at a slightly later period, in the art of 
early Ireland, at that time the most 
civilised of the British Isles. In point of 
form also some Northern weapons in 
bronze resemble those of the Far South. 
If the spiral motive stood alone, the 
affiliation of this distant decorative art 
to the iEgean would be very doubtful, 
since Nature, whether through the forms 

^ . ^ assumed by vegetable tendrils 
Other ^gean ■ i i ii u 

, ,, ** or animal horns, or through 
Influences , , r t. ■ r j 

. „ those ot shavings ot wood or 

in Europe ■ . , ... ^ •, , 

metal, might easily have sug- 
gested the ornament independently. But 
taken together with other related motives, 
and the evidence of assimilation of weapon- 
forms, these spirals raise a ])resumption 
in favour of an early obligation of North 
Europe to i^gean civilisation. A ]:)Ossible 
explanation of this fact, if fact it be, has 
been found in the communication which 


appears to have been created by the 

TEgean demand for Baltic amber ; and 

early ways for this traffic have been 

traced by Dr. Arthur Evans up the 

Adriatic, and also overland from the 

iEgean shores to the Danube basin, 

whence, from a point near the later 

Carnuntum, a combined route ran up the 

Moldau to the Elbe system. Further, it 

is the opinion of Professor Montelius 

and some other archaeologists that not 

only certain bronze forms and decorative 

motives, but the usage of this metal 

itself was derived in Scandinavia from 

the south, somewhere before looo B.C. 

Since pure copper and pure tin hardly 

occur in Sweden among objects of this age, 

it has been held that the bronze was 

imported ready made in the mass. But 

Sweden contains large natural copper 

deposits, and tin is also found ; and, 

therefore, this opinion is not universally 

accepted. Indeed, some authorities reverse 

the debt, and actually derive iEgean 

knowledge of bronze from Europe. If, 

however, the first derivation be ever 

proved, we shall have to refer the first 

_ . , use of metal weapons — an 

Commercial , j- ^ , . 

„ . ,. enormous step forward m 

Communication . , ^ • at ; i 

. , p social progress — m North 

and Central Europe to the 
Southern civilisations, such as the Egyp- 
tian, which had certainly known and used 
bronze for at least a thousand years before 
we find it in Sweden. It is sometimes main- 
tained that Cyprus was the first, and long 
the sole, source of copper, which travelled 
north by way of Asia Minor and the iEgean 
to Hungary and inner Europe ; but this is 
not proved. In any case, for some reason, 
bronze seems to have become known to 
the Scandinavians and Danes earlier than 
to the Gallic peoples. 

Yet more evidence is there of possible 
iEgean communication with Central 
Europe after the introduction of iron, 
which seems not to have reached Scandi- 
navia till almost the Christian Era. Tran- 
sylvanian, Russian, and Balkan graves 
have yielded to recent explorers abund- 
ance of both weapons and decorated 
articles of personal use and adornment, 
closely resembling fabrics in the later 
periods of /Egean civilisation. Further into 
the European continent we have again the 
various evidence of the early Iron Age 
graves of the Salzkammergut on the south- 
eastern fringe of the Bavarian plain. This 
" Hallstatt " culture, as it is called, from 


in Western 

the location of the chief cemetery, presents 

both in character and development an 

extraordinarily close parallel to that of the 

iEgean Geometric Age. About the same 

period we know also that a civilisation was 

in progress in the fertile lands round the 

head of the Adriatic, which is called 

Veneto-Illyrian, and shows even stronger 

, „ evidence of ^Egean influence 

Influences ,, ,, tt v ^ j_^ i^ 

than the Hallstatt culture ; as, 

indeed, might be expected, if 
it be remembered that in 
Southern and Central Italy, as well as 
Sicily, forms and decoration, obviously 
learned from ^Egean civilisation, as well as 
actual imported ^Egean objects, had been 
plentiful ever since the bloom of the 
iEgean age. A visit to the local collections 
in Syracuse, Bari, and Ancona, will estab- 
lish this fact to the satisfaction of any 
archaeologist. These two civilisations, that 
of the Salzkammergut and that of the 
North Adriatic lands, have important bear- 
ing on the development of all Western 
Europe ; for we know that the Celtic 
peoples, who penetrated south of the 
Alps in the sixth and fifth centuries 
B.C., learned much from both, and espe- 
cially from the second ; and graves, fur- 
nished after they had been pressed back 
again into Switzerland and Gaul, show 
abundant evidence of what is called " sub- 
^gean " influence — that is, of form and 
ornament probably derived ultimately from 
iEgean culture, but indirectly, or after 
undergoing considerable degradation. 
Through various subsequent interme- 
diaries, notably the Belgic tribes, these 
derivatives passed ultimately to our own 
islands, and we find their influence opera- 
tive on early English art. 

At the same time it is necessary to add 
that this derivation of the higher develop- 
ments of mid-European and Scandinavian 
culture in the Bronze and Early Iron ages 
from the influence of iEgean civilisation is 
far from certain, whatever be the case for 
the Adriatic lands. Know- 
ledge obtained since Dr. 
Evans and Dr. Montelius 
first expressed their views, 
especially in regard to the so-called Neo- 
lithic or " Butmir " pottery, which has a 
very wide range in South-Eastern Central 
Europe, has not strengthened their case, 
but rather tended to suggest that the con- 
tinental culture developed independently 
to, though in a parallel direction with, that 
of the southern peninsulas and isles. If 



One Another 


this view ultimately prevail, it will illustrate 
the opinion, to which we personally incline, 
that the derivation of civilisations, one 
from another in early times, is the exception 
and not the rule, except in respect of minor 

Two other intermediary civilisations of 
the South-east remain to be considered — 
the Hittite and the Phoenician. The 
first is still, unfortunately, very little 
known to us, and we are hardly in a posi- 
tion to say much about its influence 
on Europe until more small objects of 
use and ornament have been discovered 
on Hittite sites. The general facts so far 
ascertained, which make such influence 
probable, are these. This civilisation, 
characterised and distinguished from all 
others by a very individual art, and by a 
system of writing apparently independent 
of the Mesopotamian and Egyptian sys- 
tems, but in its later development show- 
ing kinship to Mediterranean systems, lay 
across all the mainland routes from inner 
Asia and Egypt to South-eastern Europe. 
Its monuments have been found scattered 
thickly from the valley of the Syrian 
_,. ... Orontes northwards, to within 

mtml^°'"°'''-^5° miles of the Black Sea, and 
^! ... ,. westward to the last passes 
Civilisation i • i , , i r ^i 

which lead down trom the 

Anatolian plateau to the ^Egean littoral. 
So far as we can judge at present, its place 
of origin was Cappadocia, but its later 
focus was possibly in North Syria ; while 
its period of florescence ranges back from 
about the sixth century B.C. for at least 
a thousand years. 

It was, as we know from many writ- 
ten records, in frequent collision with 
both Egypt and Assyria, and in its 
southern home and latest period came 
under Mesopotamian domination. As is 
to be expected, therefore, its monuments 
show very strong Mesopotamian, and less 
strong Egyptian, influence. At the last, 
indeed, those of North Syria approximate 
very closely indeed to the contemporary 
Assyrian of the Sargonid Age. At the 
same time, however, they retain sufficient 
individuality never to be mistaken for 
other than Hittite ; they represent facial 
types, dress, and fashion of arms which 
are peculiar ; and the inscriptions they 
bear are always couched in a script 
having no relation to cuneiform writing. 

This vigorous civilisation, occupying the 
great land bridge from Asia into Europe 
in the dawn of the historic Hellenic period. 

and eminently receptive of Mesopotamian 

influences, cannot but have been a 

medium through which these reached the 

iEgean Sea, and so told on Europe. But 

this did not take place to any appreciable 

extent in what is known as the prehistoric 

period. The Cretan products, and those 

of the other ^gean Isles and mainland 

Greece, betray very little Meso- 

"f'^f... potamian influence, and none 

and Hittite li , ui ^ a 

, „ that we can reasonably trace to 

Influence ., TTi^ .l c r _ 

the Hittites. So far as we can 

see, the ^Egean culture was much more 
ancient than the Hittite, and if there was 
kinship between them we are bound, on 
the evidence, to derive the latter from the 
former, and not vice versa. There is a 
certain relation between late iEgean art 
and products of inland Asia Minor, but it 
indicates influence passing eastward rather 
than westward ; and even on the remoter 
iEgean sites of Asia Minor — Hissarlik, for 
instance — non-iEgean traces are but shght, 
and do not suggest the influence of 
a strong civilisation focused inland. 

In the early Hellenic Age, on the other 
hand, we have to note considerable Mesopo- 
tamian influence on Greek culture, and, at 
the same time, certain evidence of counter 
influence, both sub-/Egean and Graeco- 
Lydian, on Mesopotamia, which is as yet 
not fully understood. But whether both or 
either of these respective influences were 
transmitted through the Hittite civilisation 
is still very doubtful. The Egyptian 
influence on archaic Anatolia, especially 
on Rhodes, and even on the Greek main- 
land, seems clearly to have come by way 
of the sea ; and considering the part 
which the Phoenicians had been playing 
for some time previously as transmitters 
of things eastern, there is a probable alter- 
native westward route for Mesopotamian 
influence also. In Cyprus, at any rate, this 
influence, which at a certain period has left 
strong traces, certainly came for the most 
part through the western Semites. The 
. claim of the Hittites, however, 
The Hittite -^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ denied altogether. 
Pathway of t-, • ■ , i i x ji 

_. ... ' Iheirscript seems undoubtedly 
Civilisation , , i ,, 4. ( ju 

to have been the parent 01 Ine 

Lycian and other local Anatolian systems. 
Phrygian art and writing attest Graeco- 
Lydian influence inland ; Ionian culture 
was certainly not unaffected by the Lydian 
in which many students recognise a western 
offshoot of the Hittite ; and there are a 
few features in Ionian cult and in cult 
representations which seem to be owed 



rather to the rehgious system of the 
central plateau than to that native to 
the iEgean area. In this state of sus- 
pense we must leave the question, adding 
only these final remarks, that Greek tra- 
dition itself ascribed some of the arts and 
luxuries of its civilisation — for example, 
the coining of money — to Lydian inven- 
P t PI A *^°"' ^'^^ ^^^ affiliated to Lydia 
b [h *^^ ^ whole western culture, that 
p^ . . of Etruria ; while it is an un° 
doubted fact that a Mesopo- 
tamian standard of weight-currency 
travelled to the ^gean, and thence 
affected all western commerce, but by what 
channel we do not certainly know. There is 
an unknown quantity in all this problem — 
viz., Lydia. We have reason to suspect the 
latter of a considerable influence on early 
Hellenic civilisation, both as creator and 
transmitter, but must await further evidence. 

The part played by the Phoenicians in 
transmitting influences of civilisation from 
East to West is far more certain, and is 
now much better understood than it was 
a few years ago. Much vague exaggera- 
tion of it has been swept away by recent 
demonstration that there is practically 
nothing of probable Phoenician origin in 
the remains of the /Egean culture. The 
script of the latter is wholly independent ; 
the typical Phoenician vehicles of glyptic 
art, the cylinder and the scarab, were never 
naturalised in the early ^Egean ; the whole 
path of the latter's artistic development 
was distinct ; and the ^gean religious 
representations, once regarded as Semitic, 
are now seen to be native. On the other 
hand, decadent and derived ^gean forms 
and motives appear among the earliest 
Phoenician known to us. Influence, 
if it jxassed at all, between the ^gcan 
and the Syrian coast lands, in the pre- 
historic age, moved from west to east. 

In short, we now know that the Phoe- 
nicians did not begin to spread over the 
western sea and influence Europe till 
Ori in of *'^^ break up of the i^gean 
rigin o civilisation. The Homeric lavs 

OurWntten i tt n • ^\ n a J 

, and Hellenic myths reflect the 

Language . c c ■ ^■ 

mception of a Semitic ex- 
pansion, which must be placed after 
iioo B.C. Even in Homer there is more 
mention of Greek ships than of Sidonian, 
and the Tyrian ])o\vcr is yet to come. 
The latter pushed westward later, and 
the founding of Carthage, usually dated 
in the eighth century, marks its first 
great achievement along those distant 

sea-routes, which certainly the Semites 
had been coming to know during a couple 
of centuries of huckstering trade, even if 
the dependence of the early Hellenes on 
Phoenician knowledge of these waters has 
been overrated. But, in any case, during 
the interval between the fall of ^Egean 
power and the rise of the Hellenic maritime 
cities these Semites counted for much. 
Even in the light of Cretan discovery, we 
need not question their responsibility for 
the Greek alphabet, and thus, indirectly, 
for the ultimate medium of written com- 
munication used throughout European 
civilisation ; nor need it be doubted that 
Hellenic writers, who trace early instruction 
in trade and barter to visits of Semitic ships 
to their coasts, show real, though limited, 
knowledge of fact. Phoenician factories 
were certainly established on Greek shores, 
and left Semitic forms among later Greek 
place-names ; and it is quite possible 
that political power was exercised at one 
time by Semitic colonists in parts of 
Hellas. Sufficient Phoenician art products 
have been found on archaic Hellenic sites, 
to prove that, in the period between 1000 
and 500 B.C., the iEgean coasts 
^!"* "^ . were often visited by these 

n "^'*" ^"^ Semites. Such objects are espe- 
Greek Art • „ • y,, j ^ 

cially numerous m Rhodes, a 

convenient stage on the westward sea route, 
and they radiate over not only Ionia and 
the Hellenic lands, but also into the further 
Mediterranean, to Sicily and its neigh- 
bouring islands, to Italy and South Gaul, 
and to Sardinia and Spain. Carthage 
probably had much to say in their 
western distribution. 

Of Semitic influence on archaic Greek 
art there is considerable evidence. After 
the Geometric Age, we find in the Greek 
lands pottery and metal-work showing cer- 
tain motives and arrangement of decora- 
tion foreign to iEgean art, and referable 
ultimately to the Mesopotamian and 
Egyptian. Such are the animals and 
monsters disposed in concentric friezes 
and zones on Cypriote bowls, Corin- 
thian vases, and the Cretan shields of 
the Idaean Cave. But this influence, 
strong and undoubted as it was, must 
not be over estimated. As the Hellenes 
rose to power, their instinct of sincerity 
and naturalism, inherited from ^gean 
civilisation, revolted against, and 
triumphed over, this parasitic Semitic 
art, and already in the ninth or eighth 
century we find a Gr?eco-Lydian influence, 


History of the world 

which owes nothing to Phoenician, break- 
ing back to the east and creating the 
ivories of the Sargonid Age at Nineveh. 
Phoenician objects thenceforward become 
fewer and fewer in Hellenic strata, and 
in the sixth century B.C. they virtuahy 
vanish. By this time Phoenicia had be- 
come a subject country, about to give up 
the last ghost of its indepen- 
dence to the Greeks them- 

No Phoenician 
in Britain 

selves, as its western offshoot, 
Carthage, was also to surrender 
a little later to another civilisation near akin 
to the Greek. But, needless to say, the 
Semite has had his full revenge for the 
short tenure of his earliest predominance 
in European waters. The fall of Phoenicia 
cleared the way for another Semitic family 
to capture international trade, and, first 
with one creed and then another, to conquer 
the Greeks, the Romans, and the World. 

There are, of course, possibilities of 
direct Phoenician intercourse with non- 
Mediterranean Europe — for example, with 
England's south-western coasts ; but they 
need not detain us. For whether certain 
Semites came to Cornwall in quest of tin 
or no, it is certain that by these no 
lasting influence of civilisation passed in 
to England. Neither the religion, the 
speech, nor the script of Britain owed 
them anything. Recent scholarship tends 
to discredit any Semitic element even in 
English south-western place-names. 

Such, in brief outline, are the channels 
through which the civilisations of the 
South-eastern river- valleys could communi- 
cate with primitive Europe. It is easier to 
l)oint them out than to say exactly what 
flowed along them. Seldom can so definite 
a debt be recorded as that under which 
wc lie to the Semites of Phoenicia, for the 
names and the forms of the written 
characters which, presumably, they them- 
Th o ■ • selves had borrowed from 
^ c^ ngms £gyp|.^ ^j^^ modified ere they 

Civilisations P^''^^^ them westwards. 
Usually the obligation must be 
stated much more vaguely, being confined, 
as in the case of ^Egean influences, to little 
more than a general responsibility for 
the spirit, and for many forms of the ex- 
pression, of the first great artistic growth 
on the mainland soil of Europe, as well as 
for certain persistent and dynamic features 
in South Euiopean cults. 

Thus, it becomes even more apparent 
at the end of our discussion than it was 
at the beginning that when all has been 
said about influences of Egypt and 
Mesopotamia, and influences of the inter- 
mediate civilisations of the ^Egean, Syria, 
and Asia Minor, only a very small part of 
the whole story of incipient European 
civilisation has been told. Nor is it to be 
expected that the origin of our culture 
should be capable of being adequately 
expressed in terms of other cultures, 
developed at a great distance and under 
different geographical conditions. Civilisa- 
tions, destined to be living growths, spring, 
it seems, of themselves, and the debts which 
they can incur at the first are very small 
and mostly in small things. It is only when 
they are come to adult estate, have bred 
men of wealth and leisure with open 
and receptive minds, and have broken 
through the geographical barriers about 
them, that they begin to borrow at 

One of the intermediate civilisations 

of which we have treated, the iEgean, 

the only one whose own origins are fairly 

well known, offers proof in point. Its 

remains indicate but trifling 

J*. .. f. , obligations to neighbouring 
Childhood '^ ° - 

of Europe 

Egypt till a very late period, 
that which, in Crete, we call the 
Third Minoan. Thereafter, in the space 
of two or three generations, the 
evidence of its debt increases at a 
wholly disproportionate rate. So too, 
no doubt, in the misty period of the child- 
hood of Central and Western Europe, 
little was borrowed from abroad that was 
essential to civilisation ; and the heavy 
obligations which we owe to the Eastern 
lands fall in ages much more recent. 
They fall, in fact, in those times which 
saw the Anatolian cult of Kybele and 
Attis, the Egyptian cult of Isis and Horus- 
Harpocrates, the Mesopotamian cult of 
Mithra, and, far more momentous, of 
course, than these, Christianity — Hebrew 
in origin if modified by Greek concep- 
tions — brought by a greater intermediary 
civilisation than any with which we have 
had to deal, to the knowledge of inner 
European races already long emerged 
from savagery, and able and eager to 

David George Hogarth 





IT is a familiar fact that offspring 
resemble their parents on the whole, 
but differ from them in details. For 
example, the child of a human being is 
always another, but never an exactly 
similar, human being. 

These differences in detail are of two 
sorts, inboyn and acquired. Inborn or 
innate differences arise " by nature " ; 
the child is inherently unlike the parent — 
taller or shorter, fairer or darker, and so 
forth. Acquired differences, on the other 
hand, are due to the conditions under 
which parents and children have lived. 
Thus, owing to better or worse surround- 
ings, the child may develop better or 
worse than the parent and so be taller or 
shorter, or a greater exposure to weather 
may render him darker or fairer. 

It was formerly believed by scientific 

men, and is still believed by the public, 

that traits acquired by the parent 

tended to be inherited by the 

^XT^^J^ . child — that is, reproduced as 
Wc Cannot , , •, Vi, -J. 

J . . mborn traits. 1 hus it was sup- 

posed that if a man were made 
strong by exercise, or injured by accident, 
his child would tend to inherit, in some 
degree at least, the acquired benefit or 
injury, and as a result be naturally stronger 
or more defective than the parent was at 
the start. 

But very prolonged and careful investi- 
gation has proved that this is certainly an 
error. For example, though for aeons 
human beings have been learning to speak 
and walk, and make a multitude of other 
acquirements, yet none of these are ever 
inherited. In fact, owing to the evolution 
of memory and the retrogression of 
instinct, man, of all animals, acquires the 
most and inherits the least. Every child 
has to begin afresh and learn what its 
ancestors learnt ; all are born ignorant ; 
none speak or walk " naturally." Each 
starts where the parent began, not where 
he left off. The parental traits, if repro- 
duced at all, are always of the same kind in 
the child as in the parents, and appear in 

the same way. That is, the inborn traits 
of the parent are always inborn in the 
offspring ; the acquired traits are never 
anything but acquirements resulting 
from the same causes as they did in the 
parent. In brief, the acquirements of 
the parent are never transmuted into 
inborn characteristics in the 

child. They are never inherited. 
It is admitted on all hands 

Traits not 

^ that inborn differences — varia- 
tions, as they are termed technically — 
tend to be inherited. 

Thus, if the parent is naturally darker 
than the grandparent, the child tends in 
colour to resemble the former more than 
the latter. Since the child may vary from 
the parent in the same direction as the 
latter varied from the grandparent, these 
inborn differences may be accentuated in 
subsequent generations. It is due to this 
fact that plant and animal breeders have 
improved domesticated species.. They 
are able to benefit the individual by 
improving his surroundings, but the race 
they can improve only by breeding from 
the best. In other words, when they 
have the latter end in view, they must 
build on natural variations, not on 

One of the most important problems in 

the whole range of science is the question 

as to what causes offspring to differ in this 

inborn, natural way from their parents. 

Many theories have been formulated, 

and the subject is still to some extent 

under discussion ; but the evidence is 

overwhelming that variations — natural 

, _ ^ differences — are not generally 
A Great j , ^ t ^■ -^ 

Probl caused, as most people believe, 

oi\i^Z,ce ^y anything that happens to the 
parent before the birth of the 
child, but are " spontaneous." The sub- 
ject is a large and intricate one, and we 
have not space to discuss it at length. One 
or two facts, however, may be mentioned. 
The members of a litter of puppies, 
kittens, or pigs, may differ naturally 
amongst themselves and from their parents 



in all sorts of ways — in colour, shape, size, 
hairiness, disposition, and so on. One 
puppy may present points of resemblance 
to the father, another to the mother, a 
third to some ancestor, while a fourth may 
be unlike any of its predecessors. Since, 
practically speaking, the puppies were all 
conditioned alike before birth, it is evident 
_.„ that these great differences 

amor*"*'" "^"^^ ^^ " spontaneous." They 
K™°H^ A caimot have been caused by 
such things as the good or ill 
health of the parents, their food, or the 
hfe they led, for, in that case, the puppies 
would all have varied in the same way. 

Again, malaria is, in effect, a universal 
disease on the West Coast of Africa. 
Individuals differ naturally in their powers 
of resisting it, some taking it lightly and 
some severely ; but almost every negro 
suffers, and many children perish of it. If 
the sufferings of the parents caused children 
to be born weaker " by nature," it is 
evident that every individual would start 
life inferior to his predecessor at the 
start, and the race would thus degenerate 
and ultimately become extinct. On the 
other hand, if variations are " spon- 
taneous," if, quite unaffected by the 
sufferings of the parents, some children are 
born naturally different, naturally more or 
less resistant to malaria than their pre- 
decessors, it is plain that the weeding out 
of the unfittest, the weak against the 
disease, would ultimately make the race 
resistant to it. In the one case the race 
would drift to destruction ; in the other 
it would undergo protective evolution. 
Obviously, the latter is what has happened. 
Negroes show no signs of any kind of 
degeneration, but they are of all races the 
most resistant to malaria. 

Similarly, Enghshmen who have been 
much exposed to consumption and measles, 
natives of India who have been much 
afflicted by enteric fever and dysen- 
tery, Esquimaux who have suffered from 
. cold, Arabs who have endured 

u cring jieat. Chinamen and Jews who 

Stren"t" ^'^^^ ^^'^^ dwelt under that 
complex of ill conditions found 
in slums and ghettos, are none of them 
degenerate, but, on the contrary, have 
become resistant, each race to its own par- 
ticular ill-conditions in proportion to its 
sufferings in the past. In fact, it may be 
laid down as a general rule that races 
strengthen only when exposed to ill con- 
ditions, and deteriorate only when the 

conditions are so favourable that the unfit 
are not eliminated. An example of the 
latter is seen when prize breeds of animals 
and plants, however well nourished and 
cared for, are no longer bred with care. 
It follows that races, if not exterminated, 
are not injured but strengthened by ill 
conditions, by the elimination of the un- 
fittest, as gold is refined by fire. 

It is a remarkable fact that many people 
are able to accomplish the surprising feat 
of knowing that races have become inured 
to ill conditions, and of believing at the 
same time that the offspring of people 
exposed to such conditions tend, as a rule, 
to be degenerate. It is as if they believed 
that two and two make four, and two 
more six, but that if a great number of 
two's are added together the total result 
is a minus quantity. Obviously the two 
beliefs are incompatible. A race cannot 
degenerate in every generation and yet 
emerge in the end strengthened from the 
struggle. The confusion has arisen because 
the two diametrically opposite propo- 
sitions are seldom considered together, and 
in part also from a mistaken interpretation 
of what is observed in such 
situations as the slums of cities. 
Here puny children are seen to 
be derived from puny parents, 
and it is assumed that the children are 
degenerate because the parents have 

As a fact we have no reason to doubt that 
Ihe children are affected in precisely the 
same way as the parents. On the one hand, 
slums are sinks into which descend people 
naturally inferior, people who have varied 
spontaneously from their ancestors in such 
a way as to "be feeble, physically or men- 
tally, and who reproduce their like. On the 
other hand, the conditions are such that 
even the naturally strong, both parents and 
children, develop badly. Doubtless, owing 
to the constant elimination of the unfit, 
the latter — the naturally strong— are by 
far the more numerous. There is nothing 
to show that, if they were removed in early 
life to better surroundings, they would not 
develop just as well as the offspring of 
country folk. 

The fact that races grow resistant to the 
ill conditions to which they are exposed, 
and degenerate when placed under par- 
ticularly good conditions, is decisive proof 
that offspring are not, as a rule, innately 
affected by the surroundings of their 
parents. No doubt exceptions occur, but 

of the 


these are amongst the most unfit, and the 
race is soon purged of them. Thus Euro- 
pean dogs are said to degenerate when 
taken to India. But the existence of old- 
estabhshed native races of dogs is 
proof that the degenerative process is not 
perpetual. Malaria and many other ill 
conditions are quite normal parts of the 
environment of the races ex- 

„ . so for thousands of years. 
now Ceased t- , r • i 

bxcept for occasional un- 
favourable variations, which are quickly 
eliminated, they have long purged 
the races of those strains that tended 
to become degenerate under their 

After man — through the evolution of 
the structures and faculties which distin- 
guish him from the lower animals, the large 
brain, with its accompanying memory, 
the organs of speech, the hand, the erect 
attitude — had achieved the conquest of 
the earth, his selection and evolution along 
the ancestral lines gradually diminished, 
and has now almost ceased. At the pre- 
sent day clever, strong, or active people 
do not on the average have an appreciably 
more numerous progeny than those who 
are not exceptionally endowed. No modern 
race is intellectually superior to the Greeks 
who flourished more than two thousand 
years ago. The brains, the hands, the 
organs of speech, the erect attitude, 
have not altered. Apparently nothing 
more than traditional knowledge has 

The gradual accumulation of traditional 
knowledge during prehistoric times en- 

abled man to cultivate animals and plants, 
and so to increase and regulate his supply 
of food. As a consequence his numbers 
multiplied. Areas of country which for- 
merly supported only a few wandering hun- 
ters now afforded sustenance to growing 
multitudes of agriculturists, who often 
dwelt together for mutual protection 
in villages. Commerce followed agricul- 
ture, towns and cities arose, and civflisa- 
tion dawned. 

Civilisation implies a dense and settled 
community, protected from most . of the 
dangers which beset wild animals, and in 
which, therefore, the elimination of the 
unfit is no longer of the kind that weeded 
out the brute and the utter savage. Some 
sort of elimination does occur, however, 
for, even in the most civilised states, mul- 
titudes of people perish in youth, before 
they have contributed their full quota of 
offspring to the race. 

We have excellent opportunities of 
studying this elimination and noting 
whether it results in evolution. Indeed, 
man presents the only instance in 
Nature in which we are able to observe 
natural selection actually at 
work. In all modern states 
statistics are compiled which 
set out the causes of death, the 
mortality from each cause, and the ages of 
its victims. By comparing races which have 
been much afflicted by this or that cause 
of mortality with races that have been little 
or not at all affected, we are able to ascer- 
tain the resulting racial change, if any. As 
may be noted by everyone, civilised people 
perish, with rare exceptions, of disease. 

at Work 


YV/E have just seen that every race is 

^ resistant to every disease precisely 

in proportion to its past experience of it. 

It follows that the evolution of civilised 

. peoples is against disease. If 

Resistance ^^^^^ j^j^^ ^^ evolution is 

of Races •' , 

_. now occurnng, no one as yet 

has been able to demonstrate 
it, though many unproved guesses have 
been made. Mere alterations in traditional 
knowledge is not evolution. Children may 
derive it just as well from other people 
as from their parents. 

The vast majority of deaths from disease 
are of zymotic origin. A zymotic or 
microbic disease is caused by the entrance 
into the body of minute animals or plants 

(microbes), which find their nutriment 
there. There are many species of microbes, 
each disease being due to one. Some 
species are mainly air-borne, and infect 
through the breath ; others are water- 
borne ; others earth-borne ; yet others 
insect-borne ; while a few pass by actual 
contact from an infected to a healthy 

Some diseases — for example, consump- 
tion and leprosy — are of indefinite but 
always prolonged duration ; others, like 
measles, are short and sharp. In the case 
of the latter, for reasons we need not dwell 
on here, the body after an attack becomes, 
for a longer or shorter time, an unfit habi- 
tation for the microbes of that particular 



The Way 

is Spread 

the like- 

species. The rapid recovery which occurs 
in these " acute " diseases, indeed, imphes 
the banishment of the microbes. The air- 
borne diseases — measles, influenza, small- 
pox, and the like, all of that acute type 
which confers immunity against subse- 
quent attacks — are very infective, spread- 
ing through a susceptible population with 
great rapidity. Under favour- 
able conditions the water- 
borne diseases also — cholera, 
dysentery, enteric fever, and 
may spread very quickly. Chief 
amongst the earth-borne diseases is con- 
sumption. It is contracted chiefly in such 
dark, ill-ventilated, and crowded houses 
as are built by the inhabitants of cold and 
temperate climates. 

The disease-producing microbes are an 
infinitesimal proportion of the total num- 
ber of bacterial and protozoan species. In 
Nature it is not easy to find a speck 
of earth or a drop of water from which 
these minute living beings are absent. 
All decay, by means of which the 
dead bodies of plants and animals are 
returned to the soil, is due to them. 

It is a safe assumption that the microbes 
of human diseases have evolved from non- 
parasitic species. The niche they now 
occuj)y in Nature is the human body. Two 
things formed essential parts of this evolu- 
tion — first, the microbes became capable of 
existing and multiplymg for a shorter or 
longer period in the body ; secondly, they 
evolved means of passing from one living 
body to another. The latter must have 
been the more difficult process. Under 
favourable circumstances several species 
of microbes — for example, those of putre- 
faction, which are ordinarily non-parasitic 
— are capable of entering the human body 
and becoming virulent ; but, since they 
cannot secure passage from one individual 
to another, they die out, and their viru- 
lence is lost. Historical evidence renders 
it probable that all known human diseases 

-,. , are of immense antiquity, 

The Immense .1 ,, j i- -^ 

Anti uit so-called new diseases 

orDil^eaLs ^^^"^^ merely newly-observed 
diseases. It appears probable, 
therefore, that, owing to constant perse- 
cution by disease, by continued survival of 
the fittest, humanity has grown so resistant 
that no species of microbe which has not 
undergone concurrent evolution is now 
able to establish itself as a regular parasite. 

Obviously, since the microbes of human 
diseases draw their nutritive supplies from 


man, they cannot persist except amongst 
populations so crowded that they are able 
to pass from one individual to another in 
unending succession. When the succession 
fails, the disease dies out, and is not 
renewed, except from foreign sources. 
Microbic disease is never contracted in 
desert places far from human settlements, 
and even in modern times it is compara- 
tively rare amongst nomadic tribes, and, 
seemingly, was quite unknown in Arctic 
regions and in many Pacific islands before 
its introduction by Europeans. These 
maladies, therefore, must have made their 
appearance only after men had peopled 
certain regions in considerable numbers, 

On the other hand, we have no certain 
evidence that any well-established para- 
sitic disease has ever completely died out. 
The chances are all against such an occur- 
rence in the past. When once established as 
parasites, the microbes, owing to the 
constant growth of human population, 
found a constantly augmented food supply, 
and therefore constantly increased oppor- 
tunities of reaching fresh fields of con- 
quest. Sanitary science is still in its 
infancy. Preventive measures, 
and perhaps other agencies, 
have caused the disappear- 
ance of leprosy from several 
countries, but it is still prevalent in many 
quarters of the globe. Contagious diseases 
have spread very widely. Earth and air 
borne diseases have become endemic 
instead of merely epidemic. Consumption 
is always with us, and almost every 
child contracts measles, whooping-cough, 
chicken-pox, and common cold. Small-pox 
has been replaced by vaccination, which is 
merely modified small-pox. Malaria has 
spread but little during the historic epoch, 
but only because its microbes were already 
])resent in almost every place where the 
mosquitoes that convey it are able to exist. 
All our information indicates the Eastern 
Hemisphere as the place of origin both of 
man and of his microbic diseases. Parts 
of it have been inhabited by a dense 
and settled population from a time im- 
mensely remote. " Behind dim empires 
ghosts of dimmer empires loom." Beyond 
the traces of the oldest civilisations we find 
evidences of primitive agricultural com- 
munities, and far beyond these the remains 
of the cave-men and hunters of the 
Stone Age. Even a race of hunters tends 
to increase faster than the food supply. 
Doubtless the pressure of population in 

of Sanitary 

Dr. Archdall Reid, in his essay on race supremacy, explains tliat the evolution of civilised peoples is against disease, 
and that, therefore, the age of pestilence and plague is passing. This picture of an incident in the greatest plague 
that has affected London in historical times— in the year 1655 — is from the painting- by F. W, Topham, R.L 


the Old World led to the colonisation of the 
New. But even in the New World there are 
signs of a civilisation so ancient that some 
authorities have placed its beginnings as far 
back as a score or more of thousands of years. 
With the exception of malaria, it is extremely 
doubtful whether any zymotic disease ex- 
isted in the whole of the New World at 
the time of its discovery by Columbus. 

The subject is involved in obscurity; 
but, while it is evident that the European 
adventurers introduced many diseases, 
there is no clear indication that they 
found and brought back one. Appa- 
rently all the diseases which have been 
prevalent in Europe and America during 
the last four hundred years were preva- 
lent in the former continent before the 
fifteenth century. Venereal disease and 
yellow fever have sometimes been regarded 
as exceptions. But the former was well 
known to the Roman physicians, and was 
common during the ^Middle Ages. Moreover, 
the inhabitants of the New World take the 

disease in a very acute form, and it is not 
found in remote communities to which 
Europeans have had no access. Yellow 
fever was first noted with certainty in 
the West Indies in the middle of the 
seventeenth century. The records of the 
time " tell of the importation of the 
disease from place to place, and from 
island to island." 

Not till more than a century later 
was it observed on the West Coast of 

. . Africa. There can be no doubt, 

rigins however, that the earlier ob- 
... servers confused yellow fever 

with bilious malaria, and that it 
was present both in the West Indies 
and Africa long before a differential 
diagnosis was made. The fact that of all 
races negroes are most resistant to the 
disease would seem to indicate West Africa 
as the place of origin. In any case, it is 
certain that, with the exception of malaria, 
zymotic diseases, if not entirely absent, 
were extremely rare in the New World. 


ZYMOTIC disease, then, arose amongst 

^- the slowly-growing populations of the 

Old World. Air and insect borne diseases 

may have arisen amongst the early hunters 

and nomads. Similar fo ms of disease, 

murrains as they were anciently termed — 

for example, distemper, rinder- 

Vi ^* ° pest, the horse sickness in South 

. ^p' *" . Africa, the rabbit plague in 

a s s 1 n g ?sjQj.^]^gj.j^ Canada, and the cattle 

fever in Texas — occur among lower ani- 
mals, when these are present in considerable 
numbers. With the exception of tubercu- 
losis and leprosy, endemic disease was 
))robably almost unknown in the sjnrsely- 
j)eopled ancient world. The facts that 
air and water borne diseases spread very 
rapidly, that the illnesses caused by them 
are comjmratively short and sharp, and 
that recovery is followed by immunity, 
must have caused rapid exhaustion of the 
food supply of the microbes. Under such 
conditions the persistence of the patho- 
genic species was maintained among the 
scanty populations by a passage to new 
and perhaps very distant sources of supply. 
Introduced by travellers, or si-)reading 
from tribe to tribe, they appeared suddenly 
in epidemic form as plagues and pesti- 
lences, and, disaj:)pearing as suddenly, were 
not known again ^ill a fresh generation 
furnished a fresh supply of food. 


When, however, in spite of war, famine, 
and pestilence, the human race increased 
to such an extent that the number of 
fresh births furnished a perennial supply 
of food, while at the same time a rising 
civilisation and improved means of com- 
munication lessened the isolation of various 
communities, then many diseases slowly 
passed from an epidemic to an endemic 
form. Pestilence grew rare, but every in- 
dividual was exposed to infection, and, 
during youth, either perished from, or 
acquired inmiunity against, the more 
jwevalent forms of disease. 

When endemic, zymotic disease — at 
any rate, disease against which immunity 
can be acquired — is far less terrible than 
when epidemic. Modern examples of 
ancient ejiidemics may be seen in isolated 
regions. In Pacific islands, for example, 
air-borne disease spreads like 
ff^.^^ . aflame. The whole community 

a National . • , , t-. • , 

_ IS Stricken down. Ihe sick 

courge ^^^ left untended and i)erish in 
multitudes. The entire business of the 
community is neglected, and famine 
frequently follows. Under such conditions 
measles or whooping-cough, diseases wliich 
we in England are accustomed to regard 
as scarcely more than nuisances, may rise 
to the level of a great national disaster. 
Thus, in 1749, 30,000 natives perished of 


measles on the banks of the Amazon. 
In 1829 half the population died in 
Astoria. In 1846 measles committed 
frightful ravages in the Hudson Bay 
territory. More recently a quarter of the 
total inhabitants was swept away in the 
Fiji group of islands. 

At the dawn of history, long after 
the evolution of zymotic disease, the 
„ .^ . population of the Eastern 

oanitation It ■ 1 x-n i 

. _ ^. Hemisphere was still sparse and 
p . scattered. Even as late as 

the Norman Conquest that of 
England was barely two millions — about 
one-third of the number now present in 
London. Means of communication were 
poor and beset by dangers. A journey 
from York to London was then a more 
serious affair than a journey from London 
to San Francisco to-day. Water and air 
borne diseases were, therefore, absent 
during long periods of time. When they 
came they spread as epidemics. According- 
ly we read of plague and pestilence ; of 
diseases suddenly becoming epidemic and 
sweeping away a fourth or half of entire 
communities. Historians are apt to 
attribute these immense catastrophes 
partly to the bad sanitation of the period 
and partly to diseases which have died 
out of the world, or, at any rate, out of 
Europe. Doubtless they are right in a 
few instances. But, apart from diseases 
which spread under special circumstances 
from tropical centres, bad sanitation, 
under modern conditions of intercom- 
munication and crowding, tends to render 
water-borne disease endemic, not epi- 
demic. Over air-borne disease it has no 
effect. Measles, whooping-cough, chicken- 
pox, influenza, common cold, and small- 
pox (in a modified form) are as common 
as ever. 

The character of these ancient epi- 
demics, their special symptoms as indi- 
cated in old literature, their sudden and 
portentous apj^earance, which men attri- 
buted to the wrath of God, 

..*f^"w *!. their tremendous infectivity and 

the Wrath ■, j .1 • n 

fG d" rapid spread, their equally 

sudden and complete departure 

as of Divine anger assuaged, point rather 

to air and water borne diseases of the 

types now endemic and comparatively 

harmless among us, but still so fearful 

in their effects on isolated communities. 

Like the light flashed from a child's 

mirror on a darkened wall, so they 

flickered and swept forwards and back- 

wards from end to end of the Old World — 
from the Malay Peninsula to the North 
Cape of Norway, from Kamschatka to 
the south point of Africa. A parallel may 
be found in the recent epidemic of rinder- 
pest amongst the herbivorous animals of 
Africa. Years might pass, old men might 
remember, the peoples might sacrifice to 
their gods ; but when a fresh generation 
of those who knew not the disease had 
arisen, when the harvest of the non- 
immune was ripe and ready, the diseases 
would return to the dreadful reaping. 
Behind them the earth was heaped with 
the dead, and the few and stricken survi- 
vors grubbed for roots to satisfy their 
hunger. To-day sanitation has nearly 
abolished water-borne diseases, and, in 
a population largely immune, epidemics 
of air-borne disease, like a light thrown 
on a sunht wall, are but faint shadows 
of that which they were in their old days 
of awful power. 

The progress of consumption was 
different ; it was never truly epidemic. 
Owing to its low infectivity, to its hnger- 
ing nature, to the fact that no immunity 
g could be acquired against it, 

/_ . ,. it did not SDread suddenly when 
of Resisting r , ■ . ' j j t..-^ 1 
Power ■'' introduced, but when 

once established its virulence 
did not abate within measurable time. 
In other words, it was endemic from the 
beginning. It made its home in the 
hovels of the early settlers on the land. In 
such situations— as in Polynesian villages 
— modern Englishmen do not take the 
disease. But their remote ancestors were 
more susceptible ; they could be infected 
by a smaller dose of the bacilli. Gradually, 
as civilisation advanced, the conditions 
grew more stringent ; men gathered into 
larger and denser communities, into 
hamlets and villages in which they built 
houses ill lighted and worse ventilated. 

With the rise of towns, and ultimately 
of great cities, the stringency of selection 
continually increased ; and with it, step 
by step, the resisting power of the race. 
To-day Englishmen dwell under condi- 
tions as impossible to their remote ances- 
tors as to the modern Red Indians. In fact, 
no race, especially in cold and temperate " 
climates, is now able to achieve civilisation, 
to dwell in dense communities, unless it has 
previously undergone evolution against 
tuberculosis. But of this m.ore anon. 

So during the long sweep of the ages 
microbic diseases strengthened their hold 



on the inhabitants of the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere, who in turn slowly evolved powers 
of resistance. In like manner antelopes 
grew swift and wild sheep active when 
j)ersecuted by beasts of prey. Then, 
when the germs of disease were rife in 
every home and thick on the garments of 
ev'ery man, there occurred the greatest 
event in human history, the vastest 
tragedy. Columbus, sailing across an 
untracked ocean, discovered the Western 
Hemisphere. The long separation between 
the inhabitants of tlie East and West 
ended. The diseases of the Old World 
burst with cataclysmal results on the New. 
The ancient condition of the Eastern 
Hemisphere was reproduced in the West. 
Again we read of plague and pestilence, 
of water-borne and air-borne diseases 
coming and going in great epidemics, and 
of the famines that followed. Measles 
and cholera piled the earth with the dead. 
The part played by small-])ox was even 
greater. When taken to the West Indies 
in 1507 whole tribes were exterminated. 
A few years later it quite depopulated 
San Domingo. In Mexico it destroyed 
three and a half millions of 
3,500.000 people. Prescott describes 

Destroyed by f, ■ ^ r , r ,1 j 

c ,, this first fearful epidemic as 

Small-pox ., xi 1 J Ti 

sweeping over the land like 
fire over the prairies, smiting down ])rince 
and peasant, and leaving its path strewn 
with the dead bodies of the natives, who — 
in the strong language of a contemporary — 
perished in heaps like cattle stricken wjth 
murrain." In 1841 Catlin wrote of the 
United States : " Thirty millions of white 
men are now scufHing for the goods and 
luxuries of life over the bones of twelve 
millions of red men, six millions of whom 
have fallen victims to small-pox." 

But the principal i)art was played by 
tuberculosis. Air-borne and water-borne 
diseases generally left an immune remnant, 
but against tuberculosis no immunity 
could be acquired. Red Indians and 
Caribs could not in a few generations 
achieve an evolution which the inhabi- 
tants of the Old World had accomplished 
only after thousands of years, and at the 
cost of hundreds of millions of lives. 
Civilisation, which imjilit^s a dense and 
settled community with cities and towns, 
had suddenly i)ecome a necessity, but 
remained an impossibility to all tlie 
inhabitants of the temperate parts of the 
West. It is a highly significant fact that 
throughout the New World no city or 


town has its native quarter, whereas 
every European settlement in Asia and 
Africa has its native suburbs. The 
aborigines of the New World are found 
only in remote or inaccessible parts. 

The following is an example of the 
manner in which tuberculosis went to 
work : " The tribe of Hapaa is said to 
have numbered some four hun- 
s^"^ dred when the smallpox came 
.. * pf^** and reduced them by one- 
fourth. Six months later, a 
woman developed tubercular consumption ; 
the disease spread like fire about the valley, 
and in less than a year two survivors, a 
man and a woman, fled from the newly- 
created solitude. . . . Early in the 
year of my visit, for example, or late in 
the year before, a first case of phthisis 
appeared in a household of seventeen 
persons, and by the end of August, 
when the tal^ was told to me, one soul 
survived, a boy who had been absent 
on his schooling." 

The Caribs of the West Indies are 
alm.ost extinct. The Red Indians are 
going fast, as are the aborigines of cold 
and temperate South America. The Tas- 
manians have gone. The Australians and 
the Maoris are but a dwindling remnant. 
As surely as the trader with his clothes, 
or the missionary with his church and 
schoolroom appears, the work of exter- 
mination begins on Polynesian islands. 
Throughout the whole vast extent of the 
New World the only pure aboiigines who 
seem destined to persist are those which 
live remote in mountains or in the depths 
of fever-haunted forests, where the white 
man is unable to build the towns and 
cities with which he has studded the 
cooler and more " healthy " regions of 
the north and south. 

Many explanations, or pseudo-exj)lana- 
tions, have been offered to account for 
the disapi)earance of the natives. We are 
told that they cannot endure " domestica- 
tion," that they " pine like 
aces a caged eaeles " in confinement, 
Decline before ., , .1 i 1 11 

the Whites ^'.^^. . ^^f: ^'^'-^"f p;;"^^"^^fV^y 

civilisation makes tliem inler- 
tile, as the change produced by ca])tivity 
makes .some wild animals infertile, and so 
forth. But the only ]ieoples who are disap- 
pearing are those of the New World, some of 
whom were b no means savage. In Asia 
and Africa are many tribes far lower in the 
scale of civilisation who have persisted in 
constant communication with dense and 

"The greatest event and the vastest tragedy in human history" is Dr. Archdall Raid's striking description 
of the discovery of America by Cohimbus. It ended the long separation between the inhabitants of 
East and West, and the diseases of the Old World burst with cataclysmal results upon the New. The 
picture, by George Harvey, shows Columbus approaching America, his rebellious crew pleading for pardon. 

settled communities from time immemorial. 
Notwithstanding all that has been written, 
the people of the New World do not 
wither away mysteriously when brought 
into contact with the white man. They 
die as other men do of violence, or famine, 
or old age, or disease. But deaths from 
all these causes, except the last, are now 
comparatively lare amongst them — much 
rarer than formerly during the time of 
their perpetual wars. The vast majority 
die of imported diseases — exactly the 
same diseases as white men die of. But 
their mortality is invariably much higher 
than that of white men, and they perish 
on an average at a younger age. 

All this is not mere hypothesis. It can 
be proved by reference to carefully col- 
lected and tabulated statistics published 
by every department of Public Health in 
America, Australasia, and Polynesia. The 
cause of the sterility cannot be demon- 
strated with the same precision ; but it is 
hardly necessary to invent fanciful causes 
when a reasonable one is to hand. The 

high mortality indicates a high sick-rate, 
and presumably illness is as much a 
cause of sterility in the New World as 
in the Old, among savages as among 
civilised people. 

The Spanish conquest of the West Indies 
was followed by the swift disappearance 
of the natives. To that end the Spaniards 
unconsciously adopted the most effectual 
means possible. They satisfied their greed 
by forcing the natives to labour in planta- 
tions and in mines, and their religious 
enthusiasm by compelling attendance in 
churches and cathedrals. In other words, 
they placed the natives under conditions 
the most favourable for acquiring the 
diseases which they imported by every 
vessel. When the native population 
dwindled, it was replaced by negro slaves 
from West Africa. 

The history of negro migrations is 
extremely interesting and illuminating. 
There are no accounts of negro conquest 
outside the limits of Africa, but from very 
ancient times a constant stream of slaves 


History of the world 

has passed to Southern Europe and Asia, 
where they have been employed mainly 
in domestic service, and in more modern 
times to America, where their occupation 
has been mainly agricultural. The in- 
vasion of Asia has continued to our own 
day. But one may search from Spain to 
the Malay peninsula and, except in 

... _. recent importations, find 
Africans Die i ' r 

scarcely a trace of a negro 

J^. "r ,. ancestry. Yet slaves, like 
Civilisation ^.i i li x 

cattle, are valuable property, 

more cheaply bred than imported. In 
Eastern countries they have often been 
kindly treated, and many have attained 
to wealth and power. Like tlie African 
soldiers in Ceylon, of whom it is recorded 
that, though many thousands were im- 
ported by the Dutch and English, hardly 
d descendant survives, all perished in a few 
generations, the elimination of the unfit 
being so stringent as to cause extinction, 
not evolution. A permanent colony of 
native Africans in the midst of an 
ancient consumption-infested civihsation 
is impossible. 

The fate of the negro- migrations into 
America has been different. The race 
•had undergone some evolution against 
consumi)tion in Africa, and, therefore, was 
more resistant than the vanishing abori- 
gines. In its new home, employed in 
agriculture in a hot climate where white 
men and tubercle bacilli, also recent 

importations, were as yet few in numbers, 
it was placed under the best conditions 
possible. Gradually, as the stringenc ■ of 
selection waxed, it evolved resisting 
power. To-day, American negroes are able 
to dwell even in Northern cities, though it 
is said " every other adult negro dies of con- 
sumption." After the discovery ot America 
the principal maritime races of Western 
Europe competed for its possession. S])ain 
and Portugal, then powerful nations, had 
the first start in the race, and chose the 
seemingly richer tropics. But the forests 
of the centre and south were defended by 
malaria, which raised a barrier against 
immigration, and by heat and light, 
which raised a barrier against tubercu- 
losis. Moreover, the Spaniards and the 
Portuguese intermarried freely with the 
aborigines, and the mixed race which 
resulted inherits in half measure the 
resisting power of both stocks. At the 
present day this mixed race, with a 
leavening of mulattoes, pure Spaniards, 
Portuguese, and negroes, inhabits the 
cities and more civilised parts. Even in 
tropical America the pure aborigines are 
found, speaking generally, only 

^ **! ° , beyond the verge of civilisa 
Natives of -^ — - ° - - 


tion. Farther south the dis- 
appearance of the natives lias 
been more complete, and the cooler, 
healthier, and more open pampas are settled 
by a race more purely European. 


HTHE weaker British and French were 
* shouldered into the seemingly inhos- 
pitable north. But the British won the 
battle of Quebec, and the French immigra- 
tion soon ceased. That little fight is half 
forgotten, but it is doubtful if any battle 
in history had results half so important. 
It placed all North America in the grasp 
of the Anglo-Saxon, and gave his race 
enormous sj)ace for expansion. Unchecked 
by malaria, the new-comers 
xpansion gathered into communities and 
° * „ built towns and cities such as 

ng o- axon jj^^^^.^ y^jjjf.)^ across the .\tlantic 

were the homes of tuberculosis. The 
cold forced them to admit little air and 
light into their dwellings. The aborigines 
melted away from the borders of the 
settlements. Under the conditions there 
was little intermarriage. In that chmate 
Indian women, and even half-caste chil- 
dren, could not exist within stone walls. 


The few white men who took native 
wives preserved them only while living 
a wild life remote from their kin. 

The British conquest of North America 
and Australasia resembles the Saxon con- 
quest of Great Britain. The natives have 
been exterminated within the area of 
settlement. It is in sharp contrast to 
their conquests in Asia and Africa. Both 
in the Old World and in the New the sub- 
jugation of the natives was accompanied 
by many wars and much bloodshed, and 
piobably the conflicts in the former were 
more prolonged and destructive than 
those in the latter. But in no part of the 
Old World have the British exterminated 
the natives. They do not supj^lant them ; 
they merely govern them. Southern Asia 
and East and West Africa are defended by 
• malaria. The British cannot colonise 
them, and the natives have undergone 
such evolution against tuberculosis that 

On the Plains of Abraham, outside Quebec, the British and French troops fought in 1759, and the battle placed all 
North America in the grasp of the Anglo-Saxon, giving his race enormous space for expansion. It is doubtful, says 
Dr. Archdall Reid, if any battle in history had results half so important as this, although it is half forgotten 

they are capable of resisting the hard con- 
ditions imposed by modern civilisation. In 
South Africa, where there is little malaria, 
Europeans share the land with the natives, 
but the latter are likely to remain in an 
overwhelming majority. 

If history teaches any lesson with 
clearness it is this — that conquest, to be 
permanent, must be accompanied with 
extermination, otherwise in the fulness 
of time the natives expel or absorb the 
conquerors. The Saxon conquest of 
England was permanent ; of the Norman 
conquest there remains scarcely a trace. 
The Huns and the Franks founded perma- 
nent empires in Europe ; the Roman 
Empire, and that of the Saracens in 
Spain, soon tumbled into ruins. It is 
highly improbable, therefore, that the 
British will retain their hold on their Old 
World dependencies. A handful of aliens 
cannot for ever keep in subjugation large 
and increasing races that yearly become 
more intelligent and insistent in their 
demands for self-government. But no 
probable conjunction of circumstances 
can be thought of that will uproot the 
Anglo-Saxons from their wide possession 
in the New World. The wars of extermina- 
tion are ceasing with the spread of civilisa- 
tion. We have ransacked the world, and 

now know every important disease. 
Diseases cannot come to us as they came 
to our forefathers and to the Red Indians, 
like visitations from on high. All the 
diseases that are capable of travelling have 
very nearly reached their limits ; the 
rest we are able to check. Even in the 
unlikely event of a new disease arising, it 
would affect other races equally. Canada 
and Australasia, like the United States, 
may separate from the parent stem, but 
the race will persist. If ever a New 
Zealander broods over the ruins of London, 
he will be of British descent. 

The natural history of man is, in effect, 
a history of his evolution against disease. 
The story unfolded by it is of greater 
proportions than all the mass of trivial 
gossip about kings and queens and the 
accounts of futile dynastic wars and 
stupid religious controversies which fill 
so large a space in his written political 
history. In the latter, as told by historians, 
groping in obscurity and blinded by their 
own preconceptions, men and events are 
often distorted out of all proportions. 
A clever but prejudiced writer may pass 
base metal into perpetual circulation as 
gold. Luther and the Reformation are 
accepted as Divine by many people ; 
they are reviled as diabolical by more. 



Cromwell was long regarded as accursed ; 
to-day he is half-deitied. How many of 
us are able to decide, on grounds of fact, 
not of fiction, whether the Roman Empire 
perished because the Romans, becoming 
luxurious, sinned against our moral code, 
as ecclesiastic historians would have us 
believe, or because a disease of intoler- 

ance and stupidity clouded 
a ura ^j^^ clear Roman brain and 
IS ory enfeebled the strong Roman 

of Mankind , , /^■^ ^ P i i 

hand, as Gibbon would have us 

think ? But the natural history of man 
deals, without obscurity and without uncer- 
tainty, with greater matters. Study it, and 
the mists clear away from much even of 
political history. We see clearly how little 
the conscious efforts of man have influenced 
his destiny. We see forces unrecognised, 
enormous, uncontrolled, uncontrollable, 
working slowly but mightily towards tre- 
mendous conclusions — forces so irresistible 
and unchanging that, watching them, we 
are able even to forecast something of the 

The mere political results of man's evolu- 
1 ion against disease are of almo >t incalculable 
rnagnitude. The human races of one half 
of the world are dying, and are being re- 
placed by races from the other half. Not all 
the wars of all time taken together con- 
stitute so great a tragedy. A quite dis- 
proportionate part in this great movement 
has been borne by our own race. It has 
seized on the larger part of those regions 
in which the aborigines were incapable of 
civilisation, because incapable of resisting 
consumption, and we.'e undefended by 
malaria. In the void created by disease 
it has more room to spread and multi])ly 
than any other race. 

Other races may dream of foreign 
conquests, but the time for founding 
permanent empires is past. There 
remains for them only temporary con- 
quest, in a few malarious parts of the 
world in which Europeans cannot flourish 

... . and supplant the natives. 

Disease is c • j n i i i i. 

w •..• .1. Spain and Portugal lost 

Mightier than , A ■ i i u xu 

th Sw d their opportunity when they 
turned from the temperate 
regions and chose the tropics. France lost 
her opportunity on the Heights of Abra- 
ham. Germany is more than a century too 
late in the start. Russia can conquer only 
hardy aliens who will multii)ly under her 
rule and ultimately assert their suj)remacy. 
In times now far remote in the history 
of civilised peoples, the sword was the 

principal means for digging deep the 
foundations of permanent empires. Its 
place was taken by a more efficient 
instrument. A migrating race, armed 
with a new and deadly disease, and with 
high powers of resisting it, possesses a 
terrible weapon of offence. But now 
disease has spread over the whole world 
and so is losing its power of building 
empires. The long era of the great 
migrations of the human race, of the 
great conquests, is closing fast. 

It is generally supposed by historians 
and others that races that disappear before 
the march of civilisation are mentally 
unfitted for it. The assumption is not 
supported by an iota of real evidence. To 
be mentally incapable a race must be of very 
defective memory. Recently a school of 
Australian natives, who belong to one of 
the " lowest " of races, took the first place 
in the colony. Negroes occupy a very 
inferior position in America, especially 
in Anglo-Saxon territories. But they 
are stamped by glaring physical differ- 
ences, are treated with great contempt 
and jealousy by the whites, and their 
acquired mental attitudes, 
therefore, do not develop 
under good conditions. It 
is very possible that they are 
mentally inferior to the whites ; but not 
so inferior as is commonly believed. 

Russian peasants, though not sharply 
differentiated by physical peculiarities 
from the governing classes, are equally 
scorned by them, and show a mental 
develojmient hardly, if at all, superior to 
the negroes of United States. The Latins 
of South America seem very incapable of 
orderly government, but they are the heirs 
of a civilisation older than our own. At 
any rate, while it is conceivable the 
American negroes and some other races 
are incapable of building up a highly- 
enlightened society by their own efforts, it 
is manifest that they are able to persist and 
niultiply when civilised conditions are im- 
posed on them. Not so the aborigines 
of the New World, some of whom — for 
example, the Maoris and the Polynesians — 
are admittedly of good mental type. They 
perish swiftly and helplessly of bodily 

Very clearly, then, human races are 
capable or incapable of civilisation, not 
because they are mentalh^ but because 
they are physically, fit or unfit. 

G. Archdall Reid 

of the 
Black Races 



AN attempt is made in these pages to 
compile a dictionary of the main 
existing races of the world, arranged in 
ali)habetical order. The accompanying 
Etlinological Chart on page 352, will 
enable the reader to see at a glance the 
relationship of the varions main divisions, 
families, and stocks under which these 
races are distributed. The Dictionary and 
the Chart, if used in conjunction, will 
thus supply information about any race 
named in the list, and will tell the 
inquirer to what branch of the human 
race it belongs. It is obviously impossible 
to m.ake the Dictionary inclusive of every 
tiny and out-of-the-way tribe of Africa or 
South America, but all important races 
are included. If the reader wants to know 
something about the Abyssinians, he will 
look them up in the Dictionary, and find 
that they are ])artly Semitic Himyarites, 

Ababua. A tribe of Sudanese negroes in 
Cintral Africa. See Wf.lle Group. 

Abaka. See Nilitic Group. 

Abkhasians. A Western Caucasian tribe 
occu])yinfj the Black Sea coast from Pitzunta 
to Mingrelia, akin to Circassians (q.v.). 

Abo, or Ibo. See Nigerian Group. 

Abors. An Assamese tribe in the Brahmaputra 
VaUey, belonging to the Tibetan branch of the 
Southern Alongolic family- Wild jungle-dwellers. 

Absarakas. See Siouan. 

Abukaya. A negro tribe in the Sudan. See 
Nilitic Group. 

Abunda. A settled and fairly civilised race 
of I5antu Negroes, occupying the seaboard and 
inland districts of Portuguese West Africa, south 
of Ainbriz. 

Abyssinians. A mixed race of Hamitic, 
Semitic, and Negro stock, inhabiting Abyssinia 
(from Arabic liabns/ii — mixed). The main racial 
element — Abyssinians proper — consists of brown- 
skinned Semitic Himyarites, who probably emi- 
grated from Arabia in prehistoric times, and 
profess themselves descended from the Queen of 
Sheba. Since the sixteenth century Abyssinia 
has been over-run by the Hamitic Gallas (q.v.), 
who have largely mingled their blood with this 
older clement. There is also a considerable 
admixture of Sudanese Negro blood. Since the 
fourth century the religion of Abyssinia has been 
a corrupt form of Christianity ; the mediaeval 
myth of Prester John perhaps relates to this fact. 

Acadians. French settlers of seventeenth 
century in Nova Scotia. 

partly Hamitic Gallas, etc. The Chart 
will then show him that the Hamitic and 
Semitic families belong to the great 
Caucasic Division of mankind, that the 
Himyarites are one of the main stocks of 
the Semitic family, and that the Gallas 
belong to the Eastern branch of the 
Hamitic family. The student should 
familiarise himself with the names and 
places of the families and chief stocks of 
mankind, as given in the Chart, and so 
greatly facilitate the task of reference. 
The intention of both Chart and Dictionary 
is, of course, to serve as a kind of index 
to the History proper, which must be 
consulted for further information. As far 
as can be discovered, no previous attempt 
has been made to summarise the con- 
clusions of modern ethnology in this 
convenient form. The illustrations depict 
some of the most interesting races. 

Achseans. See Argives 

Achinese. A warlike Malay race of Sumatra, 
long at war with the Dutch colonists. 

Accras. See Ga. 

Achuas, or Wochua. A pygmy Negrito race, 
well-proportioned, though dwarfish, inhabiting 
the forests of the \\'elle and Aruwimi districts 
in Central Africa, and living by hunting. 

Adamawa Group. A group of Sudanese Negro 
tribes inhabiting the district of the Upper Benue 
in Northern Nigeria. 

Adansis. Negro tribe on Guinea coast. Sc« 

yCoIians. See Hellenes. 

Aetas. A Negrito race of the Philippine 
Islands, belonging to the Oceanic lamily of 
Ethiopic Man. Short of stature, black-skinned, 
with woolly hair, they present many points of 
resemblance to the Negritoes of Central Africa . 
There are many crosses between Aetas and 

Afars. A nomadic Turki tribe of Persia. See 
also Danakii.s. 

Afghans. A race of Iranian stock, belonging 
to the great Aryan family, who form about half 
the population of Afghanistan. They are divided 
into various tribes, of which the Duranis are the 
dominant one, the Ghilzais the most warlike, and 
the Yusufzais the most turbulent. There are also 
large tribes known as Pathans, who are of the 
same stock as the .\fghans, but are classed 
separately. The Afghans are a liandsome and 
athletic race, inured to war from their childhood, 
lav.-lcss and treacherous, but sober and hardy. 


Throughout the nineteenth century they were a 
constant source of trouble to British India, but 
a new era seems to have opened under the present 
Amir. For non-Afghan inhabitants of Afghanis- 
tan, see Hazaras, Kizil-Bashis, and Tajiks. 

Afridis. A warlike and turbulent Pathan race, 
occupying the neighbourhood of the Khyber 
Pass, ami often at war with the English. 

Afrikanders. Persons of European descent 
born and living in South Africa. 

Agaos. An indigenous Hamitic race of 
Northern Abyssinia. 

Ahoms. Primitive inhabitants of Assam, 
belonging to the Indo-Chinese stock of the 
Southern IMongolic family. 

Ainus. An aberrant famil)' of Caucasic Man 
in the Far East. They were probably the 
aboriginal inhabitants of Japan, but are now 
few in number, and confined to Yezo, the Kurile 
Islands, and part of Sakhalin. They have regu- 
lar and often handsome features of Caucasic 
type, but are of low stature, and characteristically 
marked by an abuntlance of coarse, black, wavy 
or crisp hair on head, face, and body, whence 
they are commonly called the " Hairy Ainus." 

Akawais. See Caribs. 

Akkas. A pygmy Negrito race of the Welle 
district in Central Africa, akin to the Achuas 
(q.v.), who are specially interesting because 
they are represented on Egyptian monuments of 
3400 B.C., with their existing racial characters. 

Akkads, or Akkadians. An extinct Meso- 
potamian race, founders of the oldest known 
civilisation in Babylonia, who belonged to the 
Northern Mongolic family, and probably to the 
Turki or Finno-Ugrian stock. They invented the 
cuneiform alphabet, which was adopted by their 
Semitic successors — see Babylonians — and it is 
thought that they may have been the ancestors 
of the Chinese. 

Akpas. See Nigerian Group. 

Alani. A warlike nomadic race, probably 
belonging to the Turki stock of the Northern 
Mongolic family, and allied to the Tartars (q.v.). 
In the fifth century they made settlements in 
Gaul and Spain, where they were ab